Bernard, Claude

Bernard, Claude

Bernard, Claude, 1813-78, French physiologist. He turned from literature to medicine, working in Paris under Magendie and teaching at the Collège de France and at the Sorbonne. One of the great scientific investigators, he is known as the founder of experimental medicine because of his work on digestive processes, especially the discovery of the glycogenic function of the liver and of the action of pancreatic juice, and on the vasomotor mechanism. He wrote An Introduction to the Study of Experimental Medicine (1865, tr. 1927).

See J. M. D. Olmsted and E. H. Olmsted, Claude Bernard and the Experimental Method in Medicine (1952); R. Virtanen, Claude Bernard and His Place in the History of Ideas (1960).

(born July 12, 1813, Saint-Julien, France—died Feb. 10, 1878, Paris) French physiologist. He taught at several major French institutions and was named a senator in 1869. He discovered the role of the pancreas in digestion, the glycogenic function of the liver in carbohydrate metabolism, and blood-supply regulation by the vasomotor nerves. He helped establish the principles of experimentation in the life sciences, including the need for a hypothesis. His concept of the internal environment of the organism led to the present understanding of homeostasis. Bernard also studied the effects of such poisons as carbon monoxide and curare. He was awarded the grand prize in physiology three times by the Académie des Sciences.

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Bernard-Claude Panet (January 9, 1753February 14, 1833) was a Roman Catholic priest and Archbishop of Quebec.

Born in Quebec City, the son of Jean-Claude Panet, he was from a family of 14 children. He had two siblings who gained some fame in Canadian history; Jean-Antoine Panet who became a Lower Canada politician and Jacques Panet who also became a priest.

He was educated at the Petit Séminaire and the Grand Séminaire of Québec. He was ordained a priest in 1778, and began his career as a teacher. One of his noteworthy students was Joseph-Octave Plessis who eventually preceded Panet as archbishop of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Quebec.



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