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Harry Potter in translation

The Harry Potter series of fantasy novels by J. K. Rowling books have become some of the most widely-read works of children's literature in history, with readers of all ages and in many countries. Worldwide sales of Harry Potter books are estimated at over 300 million copies. As such, some or all of the books have been translated from the original English into other languages.

Translation process

For an authorised translation, the publisher must first negotiate and sign a contract with the authors' agents, the Christopher Little Literary Agency . A full list of authorised publishers can be read on J. K. Rowling’s website . The publishers select translators locally.

Translators were not granted access to the books before their official release date in English, hence translation could only start after the English editions had been published, creating a lag of several months before the translations were made available. This necessary delay has boosted the sales of English language editions of the books to impatient fans, in countries where English is not the first language. Such was the clamour to read the fifth book that its English language edition became the first English-language book ever to top the bookseller list in France. In Italy, impatient Potter fans organised "Operation Feather", deluging the publisher Salani with feathers (reminiscent of Hogwarts' messenger owls) to demand expedited publication for the Italian translation of the seventh and final book in the series.

Another result of the huge public demand for instant translations of the books is the proliferation of "pirate" translations. Unauthorised translations can often be produced much faster than official translations, for several reasons: quality can be compromised, and less time is spent on editing and proofreading; the translation can be produced as a collaborative process, with several people working in parallel on different sections of the book; pirate translations can be published online, eliminating the time spent on printing and distributing official hard copies. This makes it very tempting to engage in a pirate translation, rather than wait several months for an authorised translation to be issued. However, for the very same reasons stated above, pirate translations are usually inferior to the official translations.

The high profile and demand for a high-quality local translation means that a great deal of care is often taken in the task. In some countries such as Italy, the first book was revised by the publishers and issued in an updated edition, in response to feedback from readers. In countries such as China and Portugal, the translation is conducted by a group of translators working together to save time. Some of the translators hired to work on the books were quite well known before their work on Harry Potter, such as Viktor Golyshev, who oversaw the Russian translation of the series' fifth book. Golyshev was previously best known for translating William Faulkner and George Orwell and was known to snub the Harry Potter books in interviews and refer to them as inferior literature. The Turkish translation of books two to five was undertaken by Sevin Okyay, a popular literary critic and cultural commentator.

List of authorised translations by language

The original British English versions of the book were published in the United Kingdom by Bloomsbury. Authorised editions exist in the following languages (including the original):

Official translations of the Harry Potter series
Language Country Publisher(s) and distributor(s) Translator(s) Title(s)
1. Afrikaans South Africa Human & Rousseau (pty) Ltd.
  1. Janie Oosthuysen (I-V)
  2. Kobus Geldenhuys (VI-VII)

  1. Harry Potter en die Towenaar se Steen
  2. Harry Potter en die Kamer van Geheimenisse
  3. Harry Potter en die Gevangene van Azkaban
  4. Harry Potter en die Beker Vol Vuur
  5. Harry Potter en die Orde van die Feniks
  6. Harry Potter en die Halfbloed Prins
  7. Harry Potter en die Skatte van die Dood

2. Albanian Albania Publishing House Dituria Amik Kasoruho

  1. Harry Potter dhe guri filozofal
  2. Harry Potter dhe Dhoma e të fshehtave
  3. Harry Potter dhe i burgosuri i Azkabanit
  4. Harry Potter dhe kupa e zjarrit
  5. Harry Potter dhe urdhri i Feniksit
  6. Harry Potter dhe Princi Gjakpërzier
  7. Harry Potter dhe Dhuratat e Vdekjes

3. Arabic Egypt Nahdet Misr Muhammad Ibrahim

4. Basque Spain Ediciones Salamandra / Elkarlanean Iñaki Mendiguren (I-VII)

  1. Harry Potter eta Sorgin Harria
  2. Harry Potter eta Sekretuen Ganbera
  3. Harry Potter eta Azkabango presoa
  4. Harry Potter eta Suaren Kopa
  5. Harry Potter eta Fenixaren Ordena
  6. Harry Potter eta Odol Nahasiko Printzea
  7. Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows (title untranslated)

5. Bengali Bangladesh Ankur Prakashani

  1. হ্যারি পটার এন্ড দ্য ফিলোসফার্স স্টোন
  2. হ্যারি পটার এন্ড দ্য চেম্বার অব সিক্রেটস
  3. হ্যারি পটার এন্ড দ্য প্রিজনার অব আজকাবান
  4. হ্যারি পটার এন্ড দ্য গবলেট অব ফায়ার
  5. হ্যারি পটার এন্ড দ্য অর্ডার অব দ্য ফিনিক্স
  6. হ্যারি পটার এন্ড দ্য হাফ ব্লাড প্রিন্স
  7. হ্যারি পটার এন্ড দ্য ডেথলি হ্যালোজ

6. Bulgarian Bulgaria Egmont Bulgaria
  1. Teodora Dzhebarova (I)
  2. Mariana Melnishka (II-IV)
  3. Emiliya L. Maslarova (V-VII)

