Biological control of pests in agriculture is a method of controlling pests (including insects, mites, weeds and plant diseases) that relies on predation, parasitism, herbivory, or other natural mechanisms. It can be an important component of integrated pest management (IPM) programs.
Biological Control is defined as the reduction of pest populations by natural enemies and typically involves an active human role. Natural enemies of insect pests, also known as biological control agents, include predators, parasitoids, and pathogens. Biological control agents of plant diseases are most often referred to as antagonists. Biological control agents of weeds include herbivores and plant pathogens. Predators, such as lady beetles and lacewings, are mainly free-living species that consume a large number of prey during their lifetime. Parasitoids are species whose immature stage develops on or within a single insect host, ultimately killing the host. Most have a very narrow host range. Many species of wasps and some flies are parasitoids. Pathogens are disease-causing organisms including bacteria, fungi, and viruses. They kill or debilitate their host and are relatively specific to certain insect groups. There are three basic types of biological control strategies; conservation, classical biological control, and augmentation. These are discussed in more detail below.
Biological control can potentially have positive and negative effects on biodiversity. Most of the time a biological control is introduced to an area to protect a native species from an invasive or exotic species that has moved into its area. The control is introduced to lessen the competition among native and invasive species. However, the introduced control does not always target only the intended species. It can also target native species.
When introducing a biological control to a new area, a primary concern is the host- or prey-specificity of the control agent. Generalist feeders (control agents that are not restricted to a single species or a small range of species) often make poor biological control agents, and may become invasive species themselves. For this reason, potential biological control agents should be subject to extensive testing and quarantine before release into any new environment. If a species is introduced and attacks a native species, the biodiversity in that area can decrease dramatically. When one native species is removed from an area, it may have filled an essential niche, When this niche is absent it will directly affect the entire ecosystem. Because they tend to be generalist feeders, vertebrate animals seldom make good biological control agents, and many of the classic cases of "biocontrol gone awry" involve vertebrates. For example, the cane toad (Bufo marinus) was introduced as a biological control and had significant negative impact on biodiversity. The cane toad was intentionally introduced to Australia to control the cane beetle. When introduced, the cane toad thrived very well and did not only feed on cane beetles but other insects as well. The cane toad soon spread very rapidly, thus taking over native habitat. The introduction of the cane toad also brought foreign disease to native reptiles. This drastically reduced the population of native toads and frogs. “The cane toad also exudes and can squirt poison from the parotid glands on their shoulders when threatened or handled. This toxin contains a cocktail of chemicals that can kill animals that eat it. Freshwater crocodiles, goannas, tiger snakes, dingos and northern quolls have all died after eating cane toads, as have pet dogs (Cane toad,2003) ”. This goes to show a small but deadly organism can alter the native biodiversity in an ecosystem in a very expedient manner. A pyramid effect can take place if native species are reduced or eradicated. The domino effect keeps on going and can potentially exude on other bordering ecosystems until an equilibrium is reached.
A second example of a biological control agent that subsequently crossed over to native species is the Rhinocyllus conicus. The seed feeding weevil was introduced to North America to control exotic thistles (Musk and Canadian). However, the weevil did not target only the exotic thistles, it also targeted native thistles that are essential to various native insects. The native insects rely solely on native thistles and do not adapt to other plant species. Therefore, they cannot survive. Biological controls do not always have negative impacts on biodiversity (Corry 2000). Successful biological control reduces the density of the target species over several years, thus providing the potential for native species to re-establish. In addition, regeneration and reestablishment programs can aid to the recovery of native species. Native species can be affected in a positive way as well. To develop or find a biological control that exerts control only on the targeted species is a very lengthy process of research and experiments. In the late 1800’s, the citrus industry was in great fear when the cottony cushion scale was discovered. This organism could cause a great deal of economic loss to the industry. However, a biological control was introduced. The vedalia beetle and a parasitoid fly were introduced to control the pest. Within a few years time, the cottony cushion scale was controlled by the natural enemies and the citrus industry suffered little financial loss. Many exotic or invasive species can suppress the development of native species. The introduction of an effective biological control that reduces the population of the invasive species allows the rejuvenation of the native species. Biological controls can reduce competition for biotic and abiotic factors which can result in the re-establishment of the once over ran native species.
