In Jyotish astrology, Mangala (Devanagari: मंगल) is the name for Mars, the red planet. Mars is also called Angaraka ('one who is red in colour') or Bhauma ('son of Bhumi') in Sanskrit. He is the god of war and is celibate. He is considered the son of Prithvi or Bhumi, the Earth Goddess. He is the owner of the Aries and Scorpio signs, and a teacher of the occult sciences (Ruchaka Mahapurusha Yoga).
He is painted red or flame colour, four-armed, carrying a 'trident' (Sanskrit: trishūla), 'mace' (Sanskrit: gadā), 'lotus' (Sanskrit: Padma) and a 'spear' (Sanskrit: shūla). His 'mount' (Sanskrit: vahana) is a ram. He presides over 'Mangal-war' or Tuesday.
Once when Lord Shiva
was engrossed in 'deep meditation' (Sansrit: samadhi
) upon his abode Mount Kailash
, three drops of perspiration originated from his forehead fell down on the earth. From those drops manifested a very beautiful infant, who was of reddish complexion and who had four arms.
The child was handed over to the earth goddess, Bhumi for upbringing by Lord Shiva. The child was named Bhaum as he was nurtured and brought up by 'Bhumi' (earth).
When Bhaum grew up, he went to Kashi and did a tremendous penance to please lord Shiva. Lord Shiva blessed him by granting him 'Mangala loka'(the Abode of Mangala), which was superior even to the 'Shukra loka' (the Abode of the god of Venus - Shukra). The same 'Bhauma' is established in the solar system by the name of Mangala or planet 'Mars'.
In Vedic astrology
Mangala is considered a malefic of the first order. He rules over the signs Mesha (Aries) and Vrishchika (Scorpio), is exalted in Makara (Capricorn and has his fall in Karka (Cancer). The planets Sun, Moon and Jupiter are all considered friendly to him, while he is hostile to Mercury. Venus and Saturn are neutral. Mangala represents drive and physical energy, self-confidence and ego, strength, anger, impulsiveness, heroism and adventurous nature. Mangal rules over blood, muscles and bone marrow. He is also associated with battle, war and soldiers. Mangala is the lord of three nakshatras
or lunar mansions: Mrigashīrsha
. Mangala has the following associations: the color red, metal brass and gemstone red coral
. His element is fire, direction is south, season is summer.
- Dictionary of Hindu Lore and Legend (ISBN 0-500-51088-1) by Anna Dallapiccola