CovTo maximize overall awareness, the maximum number of the target audience should be reached by the advertising. There is a limit, however, for the last few per cent of the general population are always difficult (and accordingly very expensive) to reach; since they do not see the main media used by advertisers. Indeed the cost of 'cumulative' coverage typically follows an exponential pattern. Reaching 90 per cent can cost double what it costs to reach 70 per cent, and reaching 95 per cent can double the cost yet again. The coverage decision is, in practice, a balance between the desired coverage and the cost of achieving it. A large budget will achieve high coverage, whereas a smaller budget will limit the ambitions of the advertiser.
The more sophisticated media planners will also look at the 'spread' of frequencies. Ideally 'all' of the audience should receive the average number of OTS (since those who receive less are insufficiently motivated, and the extra advertising is wasted on those who receive more). Needless to say, it is impossible to achieve this ideal. As with coverage, the pattern will be weighted towards a smaller number, of heavy viewers for example who will receive significantly more OTS, and away from the difficult last few per cent. However, the good media buyer will manage the resulting spread of frequencies so that it is weighted close to the average, with as few as possible of the audience away from the average.
Frequency is also complicated by the fact that this is a function of time. A pattern of 12 OTS across a year may be scarcely noticed, whereas 12 OTS in a week will be very evident to most viewers. This is often the rationale for advertising in `bursts' or `waves' (sometimes described as `pulsing'); with expenditure concentrated into a number of intense periods of advertising - which are noticed - but with these bursts spread throughout the year, so that brands do not remain uncovered for long periods.
In the end, it is the media buyers who deliver the goods; by negotiating special deals with the media owners, and buying the best parcels of `slots' to achieve the best cost (normally measured in terms of the cost per thousand viewers, or per thousand household `impressions', or per thousand impressions on the target audience. The "best cost" can also be measured by the cost per lead, in the case of direct response marketing). The growth of the very large, international, agencies has been partly justified by their increased buying power over the media owners.
In terms of overall advertising expenditures, media advertising is still dominated by Press and television, which are of comparable size (by value of `sales'). Posters and radio follow some way behind, with cinema representing a very specialist medium.
In the United Kingdom, spending is dominated by the national and regional newspapers, the latter taking almost all the classified advertising revenue. The magazines and trade or technical journal markets are about the same size as each other, but are less than half that of the newspaper sectors.
Advertisements in newspapers, referred to as `insertions', are usually specified as so many centimetres across so many columns. In these days of metrication, a multiple of 3 cm is used as the standard measure, instead of the previously traditional inch. Thus, a `30 cm double' is an advertisement that is 30 cm long, down the page, and across two columns of type; where the width of columns varies from paper to paper - an important consideration when you are having the printing `blocks' made. The position is also often specified; so that, for example, an advertiser of a unit trust will probably pay extra to make certain that the insertion is next to the financial pages.
This is normally the most expensive medium, and as such is generally only open to the major advertisers, although some regional contractors offer more affordable packages to their local advertisers. It offers by far the widest coverage, particularly at peak hours (roughly 7.00--10.30 p.m.) and especially of family audiences. Offering sight, sound, movement and colour, it has the greatest impact, especially for those products or services where a `demonstration' is essential; since it combines the virtues of both the `story-teller' and the `demonstrator'. However, to be effective these messages must be kept simple - and have the impact to overcome the surrounding distractions of family life; especially the attraction of the remote control - which has caused more problems for advertisers than any other development.
The medium is relatively unselective in its audiences, and offers relatively poor coverage of the upper class and younger age groups, but as it is regionally based it can be used for regional trials or promotions (including test markets).
The price structures can be horrendously complicated, with the `rate card' (the price list) offering different prices for different times throughout the day; and this is further complicated by a wide range of special promotional packages, and individual negotiations. It is truly the province of the specialist media buyer.
This is something of a specialist medium, which is generally used n support of campaigns using other media. On the other hand, some advertisers, particularly those in brewing and tobacco, have successfully made significant use of the medium; although, to achieve this, they have developed the requisite expertise to make efficient use of its peculiarities.
The main roadside posters are described in terms of how the poster is physically posted on to them (pasted on, one sheet at a time, by a bill-poster); as 16 sheet (the main, 10' x 6'8" size in vertical format) and 48 sheet (10' x 20', in horizontal/landscape format). Those smaller ones, seen in pedestrian areas, are typically four sheet (5' x 3'4"). The best sites are typically reserved for the long-term clients, mainly the brewers and tobacco companies (hence one reason for their success in use of the medium), so that new users may find this a relatively unattractive medium.
This industry is also known as Out of Home Media. However, this category is not limited to posters and billboards. It may involve the use of media space in airports, malls, convenience stores, etc., and it could even tie into guerilla marketing, a nontraditional approach to advertising that may involve grassroots tactics (e.g. posting branded stickers or static clings to buildings, restrooms, and other surfaces in metropolitan areas).
In Malaysia there are numerous sizes from 10'x40', 20'x60', 20'x80' to 40'x60'. In both formats..Landscape and portrait. Current Outdoor Media Owners include Seni Jaya and Big Tree.
The use of radio has increased greatly in recent years, with the granting of many more licences. It typically generates specific audiences at different times of the day; for example, adults at breakfast, housewives thereafter, and motorists during rush hours. It can be a very cost-effective way of reaching these audiences (especially as production costs can also be much cheaper), although the types of message conveyed will be limited by the lack of any visual elements, and may have a `lightweight' image.
Although the numbers in the national audience are now small, this may be the most effective medium for extending coverage to the younger age groups, since the core audience is aged 15-24.
This is a rapidly growing force in marketing. It is very varied in form, but much of it still follows the example of press advertising, but the most effective usage - now adopted by the 'search engines' - is interactive. Indeed, in its own field, Wikipedia demonstrates how effective such an approach can become.
Although the personal mobile phone is becoming very attractive as an important advertising media to the network operators, it is relatively unproven and therefore still remains in the media buyers' sidelines.
Finding out exactly the audience for a magazine or newspaper, or who watches at a given time on television, is a specialized form of market research, which is often conducted on behalf of the media owners.
The Press figures are slightly complicated by the fact that there are two measures; that of 'readership', which represents the total number of readers of a publication, no matter where they read it, and 'circulation', the number of copies actually sold, which is mostly independently validated.
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