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become contaminated

List of contaminated cell lines

This is a list of cell cultures which have been cross-contaminated and overgrown by other cells. A project is currently underway to enumerate and rename contaminated cell lines to avoid errors in research caused by misattribution (Masters, 2002). Estimates based on screening of leukemia-lymphoma cell lines suggest that about 15% of these cell lines are not representative of what they are usually assumed to be (Drexler et al., 2002).

Contaminated cell lines have been extensively used in research without knowledge of their true character. For example, most if not all research on the "endothelium" ECV-304 or the "megakaryocyte" DAMI cell lines has in reality been conducted on bladder carcinoma and erythroleukemia cells, respectively. Thus, all research on endothelium- or megakaryocyte-specific functions utilizing these cell lines has turned out to be worthless, except as a warning example.

There are two principal ways a cell line can become contaminated: cell cultures are often exchanged between research groups; if, during handling, a sample gets contaminated and then passed on, subsequent exchanges of cells will lead to the contaminating population being established, although parts of the supposed cell line are still genuine. More serious is contamination at the source: during establishment of the original cell line, some contaminating cells are accidentally introduced into the cultures, where they in time outgrow the desired cells. The initial testing, in this case, still suggested that the cell line is genuine and novel, but in reality, it has disappeared soon after being established and all samples of such cell lines are actually the contaminant cells. It requires lengthy research to determine the precise point where cell lines have become contaminated.

Cell lines marked Virtual in the table below are known instances of contamination at the source; these cell lines went extinct or never existed. Cases where non-contaminated lines are known or strongly suspected to exist are marked Extant

Contaminated cell lines should never be used for research demanding the specific type of cell line they are assumed to be, and most of them should ideally be discarded or at least not used in research at all, except when the contaminant cells have acquired novel characteristics (e.g., by mutation or viral transfection, for example the HeLa derivate Det98) and thus constitute a novel lineage after all.

If in doubt, researchers should test cell lines for authenticity; the references listed below contain some papers on how common contaminants can be recognized. It is worth noting that the widespread contamination with HeLa cells was initially recognized by Walter Nelson-Rees using simple Giemsa stain karyotyping under a light microscope. This technique works well in recognizing HeLa because these cells have distinctive chromosome aberrations.

Novel cell lines should be proliferated and distributed and/or deposited at a safekeeping institution such as the ATCC as soon as possible after establishment, to minimize the odds that the line becomes spoiled by contamination. It is good practice to periodically check cell lines maintained under laboratory conditions (i.e., not placed in long-term storage) for contamination with HeLa or other common contaminants, to ensure that their quality and integrity is maintained.

Lists of contaminated cell lines

If no species is given in the individual entries, the table's species applies to both the assumed and the actual cell types.

