Definitions

bdrm

BRDM-2

The BRDM-2 (Boyevaya Razvedyvatelnaya Dozornaya Mashina, Боевая Разведывательная Дозорная Машина, literally \"Combat Reconnaissance/Patrol Vehicle\" ) is an Armoured patrol car used by Russia and the former Soviet Union. It was also known under designations BTR-40PB, BTR-40P-2 and GAZ 41-08. This vehicle, like many other Soviet designs, has been exported extensively and is in use in at least 38 countries. It was intended to replace the earlier BRDM-1 with a vehicle that had improved amphibious capabilities and better armament.

History

After few years of exploitation of BRDM-1 by the Soviet Army its limitations and drawbacks became obvious. The vehicle had no turret and to operate the armament the gunner had to open a hatch and expose himself to enemy fire. The vehicle wasn't fitted with an NBC protection system, and had no night-vision equipment by default. The vehicle also didn't have any kind of special sights which undermined its usability as a reconnaissance vehicle. These drawbacks encouraged the design team to create a new vehicle which would suit modern battlefield.

Description

BRDM-2 has a crew of four, a driver, co-driver, commander, and gunner. It has two pairs of chain-driven belly wheels lowered by the driver which allow trench crossing just like its predecessor and a centralized tire pressure regulation system which can be used to adjust the tire pressure of all four tires or individual tires while the vehicle is in motion to suit to the ground conditions.

Externally, it differs from the BRDM-1 due to its larger, box-like hull. It retains the boat-like bow of the BRDM-1. However, the crew compartment is now farther forward and the new GAZ-41 gasoline V-8 engine is in the rear. Thanks to this the engine is much better protected from enemy fire. The engine compartment is also separated from the crew compartment with armoured barrier. Driver's and commander's stations are in the front of the vehicle, driver is positioned on the left and commander is positioned on the right. Both of them sit in front of the bulletproof windscreens which provide them with primary view of the battlefield. When in combat the windscreens can be additionally protected by twin armoured shutters. When the shutters are in their opened position they protect driver and commander from being blinded by the sunlight and ensure that the windscreens won't be blurred by rain or snow. Commander and driver have periscopes that allow both of them a more detailed view of the surrounding terrain. Commander has 6 TNP-A periscopes (5 in the front and 1 on the side of the vehicle), TPKU-2B day sight and TKN-1 night sight. Driver has 4 TNP-A periscopes (all in the front) one of which can be replaced by TWN-2B night vision device. The gunner is in the turret during combat but when traveling the gunner is seated inside the hull. The crew mounts and dismounts the vehicle via two hatches over driver's and commander's stations. On either side of the hull adjacent to the crew position, there is a firing port. Immediately behind the firing port there are three TNP-A periscopes which protrude from the outside of the hull, giving the crew some vision to the front and rear of the vehicle. The engine is larger than the BRDM's (it is a 140-hp V-8 instead of a 90-hp 6-cylinder). The BRDM-2 has an IR spotlight and four IR driving lights, as well as an over pressure collective NBC filter system. The IR spotlight is located on top of the commander's periscope. The vehicle also has R-123 radio and an antenna on the right hand side of the hull next to the commander's hatch, for communication. There's also a winch mounted internally at the front hull with a 30 m cable and capacity of 4 tonnes. The winch is intended to used, among others, for self-recovery when stuck in difficult terrain. Also a spare tire can be mounted on top of the turret. This was most often practiced by Polish crews.

Just like its predecessor, BRDM-2 is amphibious. The GAZ-41 gasoline V-8 engine supplies power to the circular water-jet, equipped with a four bladed propeller at the rear of the vehicle, which is covered with an armoured shutter while on land. This shutter must be removed before entering water. The water-jet allows amphibious travel with a speed of 10 km/h for 17 to 19 hours. A trim board that is stowed under the nose of the hull when traveling and is erected at the front of the hull before entering the water to improve vehicle's stability and displacement in water and prevent the water from flooding the bow of the BRDM-2. While in its traveling position it serves as additional armour.

The armament is the same as the BTR-60PB armoured personnel carrier, a 14.5 mm KPVT heavy machine gun with a coaxial 7.62 mm PKT general purpose machine gun as a secondary weapon both in a small conical BPU-1 turret mounted on the hull in a central position above the belly wheels.

The 14.5 mm KPVT heavy machine gun has a practical rate of fire of 150 rounds per minute and cyclic rate of fire of 600 rounds per minute. It has an effective range during day time operations of 2,000 m. It can penetrate 20 mm of armour at range of 1000 m and 30 mm of armour at range of 500 m. It can fire at air targets and has a tactical anti-aircraft range of 1,400 m. It uses the 14.5 mm API-T, 14.5 mm I-T, 14.5 mm HE-T, 14.5 mm and MDZ type ammunition.

The 7.62 mm PKT coaxial general purpose machine gun has an effective range during day time operations of 1,000 m while the vehicle is stationary and from 400 m to 500 m while the vehicle is on the move. It is fired in 2 to 10 round bursts and has a practical rate of fire of 250 rounds per minute and cyclic rate of fire of 650 rounds per minute. The gunner is using the PP-61AM sight during day time operations which has a field of view of 23 degrees and 2,6 magnification.

