black crap-pie

Proto-Indo-European to Dacian sound changes

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The Dacian language was a Satem Indo European Language.

Short vowels

PIE has the short vowels e, o.

The existence of the PIE short vowel a is disputed.

The origin of the Late PIE short vowel a is considered to be the laryngeal h2.

But Mayrhofer (1986: 170 ff.) has argued that PIE did in fact have a phoneme independent of h2.

The PIE short vowel e passed in Dacian in a stressed syllable to ye/ya.

It is usual considered that the stressed e passed in Dacian to ye in open syllables and to ya in closed syllables.

However some Dacian dialectal variations didn't strictly obey to the above rules.

The PIE short vowel o passed in PIE dialectal times (this change happened in all the SATEM areal) to a, so it appeared in Dacian as a.

The (late) PIE short vowel a was preserved in Dacian as a.

PIE *h2e,*h2 > PIE a > Dacian a

Dacian: *akmōn-, *Akmōnia (att. Akmonia)

  • Meaning:
    • *akmōn- - 'stone',
    • *Akmōnia - 'The Stony (city); The Stony (place)'
  • Attestation:

*Akmonia - Ptolemy, Geography, Book III, Chapter 8:
"The most important towns of Dacia are these: [...]
Akmonia 48*00 45°00"

  • Etymology:

*Dacian *Akmōnia < *PIE *h2eḱ--mōn-yo < PIE *h2eḱ-mōn- 'stone'
*Note: *Akmōnia reflects the depalatization of PIE *k^ to Dacian *k before m (but also before n, r,l). The same rule can be found in Albanian and partially in Baltic too.

  • Preserved in:
    • Albanian: kmesë 'sickle' < [Albanian e < Dacian ō] < Dacian *akmōntyā< PIE *h2eḱ-mōn-tyeh2 < PIE *h2eḱ-mōn- 'stone'
    • Note: This Albanian etymology for kmesë supported by Robert S. P. Beekes and Martin E. Huld, needs to account for the preservation of km cluster in Albanian. However the preservation of a km cluster is also present in Old Romanian acmu /akmu/ (Miron Costin), showing that this kind of preservation is not impossible.
  • Cognates:
  • Pokorny:

*ak^- (see "4. Mit m-Formantien: ak^mo-") 'sharp, stone'

  • References:

*ak'-m- 'stone, rock'

Dacian: *arğ-, Arğidava (att. Argidava), *Arğesya (att. Ὀρδησσός /Ordēssos/)

  • Meaning:
    • *arğ- - 'glittering, silver-coloured'
    • *Arğidava - 'The Fortress on the Glittering (river)'
    • *Arğesya - 'The Glittering (river)'
  • Attestation:

*Argidava - Ptolemy, Geography, Book III, Chapter 8:
"The most important towns of Dacia are these: [...]
Argidava [46*30 45°15]
*Ὀρδησσός /Ordēssos/ - Herodotus Book 4: Melpomene <48>
"48. [1] Ἴστρος μέν, ἐὼν μέγιστος ποταμῶν πάντων τῶν ἡμεῖς ἴδμεν, ἴσος αἰεὶ αὐτὸς ἑωυτῷ ῥέει καὶ θέρεος καὶ χειμῶνος, πρῶτος δὲ τὸ ἀπ᾽ ἑσπέρης τῶν ἐν τῇ Σκυθικῇ ῥέων κατὰ τοιόνδε μέγιστος γέγονε· ποταμῶν καὶ ἄλλων ἐς αὐτὸν ἐκδιδόντων [2] εἰσὶ δὴ οἵδε οἱ μέγαν αὐτὸν ποιεῦντες, διὰ μέν γε τῆς Σκυθικῆς χώρης πέντε μὲν οἱ ῥέοντες, τὸν τε Σκύθαι Πόρατα καλέουσι Ἑλλήνες δὲ Πυρετόν, καὶ ἄλλος Τιάραντος καὶ Ἄραρος τε καὶ Νάπαρις καὶ Ὀρδησσός. [3] ὁ μὲν πρῶτος λεχθεὶς τῶν ποταμῶν μέγας καὶ πρὸς ἠῶ ῥέων ἀνακοινοῦται τῷ Ἴστρῳ τὸ ὕδωρ, ὁ δὲ δεύτερος λεχθεὶς Τιάραντος πρὸς ἑσπέρης τε μᾶλλον καὶ ἐλάσσων, ὁ δὲ δὴ Ἄραρός τε καὶ ὁ Νάπαρις καὶ ὁ Ὀρδησσὸς καὶ μέσου τούτων ἰόντες ἐσβάλλουσι ἐς τὸν Ἴστρον. οὗτοι μὲν αὐθιγενέες Σκυθικοὶ ποταμοὶ συμπληθύουσι αὐτόν, ἐκ δὲ Ἀγαθύρσων Μάρις ποταμὸς ῥέων συμμίσγεται τῷ Ἴστρῳ."
"48. The Ister, which is the greatest of all the rivers which we know, flows always with equal volume in summer and winter alike. It is the first towards the West of all the Scythian rivers, and it has become the greatest of all rivers because other rivers flow into it. And these are they which make it great:--five in number are those which flow through the Scythian land, namely that which the Scythians call Porata and the Hellenes Pyretos, and besides this, Tiarantos and Araros and Naparis and Ordessos. The first-mentioned of these is a great river lying towards the East, and there it joins waters with the Ister, the second Tiarantos is more to the West and smaller, and the Araros and Naparis and Ordessos flow into the Ister going between these two. 49. These are the native Scythian rivers which join to swell its stream, while from the Agathyrsians flows the Maris and joins the Ister,"

