Andhra Pradesh (ఆంధ్ర ప్రదేశ్) or AP, the "Rice Bowl of India", is a state in southern India. It lies between 12°41' and 22°N latitude and 77° and 84°40'E longitude, and is bordered by Maharashtra, Chhattisgarh and Orissa in the north, the Bay of Bengal in the East, Tamil Nadu to the south and Karnataka to the west. Andhra Pradesh is the 4th largest state in India by area 106,195 sq mi (275,608 km²) and population. It is the largest state in Southern India. Two major rivers, the Godavari and the Krishna run across the state. Historically this land was known as Andhraapatha, Andhra Desa, Andhraavani, Andhra mandalamu, Andhra vishaya etc.
|Andhra Pradesh State Symbols|
|State symbol||Poorna Kumbham|
|State song||Maa telugu thalliki by Sankarambadi Sundarachari|
|State animal||Blackbuck, (Krishna Jinka)|
|State bird||Indian Roller, (Paala Pitta)|
|State tree||Neem (Vepa)|
|State sport||Kabaddi, in Telugu Chedugudu|
|State dance||Kuchipudi, Andhra Natyam|
|State flower||Water lily|
Andhra Pradesh has 23 districts: Adilabad, Anantapur, Chittoor, Kadapa, East Godavari, Guntur, Hyderabad, Karimnagar, Khammam, Krishna, Kurnool, Mahbubnagar, Medak, Nalgonda, Sri Potti Sreeramulu Nellore, Nizamabad, Prakasam, Rangareddy, Srikakulam, Visakhapatnam, Vizianagaram, Warangal and West Godavari.
Hyderabad is the capital and, along with the adjoining twin city Secunderabad, is the largest city in the state. Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh's main seaport, is the second largest city of the state and is home to the Indian Navy's Eastern Naval Command. Vijayawada due to its location and proximity to major rail and road routes is a major trading center and the third largest city of the state. Other important cities and towns are: Guntur, Warangal, Tirupati, Kakinada, Rajahmundry, Nellore, Kurnool, Anantapur and Eluru.
| mainly Hindi|
The minority language speakers who constitute less than 1% are the speakers of Tamil (0.97%), Kannada (0.94%), Marathi (0.84%), Oriya (0.42%), Gondi (0.21%) and Malayalam (0.1%). The speakers of minority languages who constitute less than 0.1% are the speakers of Gujarati (0.09%), Savara (0.09%), Koya (0.08%), Jatapu (0.04%), Punjabi (0.04%), Kolami (0.03%), Konda (0.03%), Gadaba (0.02%), Sindhi (0.02%), Gorkhali/Nepali (0.01%) and Khond/Kondh (0.01%).
The main ethnic group of Andhra Pradesh are the Telugu people.
The state has also started to focus on the fields of information technology and biotechnology. In 2004–2005, Andhra Pradesh was at the fifth position in the list of top IT exporting states of India. The IT exports from the State were Rs.1,800 million in 2004. The IT sector is expanding at a rate of 52.3% every year. The IT exports reached Rs.19,000 million in 2006–2007 and ranked fourth in India. The service sector of the state already accounts for 43% of the GSDP and employs 20% of the work force.
Andhra Pradesh is a mineral rich state, ranking second in India in terms of mineral wealth. The state has about one third of India's limestone reserves, estimated at about 30 billion tonnes.
The state ranks first nationwide in hydro electricity generation with national market share of over 11%.
Andhra Pradesh's gross state domestic product for 2005 was estimated at $62 billion in current prices. This is a chart of trend of gross state domestic product of Andhra Pradesh at market prices estimated by Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation with figures in millions of Indian Rupees. Accordingly, the state ranks fourth in terms of overall gross state domestic product and fourth in per capita gross state domestic product among the major states of India.
|Year||State GDP (Rs. MM)|
Andhra Pradesh had a series of governments headed by Indian National Congress (INC) Party until 1982. Kasu Brahmananda Reddy held the record for the longest serving chief minister which was broken by N.T. Rama Rao in 1983. P.V. Narasimha Rao also served as the chief minister of the state, who later went on to become the Prime Minister of India in 1991. Among the notable chief ministers of the state are Tanguturi Prakasam, CM for only the Andhra state (the first Chief Minister of Andhra Pradesh, was Neelam Sanjiva Reddy) others include Kasu Brahmananda Reddy, Marri Chenna Reddy, Jalagam Vengal Rao, Nedurumalli Janardhana Reddy, Nadendla Bhaskara Rao, Kotla Vijaya Bhaskara Reddy, N.T. Rama Rao, Nara Chandrababu Naidu and Y.S. Rajasekhara Reddy.