The BPU-1 turret is unusual because it has no top hatch opening. Contrary to the popular belief the BPU-1 turret was originally designed for BRDM-2. The turret was later used in Soviet BTR-60PB, Polish SKOT-2A and Czechoslovak OT-64A. The turret allows the armament to be elevated between -5 and +30 degrees. On the left-hand side of the turret there is an air inlet on the hull top. There are also two air-inlet louvers in the forward of the engine compartment's roof and four smaller air-inlet louvers to the rear. Both sides have centrally placed vision blocks. The armor on the vehicle which is composed of welded steel, protects it fully against small arms fire and small shell fragments but doesn't protect it against big artillery fragments and a .50-calibre machine gun fire which can penetrate BRDM-2 maximum armor of 14 millimeters. The BRDM-2-series tires are not protected by armour. They are particularly vulnerable to puncture from fire of all kinds.

There are three different production lots that have different cooling vents on the engine deck. Late production version has mushroom-type vents. It also has slightly modified turret and can elevate its armament to +60 degrees. Final production BRDM-2's have additional turret periscopes and a TNA-2 navigation apparatus.

BRDM-2 has flaws that are also apparent in other Soviet vehicles. These include the low rate of ergonomy and protection of the crew and large fuel consumption. The low ergonomy level was addressed in Polish BRDM-2M-96 modernization and its successors, BRDM-2M-96i, BRDM-2M-96ik \\"Szakal\\", BRDM-2M-96ik \\"Szakal Plus\\", BRDM-2M-97 \\"Żbik-B\\", BRDM-2M-97C \\"Żbik-P\\" and BRDM-2M-98 \\"Żbik-A\\" which have belly wheels removed which gives more space for the crew or space for two soldiers. This was also carried out in Morozov's BRDM-2SMD.

BRDM-2 has unique flaw of its own. Because the only way in and out of the vehicle is via the front hatches, leaving the vehicle while in combat is almost impossible because the exiting crew members would instantly enter the line of fire of the enemy and its own vehicle as hatches are positioned directly in front of the turret. This shortcoming was addressed in Polish BRDM-2M-96 modernization and its successors, BRDM-2M-96i, BRDM-2M-96ik \\"Szakal\\", BRDM-2M-96ik \\"Szakal Plus\\", BRDM-2M-97 \\"Żbik-B\\", BRDM-2M-97C \\"Żbik-P\\" and BRDM-2M-98 \\"Żbik-A\\" which have side hatches. This was also done in Czech LOT-B and OKV-P as well as Ukrainian BRDM-2SMD. Polish BRDM-2M-97 \\"Żbik-B\\", BRDM-2M-97C \\"Żbik-P\\" and BRDM-2M-98 \\"Żbik-A\\" also have hatch on the top of the turret giving the crew another way out. BRDM-2's predecessor, BRDM-1 didn't have that issue as the BRDM-1 obr. 1957 had no roof and later models had rear hatch that allow the crew to exit the vehicle from behind. The fact that BRDM-2 is missing such a hatch is a consequence of putting the engine in the rear unlike in BRDM-1 where engine is in the front.

The BRDM-2 is sometimes confused with the Hungarian D-442 FUG and D-944 PSzH amphibious scout cars which also have rear-mounted engines but what distinguishes them from BRDM-2 is the fact that they have twin waterjets unlike the BRDM-2 which has a triangular water jet.

Service History

The BRDM-2 entered service with Soviet Army in 1962. It was first publicly shown in 1966. It has replaced the BRDM-1 in the Soviet and Warsaw Pact armies. The production started in 1962 and went on until 1989 with 7,200 vehicles produced (mostly for export). The BTR-60PB is replacing the BRDM-2 in divisional reconnaissance battalions .

Poland bought 450 BRDM-2 armoured scout cars, 418 9P133 \\"Malyutka\\" and 9P148 \\"Konkurs\\" tank destroyers and 32 BRDM-2RS NBC reconnaissance vehicles in 1965. Later Poland also obtained 9P31 SAM launchers. In 2004 Polish Army operated 600 BRDM-2 armoured scout cars and vehicles based on it. As of now Polish Army operates 323 BRDM-2 armoured scout cars and vehicles based on it (130 9P133 \\"Malyutka\\" and 9P148 \\"Konkurs\\" tank destroyers, a dozen of BRDM-2RS, an unknown number of 9P31 SAM launchers and an unknown number of BRDM-2 R-1A and BRDM-2 R-5 command vehicles). 88 BRDM-2 armoured scout cars have been modernized to BRDM-2M-96, BRDM-2M-96i and BRDM-2M-97 \\"Żbik-B\\" level while 12 BRDM-2 armoured scout cars have been modernized to BRDM-2M-96ik \\"Szakal\\" level. Also one BRDM-2 was modernized to BRDM-2M-96ik \\"Szakl Plus\\" level and one was modernized to BRDM-2M-98 \\"Żbik-A\\" level. All modernizations, conversions and serious repairs of Polish BRDM-2 are done by WZMech in Siemianowice Śląskie. Modernized BRDM-2 armoured scout cars will serve with the Polish Army for at least a couple of years. The 9P133 \\"Malyutka\\" and 9P148 \\"Konkurs\\" tank destroyers which are used by anti-tank subunits of motorized brigades, are considered obsolete and therefore are to be replaced with ATGM launchers based on lighter vehicles like the HMMWV or heavier vehicles like Ryś APC or KTO XC-360P Rosomak AMV.

