The Johns Hopkins University is a private university based in Baltimore, Maryland, United States. Johns Hopkins also maintains full-time campuses elsewhere in Maryland, Washington, D.C., Italy, and China. It is particularly esteemed for its medical, health, scientific, and international studies programs.
The university is named after Johns Hopkins, who left $7 million in his 1873 will for the foundation of the university and Johns Hopkins Hospital. At the time, this was the largest philanthropic bequest in U.S. history, the equivalent of over $131 million in the year 2006. The university opened on February 22 1876, with the stated goal of "The encouragement of research ... and the advancement of individual scholars, who by their excellence will advance the sciences they pursue, and the society where they dwell.
Johns Hopkins was the first university in the United States to emphasize research, applying the German university model developed by Wilhelm von Humboldt and Friedrich Daniel Ernst Schleiermacher. Johns Hopkins is the first American university to teach through seminars, instead of solely through lectures, as well as the first university in America to offer an undergraduate major (as opposed to a purely liberal arts curriculum). As such, Johns Hopkins was a model for most large research universities in the United States, particularly the University of Chicago. According to the National Science Foundation ranking, Johns Hopkins performed $1.55 billion in science, medical and engineering research in fiscal year 2007. NSF ranked the university first among 20 U.S. academic institutions in total Research & Development spending for the 29th year in a row.
The university's first president was Daniel Coit Gilman. Its motto in Latin is Veritas vos liberabit – "The truth shall make you free." While women had previously been admitted to graduate programs, the undergraduate program admitted only men up until 1970. Admission of women to Johns Hopkins undergraduate programs was not considered until the late 1960s. The decision to admit females was announced in October 1969, and in the fall of 1970, women were finally admitted into the undergraduate programs. In the academic year 1970-1971, 4.7% of students in the Arts and Sciences programs were women. In the year 1985-1986 the proportion of female students in the Arts and Sciences programs had increased to around 38%. Currently, the undergraduate population is 47% female and 53% male.
Milton Eisenhower, a president of JHU, was once invited to speak to a convention in Pittsburgh. Making a common mistake, the Master of Ceremonies introduced him as "President of John Hopkins." Eisenhower retorted that he was "glad to be here in Pittburgh.
In a commencement address to the undergraduate Class of 2001, university president William R. Brody had the following to say about the name:
In 1888, just 12 years after the university was founded, Mark Twain wrote about this university in a letter to a friend. He said:A few months ago I was told that the Johns Hopkins University had given me a degree. I naturally supposed this constituted me a Member of the Faculty, and so I started in to help as I could there. I told them I believed they were perfectly competent to run a college as far as the higher branches of education are concerned, but what they needed was a little help here and there from a practical commercial man. I said the public is sensitive to little things, and they wouldn't have full confidence in a college that didn't know how to spell the name 'John'.
More than a century later, we continue to bestow our diplomas only upon individuals of outstanding capabilities and great talent. And we continue to spell Johns with an 's'.
The original main university campus was in downtown Baltimore City. However, this location did not permit room for growth and the trustees began to look for a place to move. Eventually, they would relocate to the estate of Charles Carroll of Carrollton and Homewood House, a wedding gift from Charles to his son Charles Jr.
The park-like main campus of Johns Hopkins, Homewood, is set on 140 acres (0.57 km²) in the northern part of Baltimore. The architecture was modeled after the Georgian-inspired Federalist style of Homewood House. Most newer buildings resemble this style, being built of red brick with white marble trim, but lack the details. Homewood House was later used for administrative offices but now is preserved as a museum.
As a part of the donation, Hopkins was required to donate part of the land for art. As a result, the Baltimore Museum of Art, which is not part of the university, is situated next to the University's campus, just southeast of Shriver Hall.
The Decker Gardens, bordered by the Greenhouse, Nichols House and the Johns Hopkins Club, were originally known as the Botanical Gardens and were used by members of the Department of Biology to grow plants for research. By the early 1950s, the gardens no longer served an educational purpose, and in 1958, when Nichols House was built as the president's residence, they were completely re-landscaped with aesthetic criteria in mind. In 1976, the gardens were done over again, and named for trustee Alonzo G. Decker, Jr. and members of his family in appreciation for their generosity to Hopkins.