In 1983 the Telugu Desam Party (TDP) won the State elections and N.T. Rama Rao (NTR) became the chief minister of the state for the first time introducing a formidable second political party to Andhra Pradesh's politics and thus breaking the single party monopoly on Andhra Pradesh's politics. After a few months, Nadendla Bhaskar Rao usurped power when NTR was away in the United States for medical treatment. After coming back, NTR successfully convinced the then State Governor to dissolve the Assembly and call for a fresh election. TDP won the elections with a large majority and NTR became Chief Minister of the State for the second time. His government policies included investment in education, rural development and in holding corrupt government officials.
In 1989 group elections ended the 7-year rule of NTR with INC party returning to power with Dr. Marri Chenna Reddy at the helm of affairs. He was replaced by N. Janardhan Reddy who was in turn replaced by Kotla Vijaya Bhasker Reddy.
In 1994, Andhra Pradesh gave a mandate to TDP again and saw NTR becoming the chief minister again. NTR died of a heart attack before the next elections.
In 1995, N Chandrababu Naidu (TDP), became the chief minister. He won a second term in 1999 before he was defeated by the INC-led coalition in the May 2004 polls.
Y.S. Rajasekhara Reddy of INC, became Chief Minister of state after May 2004. Rajasekhara Reddy fought the 2004 Assembly elections in an alliance with the Telangana Rashtra Samithi (TRS), which was formed by Mr K. Chandrasekhar Rao whose aim is to form a separate state.
An Andhra Kingdom was mentioned in the Sanskrit epics such as Aitareya Brahmana and Mahabarata. Inscriptional evidence showed that there was a kingdom in coastal Andhra ruled by Kuberaka with Pratipalapura (Bhattiprolu) as his capital. This probably was the oldest known kingdom in Southern India. Around the same time Dhanyakatakam/Dharanikota (present day Amaravati) seemed to be a very important place, which was visited by Gautama Buddha. According to Taranatha: On the full moon of the month Chaitra in the year following his enlightenment, at the great stupa of Dhanyakataka, the Buddha emanated the mandala of "The Glorious Lunar Mansions" (Kalachakra).
The Mauryans extended their rule over Andhra in 4th century BCE. With the fall of the Mauryan Empire Andhra Satavahanas became independent in 3rd century BCE. After the decline of the Satavahanas in 220 CE, Ikshvaku dynasty, Pallavas, Vishnukundinas, Ananda Gotrikas and Cholas ruled the Telugu land. Inscriptional evidence of Telugu language was found during the rule of Renati Cholas (Kadapa region) in 5th century CE. During this period Telugu emerged as a popular medium undermining the predominance of Prakrit and Sanskrit. Telugu was made the official language by the Vishnukundina kings who ruled from their capital Vinukonda. Eastern Chalukyas ruled for a long period after the decline of Vishnukundinas from their capital in Vengi. As early as 1st century CE, Chalukyas were mentioned as being vassals and chieftains under the Satavahanas and later under Ikshvakus. The Chalukya ruler Rajaraja Narendra ruled Rajahmundry around 1022 CE.