  1. Хари Потър и Философският камък
  2. Хари Потър и Стаята на тайните
  3. Хари Потър и Затворникът от Азкабан
  4. Хари Потър и Огненият бокал
  5. Хари Потър и Орденът на феникса
  6. Хари Потър и Нечистокръвния принц
  7. Хари Потър и Даровете на Смъртта

7. Catalan-Valencian

Editorial Empúries
  1. Laura Escorihuela (I-IV)
  2. Marc Alcega (IV)
  3. Xavier Pàmies (V-VI)

  1. Harry Potter i la pedra filosofal
  2. Harry Potter i la cambra secreta
  3. Harry Potter i el pres d'Azkaban
  4. Harry Potter i el calze de foc
  5. Harry Potter i l'orde del Fènix
  6. Harry Potter i el misteri del Príncep
  7. Harry Potter i les relíquies de la Mort

8. Chinese Simplified:

Simplified: People's Literature Publishing House (人民文学出版社)Traditional: Crown Publishing Company Ltd (皇冠出版社)

  1. Su Nong (苏农) (I)
  2. Ma Aixin (马爱新) (II, IV, V)
  3. Zheng Xumi (郑须弥) (III)
  4. Ma Ainong (马爱农) (V)
  5. Cai Wen (蔡文) (V)Traditional:
  6. Peng Chien-Wen (彭倩文; Peng Qianwen) (I~IV)
  7. Crown Editor and Translator Group (皇冠編譯組; Huangguan Bianyi Zu) (V~VII)

  1. 哈利·波特与魔法石
  2. 哈利·波特与密室
  3. 哈利·波特与阿兹卡班的囚徒
  4. 哈利·波特与火焰杯
  5. 哈利·波特与凤凰社
  6. 哈利·波特与“混血王子”
  7. 哈利·波特与死亡圣器Traditional:
  8. 哈利波特—神秘的魔法石
  9. 哈利波特—消失的密室
  10. 哈利波特—阿茲卡班的逃犯
  11. 哈利波特—火盃的考驗
  12. 哈利波特—鳳凰會的密令
  13. 哈利波特—混血王子的背叛
  14. 哈利波特—死神的聖物

9. Croatian Croatia Algoritam
  1. Zlatko Crnković (I-III)
  2. Dubravka Petrović (IV-VI)

  1. Harry Potter i Kamen mudraca
  2. Harry Potter i Odaja tajni
  3. Harry Potter i Zatočenik Azkabana
  4. Harry Potter i Plameni Pehar
  5. Harry Potter i Red feniksa
  6. Harry Potter i Princ miješane krvi
  7. Harry Potter i Darovi smrti

10. Czech Czech Republic Albatros
  1. Vladimír Medek (I, II, IV)
  2. Pavel Medek (III, V, VI)

  1. Harry Potter a Kámen mudrců
  2. Harry Potter a Tajemná komnata
  3. Harry Potter a vězeň z Azkabanu
  4. Harry Potter a Ohnivý pohár
  5. Harry Potter a Fénixův řád
  6. Harry Potter a princ dvojí krve
  7. Harry Potter a Relikvie smrti

11. Danish Denmark Gyldendal Hanna Lützen

  1. Harry Potter og De Vises Sten
  2. Harry Potter og Hemmelighedernes Kammer
  3. Harry Potter og Fangen fra Azkaban
  4. Harry Potter og Flammernes Pokal
  5. Harry Potter og Fønixordenen
  6. Harry Potter og Halvblodsprinsen
  7. Harry Potter og Dødsregalierne

12. Dutch

Standaard / Uitgeverij De Harmonie Wiebe Buddingh

  1. Harry Potter en de Steen der Wijzen
  2. Harry Potter en de Geheime Kamer
  3. Harry Potter en de Gevangene van Azkaban
  4. Harry Potter en de Vuurbeker
  5. Harry Potter en de Orde van de Feniks
  6. Harry Potter en de Halfbloed Prins
  7. Harry Potter en de Relieken van de Dood

13. English

(Original editions; not translations)

(edited for American readers)

UK/ROI: Bloomsbury Publishing
Australia/New Zealand: Allen & Unwin Pty Ltd (Distributor)
Canada: Bloomsbury/Raincoast
South Africa: Jonathan Ball Publishers/Harper Collins
United States: Scholastic/Arthur A. Levine Books

  1. Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone (USA: Harry Potter and the Sorcerer's Stone)
  2. Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets
  3. Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban
  4. Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire
  5. Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix
  6. Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince
  7. Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows

14. Estonian Estonia Varrak Publishers
  1. Kaisa Kaer
  2. Krista Kaer

  1. Harry Potter ja tarkade kivi
  2. Harry Potter ja saladuste kamber
  3. Harry Potter ja Azkabani vang
  4. Harry Potter ja tulepeeker
  5. Harry Potter ja Fööniksi Ordu
  6. Harry Potter ja segavereline prints
  7. Harry Potter ja Surma vägised