  • Etymology:
    • Dacian Arği-dava < PIE *h2erǵ-i- < PIE *h2erǵ- 'gliterring, silver-coloured'
    • Late Dacian Arğesya < Dacian *Ardzyesya < Early Dacian *Ardzesya (att. Ordēssos) < PIE *h2erǵ-es-yo < PIE *h2erǵ- 'gliterring, silver-coloured'
  • Preserved in:

Romanian: Argeş (same river) < Late Dacian *Arğesya < Dacian *Ardzyesya < Early Dacian *Ardzesya (att. Ordēssos)
Note: The Romanian Argeş shows also the regular Romanian phonetic evolution from Dacian:
*Romanian ş /s^/ < Dacian sy
*Romanian ie /ye/ < Dacian ye
*Romanian gi /g^/ < Dacian dzy

**arg^- 'glittering, white'

  • References:

*arg'- 'white, brilliant'
*arg'- 'silver'

Dacian: *apa, *DZaldapa (att. Zaldapa), *Apus (att. Απος /Apos/)

  • Meaning:
    • *apa - (flowing) water
    • *DZaldapa - golden water
    • *Apus - water, river
  • Attestation:

**DZaldapa (att. Zaldapa) - 'golden water'
*Apus (att. Απος /Apos/) - 'water, river' - possible today Caraş - a River in Banat

  • Etymology:

*Dacian *DZald + *apa < PIE holh3-dh- 'golden' + *h2ep-eh2 'flowing water'

  • Preserved in:

*Romanian: apa 'water'
* Notes: Romanian: apa 'water' is usually considered from Latin aqua. However the PIE root h2ep- - 'water' is largely attested in many PIE languages (see Cognates below). *DZ in *DZaldapa is reconstructed based on Old Romanian dz <-> Alb dh < PAlb./Dacian? *dz < PIE *g^

*ā̆p-2 'water, river'

  • References:

**ap- 'river, stream (+ bank, shore)'

PIE *e,*h1e,*h1/stressed > PIE e/stressed > Dacian *ye/ya

Dacian: Diegis

*see Dacian #Diegis*< PIE *dhégwh- 'to burn'

PIE *e,*h1e,*h1/not-stressed > PIE e/not-stressed > Dacian *e

  • No clear etymologies could be supplied however some Dacian words like: Netindava, Decebalus point out to this phonetic rule.

Dacian: Netindava

PIE *o,*h1o, h2o, h3o,*h3e,*h3 > PIE *o > Dacian *a

Dacian: Malwa

*see Dacian #malwa < PIE *molh-wo 'rocky shore'

Long Vowels

It is often suggested that long vowels were appeared in PIE from an e, o followed by one of the laryngeals h1,h2,h3

At least in its latest times, PIE has the long vowels ā, ē, ō; a colon (:) is sometimes employed to indicate vowel length instead of the macron sign (a:, e:, o:).

Other linguists argued that long vowels already existed in early PIE.

Other long vowels may have appeared already in the proto-language by compensatory lengthening.