The battle of Palnadu resulted in the weakening of Eastern Chalukyan power and emergence of the Kakatiya dynasty in the 12th and the 13th centuries CE. The Kakatiyas were at first feudatories of the Rashtrakutas ruling over a small territory near Warangal. All the Telugu lands were united by the Kakatiyas. In 1323 CE, Delhi Sultan Ghiaz-ud-din Tughlaq sent a large army under Ulugh Khan to conquer the Telugu country and capture Warangal. King Prataparudra was taken prisoner. Musunuri Nayaks recaptured Warangal from the Delhi Sultanate in 1326 CE and ruled for fifty years. Inspired by their success, the Vijayanagar empire, one of the greatest empires in the history of Andhra Pradesh and India, was founded by Harihara and Bukka, who served as treasury officers of the Kakatiyas of Warangal.. In 1347 CE, an independent Muslim state, the Bahmani kingdom, was established in south India by Alla-ud-din Hasan Gangu as a revolt against the Delhi Sultanate. The Qutb Shahi dynasty held sway over the Andhra country for about two hundred years from the early part of the 16th century to the end of the 17th century. In Colonial India, Northern Circars became part of the British Madras Presidency. Eventually this region emerged as the Coastal Andhra region. Later the Nizam had ceded five territories to the British which eventually emerged as Rayalaseema region. The Nizams retained control of the interior provinces as the Princely state of Hyderabad, acknowledging British rule in return for local autonomy.
India became independent from the United Kingdom in 1947. The Muslim Nizam of Hyderabad wanted to retain his independence from India, but the people of the region launched the movement to join the Indian Union. His state of Hyderabad was forced to become part of the Republic of India in 1948, after Indian Military operation known as operation polo within 5 days with popular support from people as Hyderabad State.
In an effort to gain an independent state, and protect the interests of the Telugu people of Madras State, Amarajeevi Potti Sriramulu fasted until death. Public outcry and civil unrest after his death forced the government to announce the formation of a new state for Telugu speaking people. Andhra attained statehood in October 1953 with Kurnool as its capital.
On 1st November 1956, Andhra State merged with the Telangana region of Hyderabad State to form the state of Andhra Pradesh. Hyderabad, the former capital of the Hyderabad State, was made the capital of the new state Andhra Pradesh.
Andhra Pradesh has many museums, including the Archaeological Museum at Amaravati near Guntur City that features relics of nearby ancient sites, the Salar Jung Museum in Hyderabad, which features a varied collection of sculptures, paintings, and religious artifacts and the Visakha Museum in Visakhapatnam, which displays the history of the pre-Independence Madras Presidency in a rehabilitated Dutch bungalow. Victoria Jubilee Museum in Vijayawada has a good collection of ancient sculptures, paintings, idols, weapons, cutlery and inscriptions.
Rice is the staple food and is used in a wide variety of ways. Typically, rice is either boiled and eaten with curry, or made into a batter for use in a crepe-like dish called attu (pesarattu) or dosas.
Hyderabadi cuisine is influenced by the Muslims who arrived in Telangana in the 14th century. Much of the cuisine revolves around meat. It is rich and aromatic, with a liberal use of exotic spices and ghee (clarified butter). Lamb, chicken and fish are the most widely used meats in the non-vegetarian dishes. The biryani is perhaps the most distinctive and popular of Hyderabadi dishes.
Classical dance in Andhra can be performed by both men and women; however women tend to learn it more often. Kuchipudi is the state's best-known classical dance forms of Andhra Pradesh. The various dance forms that existed through the states’ history are Chenchu Bhagotham, Kuchipudi, Bhamakalapam, Burrakatha, Veeranatyam, Butta bommalu, Dappu, Tappeta Gullu, Lambadi, Bonalu, Dhimsa, Kolattam and chindu .
Several important Hindu modern-day saint are from Andhra Pradesh. These include Nimbarka who founded Dvaitadvaita, Mother Meera who advocated Indian independence and Aurobindo Mission, Bala Sai Baba who advocates religious unity in worship, Satya Sai Baba who does the same, and Swami Sundara Chaitanyanandaji.
His Holiness Satya Sai Baba is from a Kshatriya family and was born on 23rd November 1926 in Puttaparthi. He is renowned worldwide as a master of love and peace. He is believed to be the avatar of Shirdi Sai Baba. Sathya Sai Organization has many branches worldwide. Its member are from all religions and seek to establish peace in the world.
