Paeonia mlokosewitschii (Golden Peony or Caucasian Peony) is a species of peony, native to the Caucasus Mountains in Azerbaijan, Georgia, and Dagestan, where it grows on rocky slopes in oak, hornbeam, or beech forests.
In 2002, the Chinese botanist Hong Deyuan reduced it to a subspecies of Paeonia daurica, namely Paeonia daurica (Andrews ) subsp. mlokosewitschii (Lomakin) D.Y.Hong 2003.
It is a herbaceous perennial plant growing twenty-three to twenty-seven inches (60–70 cm) tall, with biternate, glaucous leaves with obovate lobes. In spring it bears large, single, lemon-yellow flowers five inches (10–12 cm) in diameter, the ovary pubescent, the two to four carpels white, pink or yellow, and the stamen filaments yellow-green.
It was discovered by the Polish botanist Ludwik Mlokosiewicz in 1897, after whom it was named by Aleksandr Lomakin. The plant is sometimes nicknamed "Molly the Witch", a humorous mispronunciation of the species name, which most non-Poles find difficult to pronounce.