PIE *eh1 > PIE ē > Early Dacian ē > Dacian *ā

Dacian dāwā

*see Dacian #*dāwā < PIE *dheh1-weh2 'fortress'

PIE *eh2 > PIE ā > Dacian *ā

PIE *oh1,oh2,oh3,*eh3 > PIE ō > Dacian *ō

Dacian Akmōnia

*see Dacian #*Akmōnia < PIE *h2ek'-mōn-yo 'stone'


PIE has w, y (also transcribed u̯, i̯) with vocalic allophones u, i.

The PIE semi-vowels w, y was preserved in Dacian as w, y.

Their PIE vocalic allophones u, i was also preserved in Dacian as u, i.

The PIE laryngeals have generated long u:, i: vowels whenever they appeared after the PIE vowels u, i ; but in front of PIE vowels u, i the PIE laryngeals were lost.

PIE *i,*h1i,*h2i,*h3i > Dacian i

Dacian: *Istra (att. Ister, Hister, Istros, Istru)

  • Meaning:
    • Istra - 'Danube'
  • *
  • Attestation:
    • Istros,Hister,Ister,Istru - 'The Danube river'


  • Etymology:
  • Dacian *Istra < PIE *h1isH-ró- or *h1isH-t-ró- 'strong, vigorous' < PIE *h1eisH- 'strong, vigurous
  • Important Note: If the original PIE Form was only PIE *h1isH-ró- that the etymon is of Thracian origin (so not a Dacian one) PIE *sr > Thracian *str but PIE *sr > Dacian *(r)r. However etymons like Istria (Dalmatian Cost) or Istra (Baltic river) indicate that (also) derivates in *-tró (and not only *-ró) existed with a great probability already in PIE times. Adding to this that the Dacian area was extended until Haemus Mountains we are more inclined to considered the originar PIE Form *h1isH-t-ró-.
  • Preserved in:
  • Cognates:
  • Baltic
  • Greek
  • Indo-Aryan
  • Slavic
  • Celtic
    • Isara 'a river name'
  • Pokorny:
  • References:

PIE *u,*h1u,*h2u,*h3u > Dacian u

PIE *ih1,ih2,ih3 > PIE i: > Dacian i:

PIE *uh1,uh2,uh3 > PIE u: > Dacian u:

PIE *w > Dacian *w

Note: there wasn't any *v, in Dacian. The *v appeared from *w, very late, at the end of Dacian times

Dacian dāwā

*see Dacian #*dāwā < PIE *dheh1-weh2 'fortress'

PIE *y > Dacian *y


PIE has the following diphthongs ai, au, āi, āu, ei, eu, ēi, ēu, oi, ou, ōi, ōu

PIE *ou > Dacian *au

PIE *au > Dacian *au

PIE *eu > Dacian *eu

PIE *oi > Dacian *ai

PIE *ai > Dacian *ai (> Late Dacian e (in sec II-III CE))

Dacian: *aidziyā, *aidza (att. Aizisis)

  • Meaning:
    • *aidziyā - 'she-goat'
    • *aidza - 'small goat, kid'
    • Aidzisis - 'The village with (many) goats'
  • Attestation:
    • Aizisis
  • Etymology:
    • Dacian *aidz-isis < PIE *h2eiǵ-, 'goat'
  • Preserved in:
    • Albanian:
      • dhi '(she-)goat' < Dacian *aidziyā < PIE *h2eiǵ-í-yeh2
      • edh 'small goat' < Dacian *aidza < PIE *h2éiǵ-o
      • Note: Romanian: ied 'small goat' could well be of a mixed origin: Dacian *aidza and Latin haedus.
  • Cognates:
    • Greek: αἴξ `(she-)goat'
    • Armenian: ayc `(she-)goat'
  • Pokorny: aig^ - 'goat'
  • References:

PIE *ei > Dacian *ei, Dacian dialectal *i

Dentals (notation: T)

The standard PIE reconstruction identified three coronal/dental stops: t, d, dʰ.

They are symbolically grouped with the cover symbol T.

The PIE t, d was preserved in Dacian as t, d.

The PIE passed in Dacian to d.