The statue in the middle of the pool, the Sea Urchin, was sculpted by Edward Berge. It stood in Mount Vernon Place, near the Washington Monument, for 34 years before being replaced by a 7'10" copy, which fit in better with its monumental surroundings. Frank R. Huber, the man who left the city the money to make the copy, asked that the original be given to Paul M. Higinbotham, who donated it to the university. North of the campus, also on Charles Street, we find the Evergreen House, one of Hopkins' museums.
|Johns Hopkins University Facts|
|Class of 2012 Applicants||16,006|
|Class of 2012 Students||1,235|
|Class of 2012 Accepted||22%|
|Middle 50% SAT||2010-2290|
|Middle 50% ACT||30-34|
|Faculty with Terminal Degrees||92%|
|Four-Year Graduation Rate||86%|
|Classes taught by Faculty||96%|
Students residing in all 50 states, the District of Columbia, the U.S. territories of Guam and Puerto Rico, and 57 countries were offered admission this year. The total number of non-U.S. citizens admitted was 189. Once again, Baltimore students are well-represented in the admitted class, with 31 students selected for the Baltimore Scholars Program. The admittance rate was a strikingly low 24 percent. Just two years ago, the rate was 35 percent.
Johns Hopkins accepted 27 percent of 13,869 applicants for entrance into the fall 2006 freshman class. Undergraduate students matriculate from all 50 states and more than 50 countries. Within six years of graduation, 85 percent of Hopkins students earn graduate degrees, the highest percentage in the nation.
The number of applicants has increased by 156 percent from 2002, one of the largest increases in the U.S. In 2006 the pool of admitted students closely resembled that of 2005. The average SAT score remained constant at 1440, while average high school GPA has increased by only 0.02 points, to 3.85. Approximately 48 percent of undergraduates receive financial aid at the Johns Hopkins University. The average need-based financial aid package for freshmen totals $29,472 for the Class of 2010. Further, the total grants and scholarships awarded to students in 2004-2005 was $41,570,000.
There are multiple scholarships available for students including, but not limited to the Baltimore Scholars Program, Bloomberg Scholarship, Hodson-Gilliam Success Scholarship, Hodson Trust Scholarship, ROTC (Army) Scholarship, Trustee Scholarship, Charles R. Westgate Scholarship, and the Woodrow Wilson Undergraduate Research Fellowship.
|Johns Hopkins University Rankings|
|2009 U.S. News & World Report, National Universities||15|
|2008 U.S. News & World Report, Hospitals||1|
|2008 U.S. News & World Report, National Universities (Peer Assessment)||8|
|2009 U.S. News & World Report, National Universities (High School Counselor Ranking)||9|
|2008 U.S. News & World Report, Medicine (Doctoral)||2|
|2007 U.S. News & World Report, Public Health (Masters)||1|
|2005 Foreign Policy, International Studies (Masters)||1|
|2007 Shanghai Jiao Tong University’s Academic Ranking of World Universities||19|
|2007 The Times Higher Education Supplement (UK)||10 U.S., 15 Global|
At the undergraduate level, in its National Universities ranking for 2009, U.S. News placed the Johns Hopkins University 15th (surrounded by Cornell University on one side and Brown University on the other). Hopkins ranked 8th in that publication's peer assessment category last year, is ranked as the 9th most prestigious school in the U.S. by college counselors, and is also one of a select group of universities to have been ranked top 10 in the nation overall.
The Johns Hopkins University is particularly regarded for its schools of medicine, public health, nursing, and international studies. The Johns Hopkins Hospital, which is affiliated with the university though legally a separate corporation, was ranked as the top hospital in the United States for the eighteenth year in a row by the U.S. News and World Report annual ranking of American hospitals. For medical research, U.S. News ranked the School of Medicine second nationally and School of Public Health first nationally for 2007, and, in an August 2005 study, the School of Advanced International Studies (SAIS) was ranked as the top master's program in international relations. U.S. News and World Report also ranked the School of Nursing 4th nationally among peer institutions in 2007.