15. Faroese Faroe Islands Bokadeild Foroya Laerarafelags
  1. Gunnar Hoydal (I-III)
  2. Malan Háberg (IV)
  3. Bergur Rasmussen (V-VI)

  1. Harry Potter og Vitramannasteinurin
  2. Harry Potter og Kamarið Við Loynidómum
  3. Harry Potter og Fangin Úr Azkaban
  4. Harry Potter og Eldbikarið
  5. Harry Potter og Føniksfylkingin
  6. Harry Potter og Hálvblóðsprinsurin
  7. Harry Potter og Arvalutir Deyðans

16. Finnish Finland Tammi Jaana Kapari

  1. Harry Potter ja viisasten kivi
  2. Harry Potter ja salaisuuksien kammio
  3. Harry Potter ja Azkabanin vanki
  4. Harry Potter ja liekehtivä pikari
  5. Harry Potter ja Feeniksin kilta
  6. Harry Potter ja Puoliverinen prinssi
  7. Harry Potter ja Kuoleman varjelukset

17. French

Éditions Gallimard Jean-François Ménard (plus the school books)

  1. Harry Potter à l'école des sorciers
  2. Harry Potter et la Chambre des secrets
  3. Harry Potter et le Prisonnier d'Azkaban
  4. Harry Potter et la Coupe de feu
  5. Harry Potter et l'Ordre du phénix
  6. Harry Potter et le Prince de sang-mêlé
  7. Harry Potter et les Reliques de la Mort

18. West Frisian The Netherlands Uitgeverij Bornmeer Jetske Bilker
19. Galician Spain Editorial Galaxia
  1. Marilar Aleixandre
  2. Eva Almazán

  1. Harry Potter e a pedra filosofal
  2. Harry Potter e a Cámara dos Segredos
  3. Harry Potter e o preso de Azkaban
  4. Harry Potter e o Cáliz de fogo
  5. Harry Potter e a Orde do Fénix
  6. Harry Potter e o misterio do príncipe
  7. Harry Potter e as reliquias da morte

20. Georgian Georgia Bakur Sulakauri Publishing
  1. Manana Antadze (I)
  2. Davit Gabunia (II, III)
  3. Ketevan Kanchashvili (IV, VI)

21. German

Carlsen Verlag Klaus Fritz

  1. Harry Potter und der Stein der Weisen
  2. Harry Potter und die Kammer des Schreckens
  3. Harry Potter und der Gefangene von Askaban
  4. Harry Potter und der Feuerkelch
  5. Harry Potter und der Orden des Phönix
  6. Harry Potter und der Halbblutprinz
  7. Harry Potter und die Heiligtümer des Todes

22. Low German Germany Verlag Michael Jung
  1. Hartmut Cyriacks
  2. Peter Nissen

Et al.

  1. Harry Potter un de Wunnersteen
  2. Harry Potter un de grulig Kamer

23. Modern Greek Greece Psichogios Publications
  1. Máia Roútsou (I)
  2. Kaíti Oikonómou (II-V)

  1. Ο Χάρι Πότερ και η Φιλοσοφική Λίθος
  2. Ο Χάρι Πότερ και η Κάμαρα με τα Μυστικά
  3. Ο Χάρι Πότερ και ο Αιχμάλωτος του Αζκαμπάν
  4. Ο Χάρι Πότερ και το Κύπελλο της Φωτιάς
  5. Ο Χάρι Πότερ και το Τάγμα του Φοίνικα
  6. Ο Χάρι Πότερ και ο Ημίαιμος Πρίγκηψ
  7. Ο Χάρι Πότερ και οι Κλήροι του Θανάτου

24. Ancient Greek Bloomsbury Andrew Wilson (I)
25. Greenlandic Greenland Atuakkiorfik Greenland Publishers Stephen Hammeken
26. Gujarati India Manjul Publishing House Pvt. Ltd.
  1. Harish Nayak
  2. Jagruti Trivedi

27. Hebrew Israel Miskal Ltd. (Yedioth Ahronoth and Sifrey Hemed) / Books in the Attic Ltd. Gili Bar-Hillel

28. Hindi India Manjul Publishing House Pvt. Ltd. Sudhir Dixit (I-VII)

  1. हैरी पॉटर और पारस पत्थर
  2. हैरी पॉटर और रहस्यमयी तहख़ाना
  3. हैरी पॉटर और अज़्काबान का क़ैदी
  4. हैरी पॉटर और आग का प्याला
  5. हैरी पॉटर और मायापंछी का समूह
  6. हैरी पॉटर और हाफ़-ब्लड प्रिंस
  7. हैरी पॉटर एंड द डेथली हैलोज़

29. Hungarian Hungary Animus Publishing Tóth Tamás Boldizsár

  1. Harry Potter és a bölcsek köve
  2. Harry Potter és a Titkok Kamrája
  3. Harry Potter és az azkabani fogoly
  4. Harry Potter és a Tűz Serlege
  5. Harry Potter és a Főnix Rendje
  6. Harry Potter és a Félvér Herceg
  7. Harry Potter és a Halál ereklyéi