Contaminated human cell lines

Cell line, cell type is really cell line and really cell type Reference
207 (Extant?) pre-B cell leukemia REH or CCRF-CEM pre-B cell or T cell leukemia MacLeod et al. (1999)
2474/90 (Virtual) stomach carcinoma HT-29 colon carcinoma MacLeod et al. (1999)
2563, MAC-21 lung lymphoma HeLa cervical adenocarcinoma Nelson-Rees et al. (1981)
2957/90 (Virtual) stomach carcinoma HT-29 colon carcinoma MacLeod et al. (1999)
3051/80 (Virtual) stomach carcinoma HT-29 colon carcinoma MacLeod et al. (1999)
ADLC-5M2 (Virtual) lung carcinoma HeLa cervical adenocarcinoma MacLeod et al. (1999)
AG-F (Virtual) Hodgkin's disease CCRF-CEM variant T cell leukemia Drexler et al. (1999)
AO amnion HeLa cervical adenocarcinoma Nelson-Rees & Flandermeyer (1976)
ARH-77 (Extant?) plasma cell leukemia unknown Epstein-Barr virus-transfected B cell lymphoblastoid Drexler et al. (1999)
AV3 amnion HeLa cervical adenocarcinoma Nelson-Rees & Flandermeyer (1976)
BCC1/KMC (Virtual) basal cell carcinoma HeLa cervical adenocarcinoma MacLeod et al. (1999)
BE-13 (Virtual) T cell leukemia PEER T cell leukemia Drexler et al. (2003)
BJA-B (Extant) Burkitt's lymphoma REH pre-B cell leukemia Drexler et al. (2003)
BLIN-1, -1E8 (Virtual) pre-B cell leukemia NALM-6 pre-B cell leukemia Drexler et al. (2003)
BM-1604 (Virtual) prostate carcinoma DU-145 prostate carcinoma MacLeod et al. (1999)
BrCa 5 breast carcinoma HeLa cervical adenocarcinoma Nelson-Rees et al. (1981)
BT-20 breast carcinoma HeLa cervical adenocarcinoma Nelson-Rees et al. (1981)
CaMa breast carcinoma unknown Laboratory mouse/Golden hamster cells Nelson-Rees et al. (1981)
CaOV ovarian carcinoma HeLa cervical adenocarcinoma Nelson-Rees & Flandermeyer (1976)
CaVe stomach carcinoma HeLa cervical adenocarcinoma Nelson-Rees et al. (1981)
Chang liver liver HeLa cervical adenocarcinoma Nelson-Rees & Flandermeyer (1976)
CHB astrocytoma unknown Laboratory rat glial cells? Nelson-Rees et al. (1981)
CMP, CMPII C2 intestinal adenocarcinoma HeLa cervical adenocarcinoma Nelson-Rees & Flandermeyer (1976)
CO (COLE) (Virtual) Hodgkin's disease CCRF-CEM T cell leukemia Drexler et al. (1999)
COLO-818 melanoma COLO-800 melanoma MacLeod et al. (1999)
D18T synovial cell HeLa cervical adenocarcinoma Nelson-Rees & Flandermeyer (1976)
DAMI (Virtual) megakaryocytic HEL erythroleukemia MacLeod et al. (1997a, b)
DAPT pilocytic astrocytoma HeLa cervical adenocarcinoma Nelson-Rees & Flandermeyer (1976)
Det6 (Detroit 6) sternal marrow HeLa cervical adenocarcinoma Nelson-Rees & Flandermeyer (1976)
Det30A (Detroit 30A) carcinoma ascites HeLa cervical adenocarcinoma Nelson-Rees & Flandermeyer (1976)
Det98 (Detroit 98), Det98/AG, Det98/AH-2, Det98/AHR sternal marrow HeLa cervical adenocarcinoma Nelson-Rees & Flandermeyer (1976)
DD (Virtual) malignant histiocytosis K-562 terminal CML Drexler et al. (2003)
EB33 prostate HeLa cervical adenocarcinoma Nelson-Rees & Flandermeyer (1976)
ECV-304 (Virtual) normal endothelium T-24 bladder carcinoma Dirks et al. (1999)
EH (Virtual) hairy cell leukemia HK hairy cell leukemia Drexler et al. (2003)
ElCo breast carcinoma HeLa cervical adenocarcinoma Nelson-Rees & Flandermeyer (1976)
EPLC-65 (Virtual) lung carcinoma HeLa cervical adenocarcinoma MacLeod et al. (1999)
EPLC3-2M1 (Virtual) lung carcinoma HeLa cervical adenocarcinoma MacLeod et al. (1999)
ESP1 Sporadic Burkitt's lymphoma HeLa cervical adenocarcinoma Nelson-Rees & Flandermeyer (1976)
EU-1 (Virtual) pre-B cell leukemia REH pre-B cell leukemia Drexler et al. (2003)
EU-7 (Virtual) T cell leukemia CCRF-CEM T cell leukemia Drexler et al. (2003)