His Holiness Swami Sundara Chaitanyanandaji was born on 25th December 1947 in Kattubadipalem village, sri potti sreeramulu Nellore District, Andhra Pradesh. Andhra Pradesh is also home for Christians and Muslims who form minor part of population in this state.
Tirupati or Tirumala is a very important pilgrimage for Hindus throughout India. It is the richest piligrimage city (of any religious faith) in the world. Its main temple is dedicated to the god Venkateswara. Tirpuathi is located in Chittoor district. Satyanarayana swamy temple famous in Annavaram in East Godavari district. Simhachalam is another very popular pilgrmage of national importance. Simhachalam is said in mythology to be the abode of the savior-god Narasimha, who rescued Prahlada from abusive father Hiranyakasipu. KanakaDurga Temple is one of the famous in Andhra Pradesh which is situated in Vijayawada city.
Simhachalam, it is a hill shrine in the city that is 16 km away from the City centre of Visakhapatnam on the other side of the Hill on the north of the city.One of the most exquisitely sculpted shrines of Andhra Pradesh, Simhachalam temple is situated 16 km from Vizag among thickly wooded hills. The beautifully-carved 16-pillared Natya mantapa and the 96-pillared Kalyana mantapa bear testimony to the architectural brilliance of the temple. The image of the presiding deity, Sri Lakshminarasimha Swamy, is covered by a thick layer of sandalwood paste. This is one of the oldest temple in India dedicated to Narasimha, one of the incarnations of Vishnu, built in 11th century by Kullotunga, an Eastern Chalukyan king. One Vijaya stamba is erected by Sri Krishna Deva Raya emerged victorious over the Gajapati kings of Orissa. One will find ancient telugu inscriptions in this temple. This temple is one of the most famous temples in India. Its architecture is Dravida (South Indian). There is a popular belief that this lord is protecting Vizag from natural disasters like Floods, cyclones, Earthquakes and Tsunamis. Till date there is not even a single death occurred due to natural calamities. Couples just before marriage go to this temple as a ritual. This temple is one of the most crowded temples of Andhra Pradesh.
Srisailam is another major temple in Andhra Pradesh, which is of national importance. It is dedicated to Lord Shiva. It is one of the locations of the various Jyothirlingams. The Skanda Purana has a chapter called "Srisaila Kandam" dedicated to it, which points to the ancient origin. This is confirmed also by the fact that Tamil saints of the past millennia have sung praises of this temple. It is said that Adi Sankara visited this temple and at that time he composed his "Sivananda Lahiri". Shiva's sacred bull Vrishabha is said to have performed penance at the Mahakali temple till Shiva and Parvati appeared before him as Mallikarjuna and Brahmaramba. The temple is one of the 12 hallowed jyotirlingas; Lord Rama himself installed the Sahasralinga, while the Pandavas lodged the Panchapandava lingas in the temple courtyard. Srisailam is located in Kurnool district.
Bhadrachalam is a renown place for the sri rama temple and the blissful godavari river. This is the place where the famous Bhakta Ramadasu (originally - Kancherla Gopanna) has written his devotional songs and dedicated to lord Rama. Bhadrachalam is located in Khammam district.
Yaaganti Caves is another important piligrim center in Andhra Pradesh. Apart from that Mahanandi, Kurnool Dt is another piligrim center which is full of greenary.
Kanakadurga temple is a famous temple in Andhra Pradesh, India. It is located on the Indrakeeladri hill in the city of Vijayawada on the banks of Krishna River. According to a legend, the now verdant Vijayawada was once a rocky region strewn with hillocks that were obstructing the flow of River Krishna. The land was thus rendered unfit for habitation or cultivation. Invocation to Lord Siva led to His directing the hills to give way to river Krishna. And lo! the river started flowing unimpeded with all its might, through the tunnels or "Bejjam" bored into the hills by Lord Siva. That is how the place got its name Bezawada.