30. Icelandic Iceland Bjartur
  1. Helga Haraldsdóttir (I-VII)
  2. Jón Hallur Stefánsson (V)

  1. Harry Potter og viskusteinninn
  2. Harry Potter og leyniklefinn
  3. Harry Potter og fanginn frá Azkaban
  4. Harry Potter og eldbikarinn
  5. Harry Potter og Fönixreglan
  6. Harry Potter og Blendingsprinsinn
  7. Harry Potter og Dauðadjásnin

31. Indonesian Indonesia Penerbit PT Gramedia Pustaka Utama Listiana Srisanti (I-V)

  1. Harry Potter dan Batu Bertuah
  2. Harry Potter dan Kamar Rahasia
  3. Harry Potter dan Tawanan Azkaban
  4. Harry Potter dan Piala Api
  5. Harry Potter dan Orde Phoenix
  6. Harry Potter dan Pangeran Berdarah-Campuran
  7. Harry Potter dan Relikui Kematian

32. Irish

Bloomsbury Máire Nic Mhaoláin (I)

  1. Harry Potter agus an Órchloch

33. Italian

Adriano Salani Editore

  1. Marina Astrologo (I-II)
  2. Beatrice Masini (III-VII)

Illustrated by Serena Riglietti

  1. Harry Potter e la pietra filosofale
  2. Harry Potter e la camera dei segreti
  3. Harry Potter e il prigioniero di Azkaban
  4. Harry Potter e il calice di fuoco
  5. Harry Potter e l'ordine della fenice
  6. Harry Potter e il principe mezzosangue
  7. Harry Potter e i doni della morte

34. Japanese Japan Say-zan-sha Publications Ltd.

  1. ハリー・ポッターと賢者の石
  2. ハリー・ポッターと秘密の部屋
  3. ハリー・ポッターとアズカバンの囚人
  4. ハリー・ポッターと炎のゴブレット
  5. ハリー・ポッターと不死鳥の騎士団
  6. ハリー・ポッターと謎のプリンス
  7. ハリー・ポッターと死の秘宝

35. Khmer Cambodia University of Cambodia Press Un Tim
36. Korean Korea Moonhak Soochup Publishing Co.
  1. Kim Hye-won (I-IV)
  2. Inja Choe (V)

  1. 해리 포터와 마법사의 돌
  2. 해리 포터와 비밀의 방
  3. 해리 포터와 아즈카반의 죄수
  4. 해리 포터와 불의 잔
  5. 해리 포터와 불사조 기사단
  6. 해리 포터와 혼혈 왕자
  7. 해리 포터와 죽음의 성물

37. Latin Bloomsbury Peter Needham (I-II)

  1. Harrius Potter et Philosophi Lapis
  2. Harrius Potter et Camera Secretorum

38. Latvian Latvia Jumava
  1. Ingus Josts (I-VII)
  2. Ieva Kolmane (IV-VII)
  3. Sabīne Ozola (V,VII)
  4. Māra Poļakova (V,VII)

  1. Harijs Poters un Filozofu akmens
  2. Harijs Poters un Noslēpumu kambaris
  3. Harijs Poters un Azkabanas gūsteknis
  4. Harijs Poters un Uguns biķeris
  5. Harijs Poters un Fēniksa Ordenis
  6. Harijs Poters un Jauktasiņu princis

39. Lithuanian Lithuania Alma Littera Company Limited Zita Marienė

  1. Haris Poteris ir Išminties akmuo
  2. Haris Poteris ir Paslapčių kambarys
  3. Haris Poteris ir Azkabano kalinys
  4. Haris Poteris ir Ugnies taurė
  5. Haris Poteris ir Fenikso Brolija
  6. Haris Poteris ir Netikras Princas
  7. Haris Poteris ir Mirties relikvijos

40. Macedonian Republic of Macedonia Publishing House Kultura

  1. Хари Потер и Каменот на мудроста
  2. Хари Потер и Одајата на тајните
  3. Хари Потер и Затвореникот од Азкабан
  4. Хари Потер и Пламениот пехар
  5. Хари Потер и Редот на фениксот
  6. Хари Потер и Полукрвниот Принц
  7. Хари Потер и Реликвиите на смртта

41. Marathi India Manjul Publishing House Pvt. Ltd. Shukla Vikas
42. Malay Malaysia Pelangi Books

  1. Harry Potter dengan Batu Hikmat
  2. Harry Potter dan Bilik Rahsia
  3. Harry Potter dengan Banduan Azkaban
  4. Harry Potter dalam Piala Api
  5. Harry Potter dalam Kumpulan Phoenix
  6. Harry Potter dengan Putera Berdarah Kacukan
  7. Harry Potter dengan Azimat Maut