EUE fetal subcutis HeLa cervical adenocarcinoma Nelson-Rees et al. (1981)
EVLC2 transfected umbilical vein endothelium unknown non-endothelial? Unger et al. (2002)
F2-4E5 (Virtual) thymus epithelium SK-HEP-1 liver carcinoma MacLeod et al. (1999)
F2-5B6 (Virtual) thymus epithelium SK-HEP-1 liver carcinoma MacLeod et al. (1999)
F255A4 ??? HeLa cervical adenocarcinoma Nelson-Rees et al. (1981)
FL, FLA amnion HeLa cervical adenocarcinoma Nelson-Rees & Flandermeyer (1976)
FQ, RB, RY, SpR Hodgkin's disease spleen OMK-210 Three-striped night monkey kidney Nelson-Rees et al. (1981)
G-11 breast carcinoma HeLa cervical adenocarcinoma Nelson-Rees et al. (1981)
GHE (Virtual) astrocytoma T-24 bladder carcinoma MacLeod et al. (1999)
Girardi heart heart HeLa cervical adenocarcinoma Nelson-Rees & Flandermeyer (1976)
GM1312 myeloma unknown Epstein-Barr virus-transfected B cell lymphoblastoid Drexler et al. (2003)
GM1500 myeloma unknown Epstein-Barr virus-transfected B cell lymphoblastoid Drexler et al. (2003)
GREF-X (Virtual) liver myofibroblast unknown Laboratory rat cell line MacLeod et al. (1999)
HAEND liver angiosarcoma unknown non-endothelial? Unger et al. (2002)
HAG (Virtual) adenomatoid goitre T-24 bladder carcinoma MacLeod et al. (1999)
HBC infiltrating ductal carcinoma unknown Rat cell line Nelson-Rees et al. (1981)
HBT3, HBT-E, HBT-39b breast carcinoma HeLa cervical adenocarcinoma Nelson-Rees & Flandermeyer (1976)
HCE cervical carcinoma HeLa cervical adenocarcinoma Nelson-Rees & Flandermeyer (1976)
HEK embryonic kidney HeLa cervical adenocarcinoma Nelson-Rees & Flandermeyer (1976)
HEK/HRV transfected embryonic kidney HeLa cervical adenocarcinoma Nelson-Rees & Flandermeyer (1976)
HEL-R66 embryonic lung unknown Grivet cell line Nelson-Rees et al. (1981)
HEp-2 larynx epidermoid carcinoma HeLa cervical adenocarcinoma Chen (1988)
HIMEG-1 (Extant?) CML HL-60 myeloblastic leukemia Drexler et al. (2003)
HKB-1 (Virtual) Hodgkin's disease unknown unknown Drexler et al. (2003)
HMV-1 (Virtual) melanoma HeLa cervical adenocarcinoma MacLeod et al. (1999)
HPB-ALL (Extant) T cell leukemia Jurkat T cell leukemia Drexler et al. (2003)
HPB-MLT (Virtual) T cell leukemia HPB-ALL T cell leukemia Drexler et al. (2003)
hPTC (Virtual) papillary thyroid carcinoma unknown Domestic pig cell line MacLeod et al. (1999)
HS-445 Hodgkin's disease unknown Epstein-Barr virus-transfected B cell lymphoblastoid Drexler et al. (2003)
HS-Sultan (Virtual) multiple myeloma plasmacytoma Jijoye Endemic Burkitt's lymphoma Drexler et al. (2001)
HuK°39 kidney HeLa cervical adenocarcinoma Nelson-Rees et al. (1981)
Hut ??? HeLa cervical adenocarcinoma Nelson-Rees et al. (1981)
IM-9 multiple myeloma unknown Epstein-Barr virus-transfected B cell lymphoblastoid Drexler et al. (1999)
IMC-2 (Virtual) maxillary carcinoma HeLa cervical adenocarcinoma MacLeod et al. (1999)
INT 407 (Intestine 407) intestinal epithelium HeLa cervical adenocarcinoma Nelson-Rees & Flandermeyer (1976)
J96 leukemic blood HeLa cervical adenocarcinoma Nelson-Rees & Flandermeyer (1976)
J111 (Virtual) monocytic leukemia HeLa cervical adenocarcinoma Nelson-Rees & Flandermeyer (1976)
JHC placenta HeLa cervical adenocarcinoma Nelson-Rees & Flandermeyer (1976)
JHT transfected placenta HeLa cervical adenocarcinoma Nelson-Rees et al. (1981)
JOSK-I, -K, -M, -S (Virtual) monocytic leukemia U-937 histiocytic lymphoma MacLeod et al. (1999)
K051 (Extant?) myeloblastic leukemia K-562 terminal CML Drexler et al. (2003)
Karpas 45 (Extant) T cell leukemia unknown unknown Drexler et al. (1999)