Meanwhile, comprehensively, the 2007 Academic Ranking of World Universities, popularized by The Economist and produced by Shanghai Jiao Tong University’s Institute of Higher Education, ranked Johns Hopkins the 19th best school in the world in terms of quality of scientific research leading towards numerous awards. Further, in the annual rankings by the The Times Higher Education Supplement, based on a subjective peer review by scholars, Hopkins placed 10th nationally and 15th worldwide.
The Johns Hopkins University performed $1.55 billion in science, medical and engineering research in fiscal year 2006, making it the leading U.S. academic institution in total R&D spending for the 29th year in a row, according to a new National Science Foundation ranking. The university also ranked first on the NSF's separate list of federally funded research and development, spending $1.55 billion in FY2007 on research supported by such agencies as the National Institutes of Health, NASA, the NSF and the Department of Defense. In FY2002, Johns Hopkins became the first university to cross the $1 billion threshold on either list, recording $1.14 billion in total research and $1.023 billion in federally sponsored research that year.
The Johns Hopkins University Library system houses more than 3.6 million volumes. It includes ten main divisions: the Sheridan Libraries at Homewood, the Medical Institutions Libraries, the School of Nursing Library, Abraham M. Lilienfeld Library at the Bloomberg School, the Peabody Institute Library, the Carey Business School and School of Education libraries, the School of Advanced International Studies Libraries (Sydney R. and Elsa W. Mason Library and Bologna Center Library), the R.E. Gibson Library at the Applied Physics Laboratory Library and other minor satellite locations, as well as the archives.
The Milton S. Eisenhower Library (called "MSE" by students), located on the Homewood campus, is the main library. It houses over 2.6 million volumes and over 20,000 journal subscriptions. The Eisenhower Library is a member of the university's Sheridan Libraries encompassing collections at the Albert D. Hutzler Reading Room (called "The Hut" by students) in Gilman Hall, the John Work Garrett Library at Evergreen House, and the George Peabody Library at Mount Vernon Place. Together these collections provide the major research library resources for the university, serving Johns Hopkins academic programs worldwide. The library was named for Milton S. Eisenhower, former president of the university and brother of former U.S. president Dwight D. Eisenhower.
Only two of the MSE library's six stories are above ground; the rest are beneath, though architects designed the building so that every level has windows and natural light. The design accords with a bit of traditional campus lore which says no structure on campus can be taller than Gilman Hall, the oldest academic building. There is no written rule regarding building height, however, and the library's design was chosen for architectural and aesthetic reasons when it was finally built in the 1960s.
In addition Charles Village, the region of North Baltimore surrounding the university, has undergone several restoration projects, and the university has gradually bought the property around the school for additional student housing and dormitories. The Charles Village Project, scheduled for completion in 2008, will bring new commercial spaces to the neighborhood. The project includes Charles Commons, a new, modern residence hall that includes a Barnes & Noble and a Starbucks. A Chipotle Mexican Grill and Starbucks have moved in, and the university itself has installed a new Einstein Bros. Bagels franchise in Wolman Hall.
Hopkins has also invested heavily in improving campus life for its students with creation in 2001 of an arts complex, the Mattin Center; and a three-story sports facility, the O'Connor Recreation Center. The large on-campus dining facilities at Homewood were renovated in the summer of 2006, and the caterer was switched from Sodexho to Aramark.
Hopkins has also advertised the "Collegetown" atmosphere it shares with neighboring institutions, including Loyola College, UMBC, Goucher College, and Towson University, as well as the proximity of downtown Baltimore's Inner Harbor.
The Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender student organization, The Diverse Sexuality and Gender Alliance, affectionately called DSAGA, at Hopkins is well known. Annually DSAGA organizes and oversees the Awareness Days Program. This program is a series of events and speakers with the focus on LGBTA inclusivity and awareness.