43. Malayalam India Manjul Publishing House Pvt. Ltd. Radhika C. Nair

  1. ഹാരി പോട്ടര്‍ ആന്റ് ദ ഫിലോസഫേഴ്സ് സ്റ്റോണ്‍‍
  2. ഹാരി പോട്ടര്‍ ആന്റ് ദ ചേമ്പര്‍ ഓഫ് സീക്രട്ട്‌സ്
  3. ഹാരി പോട്ടര്‍ ആന്റ് ദ പ്രിസണര്‍ ഓഫ് അസ്കബാന്‍‍
  4. ഹാരി പോട്ടര്‍ ആന്റ് ദ ഗോബ്ലറ്റ് ഓഫ് ഫയര്‍‍‍
  5. ഹാരി പോട്ടര്‍ ആന്റ് ദി ഓര്‍ഡര്‍ ഓഫ് ദ ഫീനിക്സ്
  6. ഹാരി പോട്ടര്‍ ആന്റ് ദ ഹാഫ്-ബ്ലഡ് പ്രിന്‍സ്
  7. ഹാരി പോട്ടര്‍ ആന്റ് ദ ഡെത്‌ലി ഹാലോസ്

44. Norwegian Norway N.W. Damm & Son A.S. Torstein Bugge Høverstad

  1. Harry Potter og de vises stein
  2. Harry Potter og Mysteriekammeret
  3. Harry Potter og fangen fra Azkaban
  4. Harry Potter og ildbegeret
  5. Harry Potter og Føniksordenen
  6. Harry Potter og Halvblodsprinsen
  7. Harry Potter og dødstalismanene

45. Persian Iran Tandis Books Vida Eslamiyeh

46. Polish Poland Media Rodzina Poznań Andrzej Polkowski

  1. Harry Potter i Kamień Filozoficzny
  2. Harry Potter i Komnata Tajemnic
  3. Harry Potter i więzień Azkabanu
  4. Harry Potter i Czara Ognia
  5. Harry Potter i Zakon Feniksa
  6. Harry Potter i Książę Półkrwi
  7. Harry Potter i Insygnia Śmierci

47. Portuguese

Portugal: Editorial Presença

Brazil: Editora Rocco Ltda.

  1. Isabel Fraga (I)
  2. Isabel Nunes
  3. Manuela MadureiraBrazil:

Lia Wyler

  1. Harry Potter e a Pedra Filosofal
  2. Harry Potter e a Câmara dos Segredos (Brazil: Harry Potter e a Câmara Secreta)
  3. Harry Potter e o Prisioneiro de Azkaban
  4. Harry Potter e o Cálice de Fogo
  5. Harry Potter e a Ordem da Fénix (Brazil: Harry Potter e a Ordem da Fênix)
  6. Harry Potter e o Príncipe Misterioso (Brazil: Harry Potter e o Enigma do Príncipe)
  7. Harry Potter e os Talismãs da Morte (Brazil: Harry Potter e as Relíquias da Morte)

48. Romanian Romania Egmont Romania Ioana Iepureanu

  1. Harry Potter şi Piatra Filozofală
  2. Harry Potter şi Camera Secretelor
  3. Harry Potter şi Prizonierul din Azkaban
  4. Harry Potter şi Pocalul de Foc
  5. Harry Potter şi Ordinul Phoenix
  6. Harry Potter şi Prinţul Semipur
  7. Harry Potter şi Talismanele Morţii

49. Russian Russia Rosman Publishing
  1. Igor W. Oranskij (I)
  2. Marina D. Litvinova (II-V)
  3. Vladimir Babkov (V)
  4. Viktor Golyshev (V)
  5. Leonid Motylev (V)
  6. Sergei Iljin (VI)
  7. Maya Lahuti (VI)

  1. Гарри Поттер и философский камень
  2. Гарри Поттер и тайная комната
  3. Гарри Поттер и узник Азкабана
  4. Гарри Поттер и кубок огня
  5. Гарри Поттер и орден феникса
  6. Гарри Поттер и принц-полукровка
  7. Гарри Поттер и Дары Cмерти

50. Serbian

  1. Draško Roganović (I, III-VI)
  2. Vesna Stamenković Roganović (I, III-VI)
  3. Ana Vukomanović (II)

  1. Хари Потер и Камен мудрости
  2. Хари Потер и Дворана тајни
  3. Хари Потер и затвореник из Аскабана
  4. Хари Потер и Ватрени пехар
  5. Хари Потер и Ред феникса
  6. Хари Потер и полукрвни принц
  7. Хари Потер и реликвије Смрти

51. Slovak Slovakia IKAR
  1. Jana Petrikovičová (I-II)
  2. Oľga Kralovičová (III-VI)

  1. Harry Potter a Kameň mudrcov
  2. Harry Potter a tajomná komnata
  3. Harry Potter a väzeň z Azkabanu
  4. Harry Potter a Ohnivá čaša
  5. Harry Potter a Fénixov rád
  6. Harry Potter a polovičný princ
  7. Harry Potter a Dary smrti

52. Slovene Slovenia

  1. Jakob J. Kenda (I-V, VII, VI re-release)
  2. Branko Gradišnik (VI)

  1. Harry Potter in Kamen modrosti
  2. Harry Potter in Dvorana skrivnosti
  3. Harry Potter in Jetnik iz Azkabana
  4. Harry Potter in Ognjeni kelih
  5. Harry Potter in Feniksov red
  6. Harry Potter in Polkrvni princ
  7. Harry Potter in Svetinje smrti