KB oral carcinoma HeLa cervical adenocarcinoma Nelson-Rees & Flandermeyer (1976)
KBM-3 (Extant) monocytic leukemia HL-60 myeloblastic leukemia Drexler et al. (2003)
KE-37 (Extant) T cell leukemia CCRF-CEM T cell leukemia Drexler et al. (1999)
KM-3 (Extant?) pre-B cell leukemia REH pre-B cell leukemia Drexler et al. (1999)
KMS-21-BM (Extant?) myeloma unknown unknown Drexler et al. (2003)
KPB-M15 (Virtual) terminal CML KYO-1 terminal CML Drexler et al. (2003)
KP-P1 prostate carcinoma HeLa cervical adenocarcinoma Nelson-Rees & Flandermeyer (1976)
L132 embryonic lung epithelium HeLa cervical adenocarcinoma Nelson-Rees & Flandermeyer (1976)
L-540 (Extant) Hodgkin's disease CCRF-CEM T cell leukemia Drexler et al. (2003)
L-591 (Extant?) Hodgkin's disease unknown Epstein-Barr virus-transfected B cell lymphoblastoid Drexler et al. (2003)
LR10.6 (Virtual) pre-B cell leukemia NALM-6 pre-B cell leukemia MacLeod et al. (1999)
LU fetal lung HeLa cervical adenocarcinoma Nelson-Rees et al. (1981)
LU 106 embryonic lung HeLa cervical adenocarcinoma Nelson-Rees et al. (1981)
LED-Ti cervical carcinoma HeLa cervical adenocarcinoma Nelson-Rees et al. (1981)
M10T synovial cell HeLa cervical adenocarcinoma Nelson-Rees & Flandermeyer (1976)
MA160 prostate HeLa cervical adenocarcinoma Nelson-Rees & Flandermeyer (1976)
MaTu (Virtual) breast carcinoma HeLa cervical adenocarcinoma MacLeod et al. (1999)
MB-02 (Extant) megakaryoblastic leukemia HU-3 megakaryoblastic leukemia Drexler et al. (1999)
MC-4000 (Virtual) breast carcinoma HeLa cervical adenocarcinoma MacLeod et al. (1999)
MC/CAR plasma cell leukemia unknown Epstein-Barr virus-transfected B cell lymphoblastoid Drexler et al. (1999)
"McCoy" synovial cell Strain L Laboratory mouse connective tissue Nelson-Rees & Flandermeyer (1976)
MDA-MB-435 (Virtual) breast carcinoma MDA-MB-435 melanoma Ellison et al J Clin Pathol Mol Pathol 55, 294-9
MDS (Virtual) monocytic leukemia Jurkat T cell leukemia Drexler et al. (2003)
MHH-225 (Extant?) megakaryoblastic leukemia Jurkat T cell leukemia Drexler et al. (2003)
Minnesota EE esophagal epithelium HeLa cervical adenocarcinoma Nelson-Rees & Flandermeyer (1976)
MKB-1 (Virtual) T cell leukemia CCRF-CEM T cell leukemia MacLeod et al. (1999)
MOBS-1 (Virtual) monocytic leukemia U-937 histiocytic lymphoma Drexler et al. (1999)
MOLT-15 (Virtual) T cell leukemia CTV-1 monocytic leukemia MacLeod et al. (1999)
MT-1 (Virtual) breast carcinoma HeLa cervical adenocarcinoma MacLeod et al. (1999)
MUTZ-4 (Extant) T cell leukemia MUTZ-3 monocytic leukemia Drexler et al. (1999)
NCTC2544, NCTC3075 skin epithelium HeLa cervical adenocarcinoma Nelson-Rees & Flandermeyer (1976)
NOI-90 (Virtual) natural killer cell lymphoma REH pre-B cell leukemia Drexler et al. (2003)
OE endometrium HeLa cervical adenocarcinoma Nelson-Rees & Flandermeyer (1976)
OU-AML-1, -2. -3, -4, -5, -6, -7, -8 (Virtual) acute myeloid leukemia OCI/AML2 monocytic leukemia Drexler et al. (2003)
P1-1A3 (Virtual) thymus epithelium SK-HEP-1 liver carcinoma MacLeod et al. (1999)
P1-4D6 (Virtual) thymus epithelium SK-HEP-1 liver carcinoma MacLeod et al. (1999)
P39/Tsugane (Extant) myeloblastic leukemia HL-60 myeloblastic leukemia Drexler et al. (2003)
PBEI (Virtual) pre-B cell leukemia NALM-6 pre-B cell leukemia MacLeod et al. (1999)
PLB-985 (Virtual) monocytic leukemia HL-60 myeloblastic leukemia Drexler et al. (2003)
RAMAK-1 (Virtual) muscle synovium T-24 bladder carcinoma MacLeod et al. (1999)
RBHF-1 (Virtual) hepatoma unknown non-human mammal cell line MacLeod et al. (1999)
RC-2A (Extant?) monocytic leukemia CCRF-CEM T cell leukemia Drexler et al. (1999)