One of the many mythologies associated with this place is that Arjuna prayed to Lord Siva on top of Indrakeela hill to win His blessings and the city derived its name "Vijayawada" after this victory. Yet another popular legend is about the triumph of goddess Kanakadurga over the demon king Mahishasura. It is said that once upon a time, the growing menace of demons became unendurable for the natives living in this region. Sage Indrakila, took to severe penance and when the goddess appeared, the sage begged Her to reside on his head and keep vigil on the wicked demons. As per his wishes, after killing the demons, goddess Durga made Indrakila Her permanent abode. Later She also slayed the demon king Mahishasura freeing the people of Vijayawada from the evil clutches of the demon. Special pujas are performed during Dasara also called Navaratri. The most significant are Saraswati puja and Theppotsavam. The festival of Dasara for Goddess Durga is celebrated here every year. A large number of pilgrims attend the colourful celebrations and take a holy dip in the Krishna river.
Bapu's paintings, Nanduri Subbarao's Yenki Paatalu (Songs on/by a washerwoman called Yenki), mischievous Budugu (a character by Mullapudi), Annamayya's songs, Aavakaaya (a variant of mango pickle in which the kernel of mango is retained), Gongura (a chutney from Roselle plant), Atla Taddi (a seasonal festival predominantly for teenage girls), banks of river Godavari, Dudu basavanna (The ceremonial ox decorated for door-to-door exhibition during the harvest festival Sankranti) have long defined Telugu culture. The village of Durgi is known for originating stone craft, carvings of idols in soft stone that must be exhibited in the shade because they are prone to weathering.'Kalankari' is an ancient art form dating back to the Harappan civilization. Andhra is also famous for doll making. Dolls are made from wood, mud, dry grass, and light weight metal alloys.Tirupathi is famous for redwood carvings. Kondapalli is famous for mud toys with rich colors. Nirmal paintings are expressive and are usually painted over a black background. Story telling in Andhra is an art form by itself. 'Yaksha ganam', 'Burra katha' (usually done by three people, telling stories using three different musical instruments), 'Jangama kathalu', 'Hari kathalu', 'Chekka bajana', 'Urumula natyam' (usually done in festivals, where a group of people dance in circles for loud music), 'Ghata natyam' (performances done with earthen pots over one's head) are all folk dances unique to Andhrapradesh palumamba fetival in visaka famous.
Andhra Pradesh has 1330 arts, science and commerce colleges,1000 MBA,MCA Colleges, 500 engineering colleges and 53 medical colleges. The student to teacher ratio is 19:1 in the higher education. According to census taken in 2001, Andhra Pradesh has an overall literacy rate of 60.5%. While male literacy rate is at 70.3%, the female literacy rate however is only at 50.4%, a cause for concern.
The state has recently made strides in setting up several institutes of high quality. Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University (JNTU), International Institute of Information Technology (IIIT) and Indian School of Business (ISB) are gaining international attention for their standards. National Institute of Fashion Technology, Hyderabad (NIFT)is well reputed among those interested in a career in fashion. Also Institute of Hotel Management Catering Technology and Applied Nutrition, hyderabad (IHM HYDERABAD) which is one of the best IHM s nationwide producing quality personnel to the hospitality industry from the past 35 years.
Major Universities/Institutes in Andhra Pradesh:
Andhra Pradesh is the home of many religious pilgrim centres. Tirupati, the abode of Lord Venkateswara, is the richest and most visited religious center (of any faith) in the world. Srisailam, the abode of Sri Mallikarjuna, is one of twelve Jyothirlingalu in India, Amaravati's Siva temple is one of the Pancharamams, and Yadagirigutta, the abode of an avatara of Vishnu, Sri Lakshmi Narasimha. The Ramappa temple and Thousand Pillars temple in Warangal are famous for some fine temple carvings. The state has numerous Buddhist centres at Amaravati, Nagarjuna Konda, Bhattiprolu, Ghantasala, Nelakondapalli, Dhulikatta, Bavikonda, Thotlakonda, Shalihundam, Pavuralakonda, Sankaram, Phanigiri and Kolanpaka.