53. Spanish (Castilian)

Emece Editores / Salamandra
  1. Alicia Dellepiane Rawson (I)
  2. Nieves Martín Azofra (II-IV)
  3. Adolpho Muñoz Garcia (II-IV)
  4. Gemma Rovira Ortega (V-VII)

  1. Harry Potter y la piedra filosofal
  2. Harry Potter y la cámara secreta
  3. Harry Potter y el prisionero de Azkaban
  4. Harry Potter y el cáliz de fuego
  5. Harry Potter y la Orden del Fénix
  6. Harry Potter y el misterio del príncipe
  7. Harry Potter y las Reliquias de la Muerte

54. Swedish Sweden Tiden Young Books / Raben & Sjögren Lena Fries-Gedin

  1. Harry Potter och de vises sten
  2. Harry Potter och Hemligheternas kammare
  3. Harry Potter och fången från Azkaban
  4. Harry Potter och den flammande bägaren
  5. Harry Potter och Fenixorden
  6. Harry Potter och Halvblodsprinsen
  7. Harry Potter och dödsrelikerna

55. Thai Thailand Nanmee Books
  1. Sumalee Bumrungsuk (I-II, V-VII)
  2. Waleephon (III)
  3. Ngarmphan Wetchacheewa (IV)

  1. แฮร์รี่ พอตเตอร์กับศิลาอาถรรพ์
  2. แฮร์รี่ พอตเตอร์กับห้องแห่งความลับ
  3. แฮร์รี่ พอตเตอร์กับนักโทษแห่งอัซคาบัน
  4. แฮร์รี่ พอตเตอร์กับถ้วยอัคนี
  5. แฮร์รี่ พอตเตอร์กับภาคีนกฟีนิกซ์
  6. แฮร์รี่ พอตเตอร์กับเจ้าชายเลือดผสม
  7. แฮร์รี่ พอตเตอร์กับเครื่องรางยมทูต

56. Turkish Turkey Yapi Kredi Kultur Sanat Yayincilik
  1. Mustafa Bayindir (I)
  2. Ülkü Tamer (I)
  3. Sevin Okyay (II-VI)
  4. Kutlukhan Kutlu (III-VI, the school books)

  1. Harry Potter ve Felsefe Taşı
  2. Harry Potter ve Sırlar Odası
  3. Harry Potter ve Azkaban Tutsağı
  4. Harry Potter ve Ateş Kadehi
  5. Harry Potter ve Zümrüdüanka Yoldaşlığı
  6. Harry Potter ve Melez Prens
  7. Harry Potter ve Ölüm Yadigârları

57. Ukrainian Ukraine A-BA-BA-HA-LA-MA-HA
  1. Victor Morozov (all 7 books)
  2. Sofiia Andrukhovich (part of IV)

  1. Гаррі Поттер і філософський камінь
  2. Гаррі Поттер і таємна кімната
  3. Гаррі Поттер і в'язень Азкабану
  4. Гаррі Поттер і келих вогню
  5. Гаррі Поттер і Орден фенікса
  6. Гаррі Поттер і Напівкровний Принц
  7. Гаррі Поттер і смертельні реліквії

58. Urdu Pakistan Oxford University Press Darakhshanda Asghar Khokhar (I-III)
59. Vietnamese Vietnam Trẻ Publishing House Lý Lan
60. Welsh United Kingdom Bloomsbury Emily Huws (I)

  1. Harri Potter a Maen yr Athronydd

Not listed in this table is the long-planned translation into Scots Gaelic; initially scheduled for release in December 2006, it has been indefinitely delayed.

Some translations, such those to the extinct Latin and Ancient Greek languages, were done as academic exercises, to stimulate interest in the languages and to provide students of those languages with modern reading texts. The Ancient Greek version, according to the translator, is the longest text written in that language since the novels of Heliodorus of Emesa in the 3rd century AD, and took one year to complete.

Note that in some countries, such as Spain and India, the book has been translated into several local languages (see section on publishers); sometimes the book has been translated into two different dialects of the same language in two different countries (for example, separate Portuguese versions for Brazil and for Portugal).

Unauthorised translations

From the first book in the series onwards, individuals have illegally produced unauthorized "pirate" translations of the novels, some of which have been released far ahead of the official translation in some languages. One notable example occurred in Venezuela in 2003, when an illegal translation of the fifth book, Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix, appeared soon after the release of the English version and five months before the scheduled release of the Spanish translation. The pirate translation was apparently so bad that the translator added messages, including "Here comes something that I'm unable to translate, sorry," and "I'm sorry, I didn't understand what that meant" in some sections. Two people were arrested in connection with the pirated version.

