In Feb., 1777, Congress, despite General Washington's protests, promoted five brigadier generals of junior rank to major generalships over Arnold's head. This and subsequent slights by Congress embittered Arnold and may in part have motivated his later treason. Although he soon won promotion by his spectacular defense (1777) against William Tryon in Connecticut, his seniority was not restored. In the Saratoga campaign, his relief of Fort Stanwix and his brilliant campaigning under Horatio Gates played a decisive part in the American victory. He became (1778) commander of Philadelphia, after the British evacuation, and there married Peggy Shippen, whose family had Loyalist sympathies.
In 1779 he was court-martialed because of disputes with civil authorities. He was cleared of all except minor charges and was reprimanded by Washington; nevertheless he was given (1780) command of West Point. He had already begun a treasonable correspondence with Sir Henry Clinton in New York City, and now arranged to betray West Point in exchange for a British commission and money. The plot was discovered with the capture of John André, but Arnold escaped. In 1781, in the British service, he led two savage raids—against Virginia and against New London, Conn.—before going into exile in England and Canada, where he was generally scorned and unrewarded.
See biographies by O. Sherwin (1931), M. Decker (1932, repr. 1969), C. Brandt (1994), and J. K. Martin (1998); C. Van Doren, Secret History of the American Revolution (1941, repr. 1968); J. T. Flexner, The Traitor and the Spy (1953); W. M. Wallace, Traitorous Hero (1954, repr. 1970).
See St. Gregory I, Life and Miracles of St. Benedict (tr. by O. J. Zimmerman and B. R. Avery, 1969); The Rule of Saint Benedict (tr. by A. C. Meisel and M. L. del Mastro, 1975); D. Knowles, Great Historical Enterprises (1963); O. Chadwick, The Making of the Benedictine Ideal (1981).
See biography by M. Mead (1974).
There were 46 households out of which 23.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 45.7% were married couples living together, 4.3% had a female householder with no husband present, and 50.0% were non-families. 45.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 21.7% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.24 and the average family size was 3.39.
In the city the population was spread out with 29.1% under the age of 18, 3.9% from 18 to 24, 19.4% from 25 to 44, 31.1% from 45 to 64, and 16.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 44 years. For every 100 females there were 94.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 97.3 males.
The median income for a household in the city was $20,625, and the median income for a family was $30,625. Males had a median income of $35,625 versus $16,250 for females. The per capita income for the city was $11,842. There were 19.0% of families and 27.1% of the population living below the poverty line, including 33.3% of under eighteens and 26.3% of those over 64.