RED-3 (Virtual) acute myeloid leukemia HL-60 myeloblastic leukemia Drexler et al. (2003)
REH-6 (Extant?) pre-B cell leukemia unknown Laboratory mouse cell line Drexler et al. (1999)
RM-10 (Virtual) terminal CML K-562 terminal CML Drexler et al. (1999)
RPMI-6666 Hodgkin's disease unknown Epstein-Barr virus-transfected B cell lymphoblastoid Drexler et al. (2003)
RPMI-8402 (Extant) T cell leukemia unknown unknown Drexler et al. (1999)
RS-1 (Extant?) megakaryoblastic leukemia K-562 terminal CML Drexler et al. (2003)
Rsp Hodgkin's disease unknown Epstein-Barr virus-transfected B cell lymphoblastoid Drexler et al. (2003)
RT4 bladder carcinoma HeLa cervical adenocarcinoma Nelson-Rees & Flandermeyer (1976)
RY Hodgkin's disease spleen indeterminate spleen? Nelson-Rees et al. (1981)
SA4 liposarcoma HeLa cervical adenocarcinoma Nelson-Rees & Flandermeyer (1976)
SAM-1 (Virtual) terminal CML K-562 terminal CML Drexler et al. (2003)
SBC-2 (Virtual) bladder carcinoma HeLa cervical adenocarcinoma MacLeod et al. (1999)
SBC-7 (Virtual) bladder carcinoma HeLa cervical adenocarcinoma MacLeod et al. (1999)
SCLC-16H, -24H (Virtual) small cell lung carcinoma SCLC-21/22H small cell lung carcinoma MacLeod et al. (1999)
SH-2 breast carcinoma HeLa cervical adenocarcinoma Nelson-Rees & Flandermeyer (1976)
SH-3 breast carcinoma HeLa cervical adenocarcinoma Nelson-Rees & Flandermeyer (1976)
SPI-801, -802 (Virtual) T cell leukemia K-562 terminal CML MacLeod et al. (1999)
SR-91 (Virtual) T cell leukemia AML-193 monocytic leukemia Drexler et al. (2003)
SW-527 tumor SW-480/SW-620 colon adenocarcinoma Nelson-Rees et al. (1981)
SW-598 tumor SW-480/SW-620 colon adenocarcinoma Nelson-Rees et al. (1981)
SW-608 tumor SW-480/SW-620 colon adenocarcinoma Nelson-Rees et al. (1981)
SW-613 tumor SW-480/SW-620 colon adenocarcinoma Nelson-Rees et al. (1981)
SW-732 tumor SW-480/SW-620 colon adenocarcinoma Nelson-Rees et al. (1981)
SW-733 tumor SW-480/SW-620 colon adenocarcinoma Nelson-Rees et al. (1981)
T-1 kidney HeLa cervical adenocarcinoma Nelson-Rees et al. (1981)
T-9 transfected somatic HeLa cervical adenocarcinoma Nelson-Rees & Flandermeyer (1976)
T-33 (Extant?) terminal CML K-562 terminal CML Drexler et al. (2003)
TDL-1, TDL-2 tonsil lymphoid P3JHR-1 Burkitt's lymphoma Nelson-Rees et al. (1981)
TDL-3 tonsil lymphoid RPMI-1788 lymphoblastoid Nelson-Rees et al. (1981)
TDL-4 tonsil lymphoid Raji Burkitt's lymphoma Nelson-Rees et al. (1981)
TI-1 (Virtual) myeloblastic leukemia K-562 terminal CML Drexler et al. (2003)
TMM terminal CML unknown Epstein-Barr virus-transfected B cell lymphoblastoid Drexler et al. (1999)
TuWi Wilms' Tumor HeLa cervical adenocarcinoma Nelson-Rees & Flandermeyer (1976)
U-937 (Extant) histiocytic lymphoma unknown unknown Drexler et al. (1999)
UMJF-2 myeloma unknown Epstein-Barr virus-transfected B cell lymphoblastoid Drexler et al. (2003)
UT-7 (Extant) histiocytic lymphoma unknown unknown Drexler et al. (1999)
UTMB-460 (Virtual) B cell CCRF-CEM T cell leukemia Drexler et al. (2003)
WISH amnion HeLa cervical adenocarcinoma Nelson-Rees & Flandermeyer (1976)
Wong-Kilbourne conjunctiva HeLa cervical adenocarcinoma Nelson-Rees & Flandermeyer (1976)
WSU-ALCL (Virtual) Anaplastic large cell lymphoma CCRF-CEM T cell leukemia Drexler et al. (2003)
WSU-CLL (Virtual) B cell leukemia REH pre-B cell leukemia Drexler et al. (2002a)
YAA (Virtual) monocyte U-937 histiocytic lymphoma Drexler et al. (2003)
YAP (Virtual) monocyte U-937 histiocytic lymphoma Drexler et al. (2003)
YJ (Virtual) monocytic leukemia HL-60 myeloblastic leukemia Drexler et al. (2003)