PIE *dh > Dacian *d

Dacian: *dāwā (att. -dava, -daua, -daba)

  • Meaning:
    • dāwā - fortress
  • Attestation:

* -dava, -daua, -daba

  • Etymology:

*Dacian *dāwā- < Early-Dacian: *dēwā < PIE *dheh1-weh2 < PIE *dheh1- 'to stand'

  • Preserved in:

*Bulgarian Plovdiv < Dacian Pulpudeva

Dacian: *dyega, Diegis

  • Meaning:
    • *dyega - 'to burn'
    • Diegis - 'The fiery one'/'The fervent one' (Decebal's general)
  • Attestation:

*"Diegis - Cassius Dio - Roman History - Epitome of Book LXVII "Domitian, having been defeated by the Marcomani, took to flight, and hastily sending messages to Decebalus, king of the Dacians, induced him to make a truce, though he himself had hitherto refused to grant one in response to the frequent requests of Decebalus. And so Decebalus accepted his overtures, for he had suffered grievous hardships; yet he did not wish to hold a conference with Domitian personally, but instead sent Diegis with the men, to give him the arms and a few captives, who, he pretended, were the only ones that he had. When this had been done, Domitian placed a diadem on the head of Diegis, just as if he had truly conquered and could give the Dacians anyone he pleased to be their king. To the soldiers he granted honours and money. And, just as if he had won a victory, he sent to Rome, among other things, envoys from Decebalus and also a letter from the king, as he claimed, though rumour declared that he had forged it."

  • Etymology:
    • Dacian Diegis < PIE *dhégwh- < *dhegwh- "to burn"
  • Preserved in:

*Albanian: djeg "to burn" < Dacian *dyega < [e/stressed > ye] < Early-Dacian *dega < *dhégwh-o

PIE *d > Dacian *d

Dacian: Duras, Diurpaneus

  • Meaning:
    • *Duras- - (Dacian king 69-86) 'The Resistant one',
    • *Diurpaneus - (same Dacian king 69-86) 'That one that cannot be overtaken'
  • Attestation:

*Diurpaneus - Jordanes, 'GETICA sive De Origine Actibusque Gothorum' XIII 76:
*Cui provinciae tunc post Agrippam Oppius praeerat Sabinus, Gothis autem Diurpaneus principatum agebat, quando, bello commisso, Gothi, Romanis devictis, Oppii Sabini capite absciso, multa castella et civitates de parte Imperatoris invadentes publice depraedarunt.
*Oppius Sabinus was then in command of that province, succeeding {Fontejus} Agrippa {governor of Moesia, 69-70}, while Diurpaneus {i.e., Dacian king Duras-Diurpaneus, 69-86} held command over the Goths. Thereupon the Goths made war {A.D. 85; {actually the Dacians, not the Goths} and conquered the Romans, cut off the head of Oppius Sabinus, and invaded and boldly plundered many castles and cities belonging to the Emperor.

  • Etymology:

*Dacian *Duras < *PIE < PIE

PIE *t > Dacian *t

Dacian: *tamas-, Tamasidava

  • Meaning:
    • *tamas- dark',
  • Attestation:

* Dacian: Tamasidava 'The dark fortress'

  • Etymology:

*Dacian Tamasi-dava < PIE *tomH-os- < *temH- 'dark'

  • Preserved in:

Labials (notation: P)

PIE has *p, *b, *bʰ.

*b was a very rare phoneme, which is one argument in favor of its PIE *ph3 origin.

The PIE *b, *p were preserved as *b, *p in Dacian.

The PIE *bʰ passed to Dacian *b.

PIE *p > Dacian *p

PIE *bh > Dacian *b

Dacian: *berdza-, Berzovia, Berzobis

  • Meaning:
    • *berdza- 'birch',
  • Attestation:

* Dacian: Berzobis (Trajan 'Getica')

  • Etymology:

*Dacian: Berdzovia < PIE *bHerh1g^-os 'birch' < PIE *bHerh1g^- 'to shine, white'

  • Preserved in:

PIE *b, *ph3 > Dacian *b

Dacian: Rabon, Arabon

  • Meaning:
    • *ara- *abon- 'the furios river',
  • Attestation:

* Ptolemy, Geography, Book III, Chapter 8 "After the mouth of the Tibiscus river the first turn which is west-southwest is in 47*20 44°45 then a bend near the entrance of the Rabon river which flows from Dacia in 49*00 43°30 "
*Dacian: Arrabo(n) (river in Pannonia), Arrabonna (city in Pannonia on Arabon River) Arrabonna,Arrabon

  • Etymology:

*Dacian *Ara- *abon- 'the furios river' < PIE *h1or-o- *h2ep-h3on < PIE *h1er-o 'to set in motion' + PIE *h2ep-h3on 'river' < 'flowing-water'

  • Preserved in:

Nasals and Liquids (notation: R)

PIE has r, l, m, n, with vocalic allophones r̥, l̥, m̥, n̥

The PIE r, l, m, n was preserved in Dacian as r, l, m, n too.