Another notable example was an internet fan translation community, Harry auf Deutsch, formed to translate the Harry Potter books into German more rapidly . After being prevented by the German publisher from openly releasing their translations, they converted their project a community site which (1) translates the books for the enjoyment of their own members (thus avoiding copyright issues, apparently), (2) translates fan fiction, (3) discusses discrepancies in the official translations, and (4) creates their own lexicon.

The agents representing J. K. Rowling have stated in the past that they cannot and do not intend to prevent individuals from translating Rowling's books for their own personal enjoyment, as long as the results are not made available to the general public.

In some countries, there have been no authorised translations into the local language, but translations not sanctioned by J. K. Rowling have been prepared and published. Such is the case, for example, in Sri Lanka, where the books have been unofficially translated into Sinhala and possibly into Tamil.

In Iran, several unauthorised translations of the Harry Potter books exist side by side. According to one source, there may be as many as 16 Persian translations in existence concurrently Iran is not a member of the Universal Copyright Convention, so publishers are not prosecuted for publishing foreign books without respecting copyright or paying royalties. .

Fake translations

Whereas "pirate translations" are unauthorised translations of true Harry Potter books, "fake translations" have also appeared, which are published pastiches or fanfics that a foreign publisher has tried to pass off as the translation of the real book by Rowling. There have been several such books, the most famous of which is probably Harry Potter and Leopard-Walk-Up-to-Dragon which was written and published in China in 2002, prior to the release of the fifth book in Rowling's series, Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix.

Other fake Harry Potter books written in Chinese include Harry Potter and the Porcelain Doll (哈利・波特与瓷娃娃 or Hālì Bōtè yǔ Cíwáwa), Harry Potter and the Golden Turtle, and Harry Potter and the Crystal Vase. In August 2007, The New York Times noted that the publication of Rowling's Deathly Hallows had inspired "a surge of peculiarly Chinese imitations," and included plot synopses and excerpts from a number of derivative works, among them Harry Potter and the Chinese Overseas Students at the Hogwarts School of Witchcraft and Wizardry and Harry Potter and the Big Funnel. In Bengali, Harry Potter in Calcutta (Harry Potter Kolkataye), written by Uttam Ghosh, has appeared.

Americanisation as translation

The differences between the British and American editions of the books have sometimes been referred to as "translation" into American English. The most noted example of this is the difference in the titles of the first book in the series: Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone in the UK, versus Harry Potter and the Sorcerer's Stone in the US. A comprehensive list of differences between the American and British editions of the books was collated at the Harry Potter Lexicon website, here: Whether these changes are enough to count as actual translation ultimately depends on one's definition of translation. The changes are mostly simple lexical switches to reflect the different dialects: an American would still have very little problem reading the British edition, and vice versa. Other changes cannot be explained as simple lexical adaptations, but may be an attempt to adapt the text culturally to a different market - for example, the addition of a sentence describing Dean Thomas as black - or may even have entered the text as publishers' corrections (or failure to incorporate agreed corrections). Changes of this sort are common when adapting any text from British to American editions and vice versa , but in the case of the Harry Potter books, this standard practice has occasionally drawn fire . In an Associated Press interview, Rowling described how the alterations to the American editions came about:

Rowling pretended to bang her head against the sofa in mock frustration. "SO much has been made of that," she groans, noting that it was only done where words had been used that really meant something very different to Americans. Her American editor pointed out that the word jumper — British for pullover sweater — means a kind of dress in American. She had had no idea. "He asked, 'Can we change it to sweater,' which is just as British?" That was fine with Rowling.

Publisher Arthur Levine of Scholastic explained the changes in an interview in The New Yorker:

''I wasn't trying to, quote, "Americanize" them... What I was trying to do is translate, which I think is different. I wanted to make sure that an American kid reading the book would have the same literary experience that a British kid would have."

The same article, however, points out that some British dialect was retained in the books, and in some cases certain phrases were replaced with more stereotypical British phrases, such as "spanking good" for "cracking".

Americanisation of books is standard practice in the publishing business, and is not normally considered translation. No individual translator or editor is credited with the Americanisation of the Harry Potter books.

Issues in translation

As with many texts, the Harry Potter series presents some special challenges to translators:


The cultural environment of the book is decidedly British. The stories follow a familiar theme in British children's books, that of adventures at boarding school, and many of the cultural nuances will be unfamiliar to readers in translation. Such things require careful and creative translating.

Invented words and proper nouns

Rowling invented several words and phrases in the books such as spells, incantations, magical words, items, and place names. Many of the spells are drawn from or inspired by Latin, and have a certain resonance with English speakers. For example, priori incantatem (a spell which causes the last spells performed by a wand to be reproduced in reverse order) would be familiar to many English-speaking readers as the words prior (previous) and incantation (spell, charm). To create a similar effect in the Hindi version, the Sanskrit language, typical in mantras, has been used for the spells. Some translators have created new words themselves, others have resorted to transliteration.

