Biguanide can refer to a molecule, or to a class of drugs based upon this molecule. Biguanides can function as oral antihyperglycemic drugs used for diabetes mellitus or prediabetes treatment. They are also used as antimalarial drugs.
The disinfectant polyaminopropyl biguanide (PAPB) features biguanide functional groups.
Examples of biguanides:
(French lilac) was used for diabetes treatment in traditional medicine for centuries. In the 1920s, guanidine compounds were discovered in Galega
extracts. Animal studies showed that these compunds lowered blood glucose levels. Some less toxic derivatives, synthalin
A and synthalin B, were used for diabetes treatment, but after the discovery of insulin
they were forgotten for the next several decades. Biguanides were reintroduced into Type 2 diabetes
treatment in the late 1950s. Initially phenformin
was widely used, but its potential for sometimes fatal lactic acidosis
resulted in its withdrawal from pharmacotherapy in most pharmacopeias (in the U.S. in 1977
). Metformin has a much better safety profile, and it is the principal biguanide drug used in pharmacotherapy worldwide.
Biguanides do not affect the output of insulin, unlike other hypoglycemic agents
such as sulfonylureas
. Therefore, not only are they effective in Type 2 diabetics but they can also be effective in Type 1 patients in concert with insulin therapy.
Mechanism of action
The exact mode of action
of biguanides is not fully elucidated. However, in hyperinsulinemia, biguanides can lower fasting levels of insulin in plasma. Their therapeutic uses derive from their tendency to reduce gluconeogenesis
in the liver, and, as a result, reduce the level of glucose in the blood. Biguanides also tend to make the cells of the body more willing to absorb glucose already present in the blood stream, and there again reducing the level of glucose in the plasma.
Side-effects and toxicity
The most common side-effect is diarrhea
and dyspepsia, occurring in up to 30% of patients. The most important and serious side-effect is lactic acidosis
. Phenformin and buformin are more prone to cause acidosis than metformin; therefore they have been practically replaced by it. However, when metformin is combined with other drugs (combination therapy), hypoglycemia
and other side-effects are possible.