Crude birth rate is the natality or childbirths per 1,000 people per year.
It can be represented by where n is the number of childbirths in that year, and p is the current population. This figure is combined with the crude death rate to produce the rate of natural population growth (natural in that it does not take into account net migration).
Another indicator of fertility is frequently used: the total fertility rate — average number of children born to each woman over the course of her life. In general, the total fertility rate is a better indicator of (current) fertility rates because unlike the crude birth rate it is not affected by the age distribution of the population.
Fertility rates tend to be higher in less economically developed countries and lower in more economically developed countries.
The birth rate is an item of concern and policy for a number of national governments. Some, including those of Italy and Malaysia, seek to increase the national birth rate using measures such as financial incentives or provision of support services to new mothers. Conversely, others aim to reduce the birth rate. For example, the government of China has adopted a mandatory One child policy, while non-coercive measures such as improved information about and availability of birth control have achieved similar results in countries such as Iran
General fertility rate (GFR) – This measures the number of births per 1,000 women aged 15 to 44 or 15 to 49.