Invasive species are closely associated with biological controls because the environment in which they are invasive most likely does not contain their natural enemies. If invasive species are not controlled, biodiversity may be at great threat in the affected area. An example of an invasive species is the alligator weed. This plant was introduced to the United States from South America. This aquatic weed spreads very rapidly and causes many problems in lakes and rivers. The weed takes root in shallow water causing major problems such as navigation, irrigation, and flood control. The alligator weed flea beetle and two other biological controls were released in Florida. Because of their success, Florida banned the use of herbicides to control alligator weed three years after the controls were introduced (Cofrancesco 2007). Biological controls for invasive species also can have a negative impact on biodiversity.
The cane toad, as mentioned previously, is a great example of trying to control an invasive species. The cane toad was introduced to eradicate an invasive species. However, it became invasive, thus altering the biodiversity. The introduction of the cane toad could have potentially caused more of a disturbance in biodiversity than the targeted species did.
Damage from Hypera postica Gyllenhal, the alfalfa weevil, a serious introduced pest of forage, was substantially reduced by the introduction of several natural enemies. About 20 years after their introduction, the population of weevils, in the alfalfa area treated for alfalfa weevil in the Northeastern United States, was reduced by 75 percent. A small wasp, Trichogramma ostriniae, was introduced from China to help control the European corn borer making it a recent example of a long history of classical biological control efforts for this major pest. Many classical biological control programs for insect pests and weeds are under way across the United States and Canada. The population of Levuana irridescens (the Levuana moth), a serious coconut pest in Fiji was brought under control by a classical biological control program in the 1920s.
Classical biological control is long lasting and inexpensive. Other than the initial costs of collection, importation, and rearing, little expense is incurred. When a natural enemy is successfully established it rarely requires additional input and it continues to kill the pest with no direct help from humans and at no cost. Unfortunately, classical biological control does not always work. It is usually most effective against exotic pests and less so against native insect pests. The reasons for failure are not often known, but may include the release of too few individuals, poor adaptation of the natural enemy to environmental conditions at the release location, and lack of synchrony between the life cycle of the natural enemy and host pest.
An example of inoculative release occurs in greenhouse production of several crops. Periodic releases of the parasitoid, Encarsia formosa, are used to control greenhouse whitefly, and the predaceous mite, Phytoseiulus persimilis, is used for control of the two-spotted spider mite.
Lady beetles, lacewings, or parasitoids such as those from the genus Trichogramma are frequently released in large numbers (inundative release). Recommended release rates for Trichogramma in vegetable or field crops range from 5,000 to 200,000 per acre per week depending on level of pest infestation. Similarly, entomopathogenic nematodes are released at rates of millions and even billions per acre for control of certain soil-dwelling insect pests.
Habitat or environmental manipulation is another form of augmentation. This tactic involves altering the cropping system to augment or enhance the effectiveness of a natural enemy. Many adult parasitoids and predators benefit from sources of nectar and the protection provided by refuges such as hedgerows, cover crops, and weedy borders. Also, the provisioning of natural shelters in the form of wooden caskets, boxes or (turnaround) flowerpots is a form of this. For example, the stimulation of the natural predator Dermaptera is done in gardens by hanging up turnaround flowerpots with straw or wood wool.
Mixed plantings and the provision of flowering borders can increase the diversity of habitats and provide shelter and alternative food sources. They are easily incorporated into home gardens and even small-scale commercial plantings, but are more difficult to accommodate in large-scale crop production. There may also be some conflict with pest control for the large producer because of the difficulty of targeting the pest species and the use of refuges by the pest insects as well as natural enemies.
Examples of habitat manipulation include growing flowering plants (pollen and nectar sources) near crops to attract and maintain populations of natural enemies. For example, hover fly adults can be attracted to umbelliferous plants in bloom.
Biological control experts in California have demonstrated that planting prune trees in grape vineyards provides an improved overwintering habitat or refuge for a key grape pest parasitoid. The prune trees harbor an alternate host for the parasitoid, which could previously overwinter only at great distances from most vineyards. Caution should be used with this tactic because some plants attractive to natural enemies may also be hosts for certain plant diseases, especially plant viruses that could be vectored by insect pests to the crop. Although the tactic appears to hold much promise, only a few examples have been adequately researched and developed.
