A beedi (from Hindi बीड़ी, also spelled bidi or biri) is a thin, often flavored, South Asian cigarette made of tobacco wrapped in a tendu (or temburini; Diospyros melonoxylon) leaf, and secured with colored thread at one end. Tobacco content in beedies is 10-20% and, unlike regular cigarettes, beedies do not contain added chemicals. Like all tobacco products, use can cause various cancers.

Beedi-rolling is a cottage industry in India and is typically done by women in their homes. The process of rolling a beedi is similar to that of a handmade cigarette. Beedis vary accordingly by their size. Beedi tobacco consists of three different tobaccos; each has its own characteristic. The tobacco is brought from different states and each has its own blend. For example, for a strong tobacco flavor, tobacco from the state of Gujarat is preferred. For a more mellow flavor tobacco from Nipani (karnataka) is suitable, and to help the beedies retain the fire longer Choor from Mysore is used. Once the beedies are rolled they are kept in a specially designed oven to ensure good flavor and to remove any moisture. Due to the relatively low cost of beedies compared with regular cigarettes, they have long been popular among the poor in Bangladesh, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Cambodia and India. In India, 850 billion are smoked every year.

Beedies are available in many flavors (such as vanilla, strawberry, chocolate, and mango). Their availability in Indian food markets is usually under the authorities' radar, due to the markets' ethnic clientele and ostensible focus on food, drink, and provisions (and omission of alcohol products). A 1999 survey by San Francisco's Booker T Washington Community Service Center reported that 58% of high school students in San Francisco had tried Beedies, and 31% smoked them at least once a month. Seventy percent of packs purchased contained no warning labels, and about 40% did not contain tax-paid stamps, contributing to their low cost. Many students who tried beedi believe it to be less harmful than a regular cigarette due to the ease of inhalation and absence of warning labels.

Bidi rolling

Most of the bidi rolling is carried out by women workers. A study carried by Sanjay Swami et al. revealed that, due to the tobacco handling, nicotine is absorbed by nasopharyngeal & percutaneous routes. This causes highly elevated level of nicotine. Nicotine, being potent generator of free radicals, causes many health problems including cancer.


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