See John Dewey and Arthur F. Bentley: A Philosophical Correspondence (1964), ed. by S. and J. Altman; studies by P. F. Kress (1970) and J. F. Ward (1984).
See biography by A. Fox (1954); studies by R. J. White (1968) and R. F. Jones (1961).
Bentley Motors Limited is an English manufacturer of luxury automobiles and Grand Tourers. Bentley Motors was founded in England on 18 January 1919 by Walter Owen Bentley, known as W.O. Bentley or just "W.O." He was previously known for his successful range of rotary aero-engines in World War I, the most famous being the Bentley BR1 as used in later versions of the Sopwith Camel. Since 1998 the company has been owned by the Volkswagen Group of Germany.
The company was always underfunded and Bentley turned to millionaire Woolf Barnato for help in 1925. As part of a re-financing deal, leaving him effectively owning the company, Barnato became chairman. A great deal of Barnato's fortune was devoted to keeping Bentley afloat but the Great Depression destroyed demand for the company's expensive products, and it was finally sold to Rolls-Royce in 1931.
Rolls-Royce had bought Bentley secretly using a company named the British Central Equitable Trust: not even Bentley himself knew the true identity of the purchaser until the deal was completed. A new company, wholly owned by Rolls-Royce, was formed as Bentley Motors (1931) Ltd. As W.O. Bentley was little more than an employee, he left to join Lagonda in 1935 when his contract was up for renewal. The Cricklewood factory was closed and sold and production moved to the Rolls-Royce works in Derby.
When a new Bentley car appeared in 1933, the 3½ Litre, it was a sporting variant of the Rolls-Royce 20/25 and although disappointing some traditional customers, it was well received by many others and even Bentley himself was reported as saying "Taking all things into consideration, I would rather own this Bentley than any other car produced under that name."
After World War II, production of Rolls-Royce and Bentley cars was moved to an ex-wartime engine factory in Crewe, Cheshire. Bentleys became increasingly a Rolls-Royce without the distinctive grille and with a lower price tag and by the 1970s and early 1980s sales had fallen badly with at one time less than 5% of production carrying the Bentley badge.
The parent company failed in 1970 following problems with aero engine development and the car division was floated off to become Rolls-Royce Motors Ltd and remained independent until bought by Vickers in August 1980.
In the 1980s Bentley became a separate, high performance car line once again typified by the 1980 Mulsanne. The new sporting image created a new interest in the name and sales as a proportion of output started to rise. In 1986 the Rolls-Royce:Bentley ratio was 60:40 and in 1991 50:50 .
In 1998, Rolls-Royce and Bentley Motors were purchased from Vickers (its owner since 1980) by Volkswagen Group for £430 million, after bidding against BMW. BMW had recently started supplying components for the new range of cars, notably V8 engines for the Bentley Arnage and V12 engines for the Rolls-Royce Silver Seraph. The Rolls-Royce name was not included in VW's purchase; it was instead licensed to BMW (for £40 million) by the Rolls-Royce aero engine company.
BMW and Volkswagen came to an agreement whereby Volkswagen would manufacture both Bentley and Rolls-Royce cars until the end of 2002, whereupon the right to build Rolls-Royce cars would be BMW's alone. During this period, Volkswagen reduced its reliance on BMW as a supplier: as of 2003, BMW engines are no longer used in Bentley cars.
In 2002, Bentley presented Queen Elizabeth II with an official State Limousine to celebrate the Golden Jubilee. In 2003, Bentley's 2-door convertible, the Bentley Azure, ceased production, and the company introduced the Bentley Continental GT, a large luxury coupe. The car is powered by a version of VW's W-12 engine.
Demand had been so great that the factory at Crewe, Cheshire, was unable to meet orders despite an installed capacity of approximately 9500 vehicles per year. There was a waiting list of over a year for new cars to be delivered. Consequently, production of the new Flying Spur, a four-door version of the Continental GT, was assigned to the Transparent Factory, where the VW Phaeton luxury car is also assembled. This arrangement ceased at the end of 2006, and all car production reverted to the Crewe plant.
In April 2005, Bentley confirmed plans to produce a 4-seat convertible model, the Azure, derived from the Arnage Drophead Coupe prototype, at Crewe beginning in 2006. By the autumn of 2005, the convertible version of the successful Continental GT, the Continental GTC was also presented. These two models were successfully launched in late 2006.
Bentley sales continued to increase and in 2005 were 8,627 sold worldwide, 3,654 of which were sold in the United States. In 2007, with sales of 10,014, the 10,000 cars per year threshold was broken for the first time in the company's history. For 2007 a record profit of €155 million was also announced.
The current Board of Management consists of Dr. Franz-Josef Paefgen, Chairman and Chief-Executive, Dr. Ulrich Eichhorn, Engineering, Stuart J. McCullough, Sales & Marketing, Douglas G. Dickson, Manufacturing, Christine A. Gaskell, Personnel and Juergen Hoffmann Finance.
In 2008 and 2009 the Continental GTC and Flying Spur are widely expected to receive the changes already made to the Continental GT, with a new front splitter and chrome headlight surrounds among other changes.
Since Bentley's induction into the VW Group, rumours of an SUV style vehicle have repeatedly surfaced. These have been shot down by Bentley employees on the basis that the idea would not fit into their future plans and also the fact that the manufacturing facilities are already running at full capacity.
Borrowing hybrid technology developed by Bentley owners VW Group is another focal point as the trend towards hybrid cars is expanding year on year.
A limited run of a Zagato modified GT was also announced in March 2008, dubbed "GTZ".