Ladybugs, and in particular their larvae which are active between May and July in the northern hemisphere, are voracious predators of aphids such as greenfly and blackfly, and will also consume mites, scale insects and small caterpillars. The ladybug is a very familiar beetle with various colored markings, whilst its larvae are initially small and spidery, growing up to 17 mm long. The larvae have a tapering segmented grey/black body with orange/yellow markings and ferocious mouthparts. They can be encouraged by cultivating a patch of nettles in the garden and by leaving hollow stems and some plant debris over winter so that they can hibernate.
Hoverflies resemble slightly darker bees or wasps and they have characteristic hovering, darting flight patterns. There are over 100 species of hoverfly whose larvae principally feed upon greenfly, one larva devouring up to fifty a day, or 1000 in its lifetime. They also eat fruit tree spider mites and small caterpillars. Adults feed on nectar and pollen, which they require for egg production. Eggs are minute (1 mm), pale yellow white and laid singly near greenfly colonies. Larvae are 8-17 mm long, disguised to resemble bird droppings, they are legless and have no distinct head. Semi-transparent in a range of colours from green, white, brown and black.
Dragonflies are important predators of mosquitoes, both in the water, where the dragonfly naiads eat mosquito larvae, and in the air, where adult dragonflies capture and eat adult mosquitoes. Community-wide mosquito control programs that spray adult mosquitoes also kill dragonflies, thus removing an important biocontrol agent, and can actually increase mosquito populations in the long term.
Other useful garden predators include lacewings, pirate bugs, rove and ground beetles, aphid midge, centipedes, predatory mites, as well as larger fauna such as frogs, toads, lizards, hedgehogs, slow-worms and birds. Cats and rat terriers kill field mice, rats, June bugs, and birds. Dogs chase away many types of pest animals. Dachshunds are bred specifically to fit inside tunnels underground to kill badgers.
Four of the most important groups are:
Various microbial insect diseases occur naturally, but may also be used as biological pesticides. When naturally occurring, these outbreaks are density dependent in that they generally only occur as insect populations become denser.
Most of the biological controls listed above depend on providing incentives in order to 'naturally' attract beneficial insects to the garden. However there are occasions when biological controls can be directly introduced. Common biocontrol agents include parasitoids, predators, pathogens or weed feeders. This is particularly appropriate in situations such as the greenhouse, a largely artificial environment, and are usually purchased by mail order.
Some biocontrol agents that can be introduced include;
Cane toads (Bufo marinus) were introduced to Australia in the 1930s in a failed attempt to control the cane beetle, a pest of sugar cane crops. 102 toads were obtained from Hawaii and bred in captivity to increase their numbers until they were released into the sugar cane fields of the tropic north in 1935. It was later discovered that the toads can't jump very high so they did not eat the cane beetles which stayed up on the upper stalks of the cane plants. The toads soon became very numerous and out-competed native species and became very harmful to the Australian environment, including being very toxic to would-be predators such as native snakes.
Building organic pest-free gardens
Effects on native biodiversity
Effects on invasive species
Effects on the future
How risky is biological control? Comment. (response to D. Simberloff and P. Stiling, Ecology, vol. 77, p. 1965, 1996)
Jul 01, 1998; The authors of a paper "How risky is biological control?" (Simberloff and Stiling 1996) wrote about the risk of dispersal of...
Muniappan, R., Reddy, G. V. P., and Raman, A. (Eds.) 2009. Biological Control of Tropical Weeds Using Arthropods.(Book review)
Dec 01, 2009; MUNIAPPAN, R., REDDY, G. V. P., AND RAMAN, A. (EDS.) 2009. Biological Control of Tropical Weeds Using Arthropods. Cambridge...
Van Driesche, R., Hoddle, M. and Center, T. D. 2008. Control of Pests and Weeds by Natural Enemies. An Introduction to Biological Control.(Book review)
Jun 01, 2009; VAN DRIESCHE, R., HODDLE, M. AND CENTER, T. D. 2008. Control of Pests and Weeds by Natural Enemies. An Introduction to Biological...