The PIE syllabic m̥, n̥ passed in Dacian to a.

The PIE syllabic l̥, r̥ passed in Dacian to ri~ir, li~li.

The PIE clusters l̥h1, r̥h1,l̥h3, r̥h3 passed to Dacian ar~ra, al~la;

On the other hand the PIE clusters l̥h2, r̥h2 passed in Dacian to ur~ru, ul~lu.

PIE *m > Dacian *m

 Dacian malwa (attested in Dacia Maluensis later Dacia Ripensis
   Meaning: rocky shore, mountain
   Attestation: Dacia Maluensis
     PIE *molH-wo < PIE *molH- 'mountain, rocky shore'
   Preserved in:
     Romanian  mal 'shore'
     Albanian mal 'mountain'  search on
   Pokorny: n/a
   References: 'Eric Hamp - The Position of Albanian'
     "d) Certain Thracian names are supposedly explained with
         the help of Albanian. Of these, only Dacia Maluensis
         (: mal) is well explained in this way;
         Decebalus (: ballë) and
         Burebista (burre + bisht) are surely wrong."
 Dacian manteia
   Meaning: blackberry
   Attestation: Apuleius
   Preserved in:
     Albanian man 'mulberry'  search on
      Note: In Albanian final -ntV- > -nV-
            (with some later evolutions to -nd(V) - )
   References: 'Eric Hamp - The Position of Albanian'

PIE *n > Dacian *n

PIE *l > Dacian *l

PIE *r > Dacian *r

PIE *m. > Dacian *a

PIE *n. > Dacian *a

PIE *r. > Dacian *ri~*ir

 see Dacian #Crisia 'Black (river)' < PIE *kWrs-yo 'Black'

PIE *l. > Dacian *li~*il

PIE *r.h1 > Dacian *ar~*ra

 see Dacian #Karpātya "The Rocky (Mountains)"
     < PIE *kr.h1-p-eh2-tyo < PIE *(s)kerh1- 'to cut'

PIE *r.h2 > Dacian *ur~*ru

PIE *r.h3 > Dacian *ar~*ra

PIE *l.h1 > Dacian *al~*la

PIE *l.h2 > Dacian *ul~*lu

PIE *l.h3 > Dacian *al~*la


Direct comparison, informed by the Centum-Satem isogloss yields the reconstruction of three rows of dorsal consonants in PIE.

  • Palatovelars, ḱ, ǵ, ǵʰ (also transcribed k', g', g'ʰ or k̑, g̑, g̑ʰ or k̂, ĝ, ĝʰ). These were [k]- or [g]-like sounds which underwent a characteristic change in the Satem languages; they were possibly palatalized velars ([kʲ], [gʲ]) in Proto-Indo-European.
  • Pure velars, k, g, gʰ.
  • Labiovelars, kʷ, gʷ, gʷʰ (also transcribed k, g, gu̯h). Raised ʷ stands for labialization, or lip-rounding accompanying the articulation of velar sounds ([kʷ] is a sound similar to English qu in queen).

The centum group of languages merged the palatovelars ḱ, ǵ, ǵʰ with the plain velars k, g, gʰ while the satem group of languages merged the labiovelars kʷ, gʷ, gʷʰ with the plain velars k, g, gʰ.

The existence of the plain velars as phonemes separate from the palatovelars and labiovelars has been disputed. In most circumstances they appear to be allophones resulting from the neutralization of the other two series in particular phonetic circumstances. It is difficult to pinpoint exactly what the circumstances of the allophony are, although it is generally accepted that neutralization occurred after s and u, and often before r.

Dorsals evolution from PIE to Dacian was the following:

PIE pure velars *k, *g remained *k, *g in Dacian.

PIE pure velar *gʰ passed in Dacian to *g.