Contaminated non-human cell lines

Cell line, cell type is really cell line and really cell type Reference
Aedes vexans, Culiseta inornata, Aedes aegypti Suitor's clone N/A unknown Emperor Gum Moth cell line Nelson-Rees et al. (1981)
GPS-M, GPS-PD Guinea pig spleen Strain L-M Laboratory mouse connective tissue Nelson-Rees et al. (1981)
LT-1 Leopard frog renal adenocarcinoma TH-1/FHM Eastern box turtle heart/Fathead minnow epithelium Nelson-Rees et al. (1981)

References

  • Chen, T. R. (1988): Re-evaluation of HeLa, HeLa S3, and Hep-2 karyotypes. Cytogenetics and Cell Genetics 48: 19-24. HTML abstract
  • Dirks, Willy G.; MacLeod, Roderick A. F. & Drexler, Hans G. (1999): ECV304 (endothelial) is really T24 (bladder carcinoma): cell line cross-contamination at source. In Vitro Cellular & Developmental Biology 35: 558–559.
  • Drexler, Hans G.; Dirks, Willy G. & MacLeod, Roderick A. F. (1999): False human hematopoietic cell lines: cross-contaminations and misinterpretations. Leukemia 13: 1601–1607. HTML abstract
  • Drexler, Hans G.; MacLeod, Roderick A. F. & Dirks, Willy G. (2001): Cross-contamination: HS-Sultan is not a myeloma but a Burkitt lymphoma cell line. Blood 98: 3495–3496. PDF fulltext
  • Drexler, Hans G.; Quentmeier, H.; Dirks, Willy G.; Uphoff, Cord C. & MacLeod, Roderick A. F. (2002a): DNA profiling and cytogenetic analysis of cell line WSU-CLL reveal cross-contamination with cell line REH (pre B-ALL). Leukemia 16: 1868–1870. (HTML abstract)
  • Drexler, Hans G.; Uphoff, Cord C.; Dirks, Willy G. & MacLeod, Roderick A. F. (2002b): Mix-ups and mycoplasma: the enemies within. Leukemia Research 26: 329–333. (HTML abstract)
  • Drexler, Hans G.; Dirks, Willy G.; Matsuo, Y. & MacLeod, Roderick A. F. (2003): False leukemia–lymphoma cell lines: an update on over 500 cell lines. Leukemia 17: 416–426. (HTML abstract) HTML partial fulltext
  • Lacroix, Marc (2008): Persistent use of "false" cell lines. International Journal of Cancer 122: 1–4. (HTML abstract)
  • MacLeod, Roderick A. F.; Dirks, Willy G.& Drexler, Hans G. (1997a): Early Contamination of the Dami Cell Line by HEL. Blood 90: 2850-2851. PDF fulltext
  • MacLeod, Roderick A. F.; Dirks, Willy G.; Reid, Y. A.; Hay, R. J. & Drexler, Hans G. (1997b): Identity of original and late passage Dami megakaryocytes with HEL erythroleukemia cells shown by combined cytogenetics and DNA fingerprinting. Leukemia 11: 2032–2038. HTML abstract
  • MacLeod, Roderick A. F.; Dirks, Willy G.; Matsuo, Y.; Kaufmann, M.; Milch, H. & Drexler, Hans G. (1999): Widespread intraspecies cross-contamination of human tumor cell lines arising at source. International Journal of Cancer 83: 555-563. HTML abstract
  • Masters, John R. (2002): HeLa cells 50 years on: the good, the bad and the ugly. Nature Reviews Cancer 2: 315-319. (HTML abstract)
  • Nelson-Rees, W. A. & Flandermeyer, R. R. (1976): HeLa cultures defined. Science 191: 96–98. HTML abstract
  • Nelson-Rees, W. A.; Daniels, D. W. & Flandermeyer, R. R. (1981): Cross-contamination of cells in culture. Science 212: 446–452. (HTML abstract)
  • Unger, Ronald E.; Krump-Konvalinkova, V.; Peters, K. & Kirkpatrick, C. J. (2002): In Vitro Expression of the Endothelial Phenotype: Comparative Study of Primary Isolated Cells and Cell Lines, Including the Novel Cell Line HPMEC-ST1.6R. Microvascular Research 64: 384–397. PDF fulltext
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