The fraternities include Sigma Chi, Sigma Phi Epsilon, Sigma Alpha Epsilon, Beta Theta Pi, Alpha Delta Phi, Pi Kappa Alpha, Phi Kappa Psi, Phi Gamma Delta, Lambda Phi Epsilon, which is historically Asian-American, and Alpha Epsilon Pi, which is historically Jewish. These ten are supported by the Inter-Fraternity Council. Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity, which is historically African-American, is supported by the National Pan-Hellenic Council. Iota Nu Delta Fraternity is historically South Asian and is the newest Greek Letter Organization on campus. Delta Phi Fraternity, also known as St. Elmo's, maintains a chapter exclusive to students at Johns Hopkins, though it is not recognized by the University's Office of Greek Life.
The sororities include Kappa Kappa Gamma, Kappa Alpha Theta, Alpha Phi and Phi Mu, which are supported by the Panhellenic Council. The sororities also include Delta Xi Phi, a multicultural sorority, Lambda Pi Chi, a historically Latin-American sorority, and two historically Asian-American sororities, alpha Kappa Delta Phi and Sigma Omicron Pi. In Fall 2008 the Office of Greek Life announced plans to invite a fifth Panhellenic sorority to colonize at the University, most likely in the Fall of 2009. As of Spring 2008, 1,080 students were members of one of the Johns Hopkins University fraternities or sororities and the All-Greek Average GPA was 3.22, the same as the average GPA for all Johns Hopkins University Undergraduates. Approximately 1/5 of male undergraduates and 1/5 of female undergraduates belong to the Greek system.
Many of the fraternities maintain houses off campus, but none of the the sororities do. As at many American universities, it is a widely believed rumor that the sororities are not permitted to have houses because of a state "Brothel Law" prohibiting the cohabitation of more than eight women. The Johns Hopkins News-Letter even reported the existence of such a law in 2001. Snopes.com reports that such laws do not exist.
Recruitment for fraternities and sororities takes place during the spring semester for freshmen, though some chapters recruit upperclassmen during the fall semester. All students who wish to participate in Recruitment must have completed one semester at Johns Hopkins University or elsewhere and must be in good academic standing.
Hopkins has many publications that are produced entirely by students. The Johns Hopkins News-Letter, founded in 1896, is the oldest continuously published weekly college newspaper in the nation. The Hopkins Donkey is a political newspaper with a Democratic perspective on international, national and state-wide political topics. The Carrollton Record is a political newspaper with an American conservative perspective on campus and city-wide politics. Thoroughfare, Zeniada and j.mag are literary magazines. Prometheus is the undergraduate philosophy journal. Frame of Reference is an annual magazine that focuses on film and film culture The New Diplomat is the multi-disciplinary international relations journal. Foundations is the undergraduate history journal. Américas is the Latin American Studies journal. Argot is the undergraduate anthropology journal.
The Black & Blue Jay is among the nation's oldest campus humor magazines. It was founded in 1920. According to The Johns Hopkins News-Letter, it was the magazine's name which led the News-Letter to first use the moniker Blue Jays to refer to a Hopkins athletic team in 1923. While the magazine enjoyed popularity among students, it received repeated opposition from the university administration, reportedly for its vulgar sense of humor. In October 1934, Dean Edward R. Berry removed financial support for the magazine; without funding, the magazine continued under the name The Blue Jay until Berry threatened to expel the editors in 1939. The magazine had a revival in 1984, and has published intermittently since then.
Johns Hopkins is on the Foundation for Individual Rights in Education's (FIRE) "red alert" list. FIRE is a nonprofit educational foundation advocating freedom of speech, legal equality, due process, religious liberty, and sanctity of conscience. Currently, a handful of schools in the United States are on the list.
According to FIRE, Johns Hopkins University earned its Red Alert designation by suspending eighteen-year-old junior Justin Park for posting an offensive Halloween party invitation on the popular social networking site Facebook.com. His penalty was later reduced.
Johns Hopkins has students known as Eco-Reps on campus. The purpose of the ECO-Rep program is to increase environmental awareness and sustainable actions among Johns Hopkins freshmen through focused activities, the dissemination of information, and the promotion of competition. Up to 10 Freshmen will be selected each September to become ECO-Reps for the school year.