The golden beaches at Visakhapatnam, the one-million-year old limestone caves at Borra, picturesque Araku Valley, hill resorts of Horsley Hills, river Godavari racing through a narrow gorge at Papi Kondalu, waterfalls at Ettipotala, Kuntala and rich bio-diversity at Talakona, are some of the natural attractions of the state..Kailashagiri is situated adjacent to sea in Visakhapatnam, it is one of the beautiful sight which shows the entire beauty of visakhapatnam having other side sea. A Beautiful park is developed on the hill top of Kailashagiri, the city boasts of having a Park on hill top that has a luxurious toy train, ropeway and beautiful view of beach front into which Eastern Ghats merge into the sea. Further, Visakhapatnam is home to many tourist attactions like INS Karasura Submarine museum (The only one of its kind in India), the most beautiful and the longest Beach Road in India, Yarada Beach, Araku Valley (Known as poorman's Ooty , a lot of movies are shooted here), VUDA Park, Indira Gandhi Zoological Gardens,etc.
The Borra Caves are located in the Anatagiri Hills of Eastern Ghats, near Vishakapatnam, Andhra Pradesh State in India. They are at a height of about 800 to 1300 metres above Mean Sea Level and are famous for millions of years old stalactite and stalagmite formations. They were discovered by William King George, the British geologist in the year 1807.The caves get their name from a formation inside the caves that looks like the human brain, which in the local language, Telugu, is known as borra. Similarly Belum caves was formed due to erosion in limestone deposite in the area by Chitravati River, millions of years ago. This limestone caves was formed due to action of carbonic acid — or weakly acidic groundwater formed due to reaction between limestone and water.
Belum Caves are the second largest cave in Indian sub-continent and the longest caves in plains of Indian Subcontinent. Belum Caves derives its name from "Bilum" Sanskrit word for caves. In Telugu language, it is called Belum Guhalu. Belum Caves has a length of 3229 meters, making it the second largest natural caves in Indian Subcontinent. Belum Caves have long passages, spacious chambers, fresh water galleries and siphons. The caves reach its deepest point (120 feet from entrance level) at the point known as Patalganaga.
Horsley Hills Horsley Hills, elevation 1,265 m, is a famous summer hill resort in Andhra Pradesh, about 160 km from Bangalore, India and 144 km from Tirupati. The town of Madanapalle lies nearby. Major tourist attractions include the Mallamma temple and the Rishi valley school. Horsely Hills is the departure point for the Koundinya Wildlife Sanctuary at a distance of 87 km. The narrow road to Horsely Hills is very scenic. It is surrounded throughout its entire length with dense growths of eucalyptus, jacaranda, allamanda, and gulmohar trees. This place is also believed to be haunted by some ghosts.
There are five airports in the state: Hyderabad (Rajiv Gandhi International), Visakhapatnam, Vijayawada, Rajahmundry and Tirupati. Government also have plans to start airports in six other cities including Sri Potti Sreeramulu Nellore, Warangal, Kadapa, Tadepalligudem, Ramagundam and Ongole.
Andhra Pradesh State Road Transport Corporation (APSRTC) is the major public transport corporation owned by government of Andhra Pradesh connecting all the cities and villages. APSRTC also has the distinction of being in the Guinness book of World records for having the largest fleet of vehicles, and the longest area covered/commuted daily. Apart from these, thousands of private operators run buses connecting major cities and towns of the state. Private vehicles like cars, motorised scooters and bicycles occupy a major share of the local transport in the cities and adjoining villages.
Andhra Pradesh also has two of the important ports of India at Visakhapatnam and Kakinada and three minor ports, Machilipatnam, Nizampatnam(Guntur) and Krishnapatnam. One more private port is being developed at Gangavaram, Near Visakhapatnam, This is the deep sea port that can accommodate ocean liners up to 200,000-250,000 DWT, thereby making big oceanliners to enter into Indian shores.
An elated eye: Scandinavian perspectives.(Blissful Bewilderment: Studies in the Fiction of Thomas Pynchon)(Book review)
Mar 22, 2002; blissful Bewilderment: Studies in the Fiction of Thomas Pynchon, by Anne Mangen and Rolf Gaasland, eds. Oslo: Novus, 2002....