PIE palatovelars ḱ, ǵ, ǵʰ passed in Dacian to *ts, *dz, *dz

PIE labiovelars *kʷ, *gʷ, *gʷʰ passed in Dacian to *k, *g, *g in a non-palatal context

In a palatal context {e, i,y} PIE labiovelars *kʷ, *gʷ, *gʷʰ passed in Dacian to *c^, *g^, *g^

PIE *k > Dacian *k

 Dacian: *karpā, Karpātya, Karpi
    *karpā    (noun)            - 'rock'
     Karpātya (mountains)       - 'The Rocky (mountains)'
     Karpi    (a Dacian's Tribe) - 'The people from "the Rocky Mountains"'
      Καρπάτης ὄρος /Karpátēs/  Ptolemy, Geography, Book III, Chapter 8
      "Dacia is bounded on the north by that part of European Sarmatia,
      which extends from the Carpathian mountains to:  that terminus where,
      as we have shown, the Tyras river is deflected in its course
      in  53*00  48°30"
   Preserved in:
     Albanian:  karpë 'rock'
     Romanian: Carpaţi (same mountains)
     Dacian: *karpā 'stone' < PIE *krh1-p-eh2 'rock'
              < PIE *(s)kerh1- 'to cut'
     Dacian: *Karpātya 'The Rocky (mountains)'
         < PIE *krh1-p-eh2-tyo 'consisting of rock'
                           form *(s)korh1-p-
           However the zero-grade form *(s)krh1-p- is 'more in line'
           with others Albanian-Romanian reconstruction see:
                     PIE nil-grade *bhrh1g^-
                     Rom. barza 'stork' <-> Albanian bardhë 'white'
   Cognates: Norw. skarv 'bare rock'
   Pokorny:  *(s)ker-p < *(s)ker-4  'to cut'

PIE *g > Dacian *g

PIE *k^ > Dacian *ts

 Dacian: *tsikā (Lat. sicca)
   Meaning: The famous Dacian short curved sword
   Attestation: Latin sicca 'Thracian/Dacian sword'
        The Hymns of Prudentius (120)
          "Sic semina sicca virescunt
           iam mortua iamque sepulta,
           quae reddita caespite ab imo
           veteres meditantur aristas."
   Preserved in:
     Albanian: thikë 'knife' < [Alb th < Dacian ts] < Dacian tsikā
     Latin: sicca (as a loanword)
     Latin sicca < Dacian *tsikā < PIE *ḱh1i-ko < *ḱeh1i- 'sharpe''
        The original sound "ts" in Dacian *tsikā is recontructed based on:
          1. Albanian thikë 'knife' and
          2. on the Romanian ţ /ts/ <-> Albanian th
             correspondance (see Romanian ţeapǎ <-> Albanian thep).
        Note that the Dacian ts 'was translated' by the Romans
        as Latin s

PIE *ĝ, ĝh > Dacian *dz

 see Dacian #Aidzisis < PIE *h2eiǵ- 'goat'

PIE *kw/- > Dacian *k

 Dacian: Crisia
   Meaning: The Black (river)
   Attestation: Crisia, Crissos
     PIE *kWr.s-yo < *kWers- 'black'
   Preserved in:
     Romanian:  Criş (same river)

PIE *kW/+ > Dacian *c^ (like in English teacher)

PIE *gw/-,gwh/- > Dacian *g

PIE *gw/+,gwh/+ > Dacian *ğ /g^/

 Dacian Ğiridava 
   Meaning: The fortress on the wooded mountain
   Attestation: Giridava
     From an older reconstructed Dacian form *Ğyeri-da:wa:
     < [gW/e > g^; e/stressed > ye] <
     PIE *gWérh2-i- (+ *dHeh1-weh2) < PIE *gWerh2- 'mountain, wooded mountain'
   Preserved (not directly) in: 
     The PIE nil-grade *gWrh2-i-
     (that leads to a reconstructed Dacian form *grui)
     is preserved in:
     Romanian:  grui 'hill, top'
     Albanian: gur 'stone'  search on
        A derivation of Dacian Giridava from the nil-grade *gWrh2-i-,
        in place of the full-grade form *gWérh2-i- cannot be excluded;
        But such a derivation will raise some difficulties:
        1. the explanation of g^ in Giridava is not obvious.
        2. the Romanian grui and Albanian gur will remain un-accountable
           because they cannot be derived directly from the Dacian giri.
 Dacian Ğermisara
   Meaning: The hot spring(s)
   Attestation: Germisara
     From an older reconstructed Dacian form *ğermí-sara
     < [gWH/e > g^] <
     < PIE *gWHer-m- 'hot' + *seh1-ro- 'spring'
   Preserved in: 
     Albanian: zjarm 'fire'  search on

PIE *ty/hiatus > Late Dacian *ts~*c^

PIE *dy/hiatus > Late Dacian *dz~*g^

PIE *ky > Late Dacian *ts~*c^

PIE *gy > Late Dacian *dz~*g^


The PIE has the fricative *s (with the voiced allophone *z). The "laryngeals" may have been fricatives, but there is no consensus as to their phonetic realization.

