The Black-headed Gull
) is a small gull
which breeds in much of Europe
, and also in coastal eastern Canada
. Most of the population is migratory
, wintering further south, but some birds
in the milder westernmost areas of Europe
are resident. Some birds will also spend the winter in northestern North America
, where it was formerly known as the Common Black-headed Gull
. As is the case with many gulls, it has traditionally been placed in the genus Larus
This gull is 38-44 cm (15-17½ in) long with a 94-105 cm (37-41 in) wingspan. It breeds in colonies in large reedbeds or marshes, or on islands in lakes, nesting on the ground. Like most gulls, it is highly gregarious in winter, both when feeding or in evening roosts. It is not a pelagic species, and is rarely seen at sea far from coasts.
The Black-headed Gull is a bold and opportunist feeder and will scavenge in towns or take invertebrates in ploughed fields with equal relish.
In flight, the white leading edge to the wing is a good field mark. The summer adult has a chocolate-brown head (not black, despite the name), pale grey body, black tips to the primary wing feathers, and red bill and legs. The hood is lost in winter, leaving just dark vertical streaks.
This species takes two years to reach maturity. First year birds have a black terminal tail band, more dark areas in the wings, and, in summer, a less fully developed dark hood.
This is a noisy species, especially at colonies, with a familiar "kree-ar" call. Its scientific name means "Laughing Gull".
The Black-headed Gull is the prefectural bird of Tokyo and the Yurikamome mass transit system is named after it.
- Database entry includes justification for why this species is of least concern
- Harrison P. Seabirds of the World. Princeton University Press, Princeton (NJ), 1987 ISBN 0-691-01551-1
- Dunn JL, Alderfer J. National Geographic Field Guide to the Birds of North America National Geographic Society 2006 ISBN 0792268776
- Pons J.M., Hassanin, A., and Crochet P.A.(2005). Phylogenetic relationships within the Laridae (Charadriiformes: Aves) inferred from mitochondrial markers. Molecular phylogenetics and evolution 37(3):686-699