Names such as Knockturn Alley and the Pensieve are extremely difficult to translate. The latter is a magical bowl into which memories and thoughts can be placed and examined at leisure, and is a portmanteau of two words: pensive, meaning "musingly or dreamily thoughtful", and sieve, a type of bowl with perforations through which fine particles of a substance (such as flour) may be passed to separate them from coarser ones. The name Knockturn Alley, an unsavoury area leading off Diagon Alley (the place where London's magic market is located), suggests something beaten up or twisted, and is also semi-homophonous with "nocturnally", suggesting darkness and, by extension, evil. Translators must use creativity and sensitivity in rendering such names, and some are more successful than others. If the words are simply transliterated, the shades of meaning are lost; but when new word-games are invented, they can end up sounding quite different from the original, and often reflect the translator's personal interpretation and preferences. For instance, the Turkish version of Pensieve is Düsünseli, which is a portmanteau of the words Düsünmek (to think, to imagine) and sel (a flood of water); the German version of Pensieve is Denkarium with denken meaning "to think" and aquarium the word could be something like "thinkarium"; the Swedish version of Pensieve is Minnessåll which means Memory's Sieve. The Hebrew version actually achieves a similar effect to the English in its translation of Pensieve; Pensieve is הגיגית (Hagigit), which is a combination of the word הגיג (hagig) meaning thought, and the word גיגית (gigit) meaning tub. The Spanish version of Death Eaters is mortífagos, from Latin morti (death) and fagos (eat); the Swedish version of Death Eaters is Dödsätare and is a working direct translation of Death Eaters.

Anagrams such as that of Tom Riddle's name that appears in the second book also do not make the transition easily into other languages. Translators have sometimes altered the names in the book in order to make the anagram work in that language. Sometimes translators manage to alter only one part of the name: Tom Riddle's middle name of Marvolo was changed to "Vandrolo" in the Hebrew edition, to "Marvoldo" in Turkish, to "Vorlost" in German, to "Sorvolo" in Spanish, to "Marvoloso" in Slovak and to "Orvoloson" in Italian. In other languages, translators replaced the name entirely for the sake of preserving the anagram: in Romanian the full name of Voldemort is "Tomas Dorlent Cruplud" an anagram for "Sunt lordul Cap-de-Mort", which means "I am lord Cap-de-Mort", (Cap-de-Mort means "Head of a Dead"); in French, Riddle's full name becomes "Tom Elvis Jedusor" an anagram of "Je suis Voldemort"; in Norwegian his name becomes "Tom Dredolo Venster, an anagram of "Voldemort den store", which means "Voldemort the Great" in English; Dutch his name becomes "Marten Asmodom Vilijn", an anagram of "Mijn naam is Voldemort" (My name is Voldemort); in Czech, his name is "Tom Rojvol Raddle", an anagram of "Já, Lord Voldemort" (I, Lord Voldemort); in Icelandic his name becomes "Trevor Delgome", an anagram of "Ég er Voldemort" (I am Voldemort); in Swedish the name becomes "Tom Gus Mervolo Dolder", an anagram of "Ego sum Lord Voldemort", where "ego sum" is Latin, not Swedish, for "I am". In Finnish his name is Tom Lomen Valedro (Ma olen Voldemort), in Hungarian the name is "Tom Rowle Denem", which is the anagram of "Nevem Voldemort" - the 'w' in the name becomes two 'v's (which in fact caused a name collision with the Death Eather Thorfinn Rowle who first appears in the seventh book and is not related to Voldemort thus in the Hungarian translation his family name was altered to Rovel). These changes to the name created problems in later books: Tom Riddle should share his given name with Tom the bartender, but this is not the case in all translations. Another notable trivia here is the translation of 'The Mirror of Erised'. In English it sounds similar with the word 'erased'. In German language it's called 'Der Spiegel Nerhegeb'. The words were both created by reading the word 'desire', i.e. the German word 'Begehren' from the right. Curious here is, that 'Nerhegeb' sounds like 'Nie her geb`' which would mean 'never give away'.

Plot points

In some cases, English-speaking fans have sought clues to the story's mysteries by examining the way certain parts of the books have been translated in foreign editions. A case in point is the identity of a character mentioned by initials only in the book Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince. The English initials R.A.B. could have belonged to several minor characters from the books, but variations on the initials in other languages gave evidence to the true identity of the mystery character: in the Dutch edition of the book R.A.B. was translated into R.A.Z., 'zwart' being Dutch for 'black'; in the Norwegian edition, R.A.B. translates to 'R.A.S.', svart being Norwegian for 'black'; and in the Finnish edition the initials were R.A.M., 'musta' being Finnish for 'black'. When Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows came out, the identity of R.A.B. was resolved, and indeed his last name was Black.

Similarly, the title for Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix did not make it obvious whether Order referred to a group of people or to a directive. The information that it was a group of people was then determined by viewing the title in other languages. The same goes for "the Carrows", who in some translations was translated as "the siblings Carrow" and hence were not a married couple, later Rowling revealed that it was the siblings Alecto and Amycus that were the Carrows.

Rowling released an alternative title for Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows for use by translators finding difficulty translating its meaning. The alternative title (in English) is Harry Potter and the Relics of Death.

See also


External links

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