As a main rule the PIE *s was preserved in Dacian as *s

However at the beginning of the words:

1. the PIE initial *s- in accented syllables passed in Dacian to *z- and later to *z^- > *j-

2. also the PIE cluster *sw- lost the *s- and remained *w-

Also in all positions:

3. the PIE cluster *sy that was still preserved at *sy in Early Dacian Times passed in Late Dacian Times to *sh somewhere between sec II BCE and II CE.


It is still disputed if the Dacian knew a RUKI-Rule {rs > rsh, us > ush, ks > ksh , is > ish} or at least an UI-Rule {us > ush, is > ish see Naissos attested with double -ss-} or not. Also is still disputed if the intervocalic -s- was preserved as -s- in all the contexts or it passes to -h- (at least in some of them).

PIE *s > Dacian *s

 Dacian: sara, Germi-sara, Deu-sara
               sara  - 'spring'
          Germi-sara - 'The Hot Spring(s)'
          Deu-sara   - 'The God Spring(s)'
   Attestation:  Ptolemy, Geography, Book III, Chapter 8
      "The most important towns of Dacia are these: [...]
            Zermizirga    49*30  46°15
    "  [corrupted form]
       Dacian sara < PIE *sor-eh2 < PIE *ser- 'to flow'

   Preserved in:
            Old Prussian
            Old Church Slavonic
   Pokorny:  ser-1 'to flow'

 Dacian: *Sūsā́gus (Susagus)
      *Sūsā́gus - 'The Old Man'/'The Grand-Father' (Decebal's General)
   Attestation: Susagus -  Pliny - Letters to Emperor Trajan
     "74. To the emperor Trajan,
        I received a letter, Sir, from Apuleius, an officer in the troops
        stationed at Nicomedia, informing me that one Callidromus being
        arrested by Maximus and Dionysius, (two bakers, to whom he had
        hired himself) fled for refuge to your statue; that being brought
        before a magistrate, he declared he was formerly slave to Laberius
        Maximus; but being taken prisoner by Susagus in Moesia,
        he was sent as a present from Decebalus to Pacorus, king of Parthia,
        in whose service he continued several years, from whence he made
        his escape, and came to Nicomedia. When he was examined before me,
        he confirmed this account; for which reason I thought it necessary
        to send him to you. I should have sent him sooner, but I deferred
        his journey, in order to make an inquiry concerning a gem which
        he said was taken from him, upon which was engraved the figure of
        Pacorus in his royal habit: I was desirous (if it could have been found)
        of transmitting this curiosity to you, with a small ingot of
        Parthian gold, which he says he brought from thence out of the mines,
        I have fixed my seal to it, the impression of which is, a chariot
        drawn by four horses.  "
       Dacian Sūsā́gus < PIE *suhs-eh2  "parent, progenitor"
   Certainty: -
   Preserved in:
         Albanian:  gjysh 'grandfather' <->
         Romanian: ghiuj "old man, grandfather"
              < [PAlb/Dacian? gj < PAlb s-/stressed] <
                       < PAlb/Dacian? *sūsā
                       < PIE *suhs-eh2 "parent, progenitor"
            Sanskrit: sūṣā́ `who gives birth' Skt. sūṣán- "god of bearing"
   Pokorny:  su:s- 'parent'

PIE *sw-/stressed > Dacian *w

PIE *s-/stressed > Dacian *z

Consonantic Clusters:

PIE *sk- > Dacian *ks- > Late Dacian h-

PIE *-sk-/intervocalic > Dacian *-ks- > Late Dacian *-h-

PIE *sp- > Dacian *ps > Late Dacian f

PIE *sm > Dacian *m

PIE *sn > Dacian *n

PIE *sr > Dacian *r


External links

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