The site, called Charles Commons and completed in September 2006, is located at 33rd Street between Charles and St. Paul Streets. The approximately development includes housing for approximately 618 students, with supporting amenity spaces; a central dining facility and specialty dining area with seating capacity of approximately 330; an approximately . bookstore run by Barnes and Noble College Division which includes the traditional offerings of a college bookstore (textbooks, school supplies, dorm product, etc.) as well as a cafe that serves Starbucks coffee, an extensive assortment of general books, and convenience products.
The Decker Quadrangle development constitutes the last large building site on the contiguous Homewood campus of the Johns Hopkins University, making it the most important project on campus since the development of the two original quadrangles. In this first phase, the project includes a visitors and admissions center, a computational sciences building , and an underground parking structure, creating a new quadrangle, south of Garland Hall, named in honor of Alonso G. and Virginia G. Decker. Importantly, the project establishes a new public entrance for the campus and recognizes the potential for future growth of campus activities sited across Wyman Park Drive.
Recently, the university announced a $73 million renovation of Gilman Hall, the academic centerpiece of the Homewood Campus. The renovation will include updating all classrooms in the building, as well as a full replacement of the infrastructure of the building. Gilman hall, superficially renovated in the 1980s will now include a movie theater and a large atrium, with a glass roof. The atrium will have a sky-walk from the entrance of the building to the Hutzler Undergraduate Reading Room and will contain the university's premier archaeological collection. The project is slated for completion for the 2010-2011 academic year.
Athletic teams at Johns Hopkins are called the Blue Jays. The university's athletic colors are Columbia blue and black. (Sable and gold are used for academic robes.) Hopkins celebrates Homecoming in the spring to coincide with the height of the lacrosse season. Outside of the Men's and Women's Division I lacrosse teams, Hopkins participates in the National Collegiate Athletic Association Division III and the Centennial Conference.
The school's most prominent team is its Division I men's lacrosse team, which has won 44 national titles - nine NCAA Division I (2007, 2005, 1987, 1985, 1984, 1980, 1979, 1978, 1974), 29 USILA, and six ILA titles. Hopkins' primary national lacrosse rivals are Princeton University, Syracuse University, and the University of Virginia; its primary intrastate rivals are Loyola College, Towson University, the United States Naval Academy, and the University of Maryland. The rivalry with Maryland is the oldest, the schools having met 103 times since 1899, with two of those meetings being in playoffs.
Hopkins also has several notable Division III Athletic teams. 2006-2007 saw Hopkins winning the Centennial Conference titles in Baseball, Men's and Women's Soccer, Men's and Women's Tennis and Men's Basketball. Hopkins also has an acclaimed fencing team, which has ranked in the top three of Division III teams in the past few years and in both 2008 and 2007 defeated the University of North Carolina, a Division I team. In 2008 they defeated UNC by one bout, winning the MACFA championship. The Swimming team also has ranked in the top two of Division III for the last 10 years. The Men's Swimming team placed second at DIII Nationals in 2008. The Water Polo team has been number one in Division III for several of the past years, playing a full schedule against Division I opponents. Hopkins also has a century-old rivalry with McDaniel College (formerly Western Maryland College), playing the Green Terrors 83 times in football since the first game in 1894. In 2008, the Hopkins Blue Jays Baseball team played, and lost, in the final of the Division III College World Series.
The Lacrosse Museum and National Hall of Fame, maintained by US Lacrosse, is located on the Homewood campus and is adjacent to the home field for both the men's and women's lacrosse teams, Homewood Field. In the past, Johns Hopkins lacrosse teams have represented the United States in international competition. At the 1928 Summer Olympics in Amsterdam and 1932 Los Angeles Summer Olympics lacrosse demonstration events Hopkins represented the US and team members received Olympic Gold Medals. This was the only such accolade in the history of U.S. college sports. They have also gone to Melbourne, Australia to win the 1974 World Lacrosse Championship.
For a number of other affiliated fictional characters, see List of Johns Hopkins University people#Fictional associations.