Two BRDM-2M-97 \\"Żbik-B\\" armoured scout cars took part in a military parade in Kraków on 17 May 2008. Seven BRDM-2M-97 \\"Żbik-B\\" armoured scout cars and six 9P148 \\"Konkurs\\" tank destroyers took part in a military parade in Warsaw on the Polish Army Day, 15 August 2008.

Like all Soviet equipment BRDM-2 was also sold to many Arab and African countries. It is used by 38 armies. BRDM-2 enjoyed it's popularity on export market by being cheap, easy to operate and reliable. These factors made BRDM-2 more popular export reconnaissance vehicle than BRM-1K which was much more expensive and complicated to operate.

BRDM-2 participated in several wars. It took part in [[Soviet War in Afghanistan]. Those vehicles as well as derelict ones restored back up to working state are now used Afghan National Army. BRDM-2 armoured scout cars also were used during either Six-Day War (1967), War of Attrition (1968–1970) or Yom Kippur War (1973) by either Egypt, Syria or Iraq. During one of these conflicts Israel managed to capture a number of BRDM-2 armoured cars and vehicles based on it (like BRDM-2UM command vehicle and 9P122 "Malyutka" tank destroyer). BRDM-2 also seen service with Iraqi Army during First Persian Gulf War and 2003 invasion of Iraq.

BRDM-2 armoured scout cars were used during Ten-Day War and first operations in Croatia during Croatian War of Independence by Yugoslav People's Army (JNA). BRDM-2 was also used by Yugoslav Army (VJ) against KLA during the Kosovo war. BRDM-2, BRDM-2M-96 and BRDM-2M-96i armoured cars were used by Polish units of SFOR. BRDM-2 armoured scout cars are used by Polish, Ukrainian and Russian units of the Kosovo Force. Polish KFOR units also use BRDM-2M-96 armoured scout cars and BRDM-2RS NBC reconnaissance vehicles. Polish Forces in Iraq have 12 BRDM-2M-96ik "Szakal" and 14 BRDM-2M-97 "Żbik-B".

BRDM-2 became famous for being a vehicle selected to pull Andropov's coffin during funeral ceremony on Red Square.

Variants

Like the BRDM, the BRDM-2 exists in several versions.

former Soviet Union

  • BRDM-2 - basic reconnaissance vehicle, distinguished by its turret, which is the same as that mounted on the BTR-60PB. The conical turret, which mounts two machine guns (14.5mm and 7.62mm), is unusual in that it has no top hatch opening. This model carries a crew of four: the commander, the gunner, the driver, and the co-gunner. It also has a land navigation system that gives co-ordinate readings. Late Production version had mushroom-type vents on top of engine compartment. Final production model had two additional turret periscopes, one on top of turret and the other one on the left hand side of the turret and a TNA-2 navigation apparatus. It was also known under designations BTR-40PB, BTR-40P-2 and GAZ 41-08.
    • BRDM-2 without the 14.5 mm KPVT heavy machine gun.
    • BRDM-2RKh (khimicheskaya razvedivatel’naya mashina) - radiological-chemical reconnaissance vehicle with two KZO-2 rectangular dispensers for emplacing warning poles and flags around contaminated areas. The pole/flag dispensers are located on the rear corners of the vehicle's hull. The dispensers are normally covered with canvas and when required are positioned vertically over the rear of the vehicle. The specialized equipment consist of an automatioc gas detector GSA-12, a dosimeter DP-5V, a röntgenmeter DP-3B, decontamination apparatus DK-4K and semi-automatic detection devices PPKhR and VPKhR. The vehicle retains the original armament. The regimental chemical defence platoon and the divisional-level chemical defence company use it, as the does divisional reconnaissance battalion. It was also known under designations BRDM-2RKhA, BTR-40P-2RKh and BTR-40PB-RKh.
      • BRDM-2RKhb - improved model that can also be used for biological reconnaissance, thanks to specialised equipment including the DP-5B röntgenmeter and biological aerosol detector ASP. BRDM-2RKhb doesn't have the firing ports. This model has twin 7.62 mm PKT general purpose machine guns instead of the 14.5 mm KPVT heavy machine gun and 7.62 mm PKT coaxial general purpose machine gun and usually carries only one KZO-2 dispenser. It was also known under designation BRDM-2RKhB.
    • BRDM-2UM (mashina upravleniya) - command vehicle without turret; however, it carries a 1kW generator and extra radios (two R-123 and an R-107, or according to other sources one R-105M, one R-108M and one R-130M). On either side of the upper hull there is a big antenna base. Contrary to general Western belief, this is actually a very rare vehicle primarily built for export.
    • 9P122 "Malyutka" - ATGM launcher vehicle with 6x9M14M "Malyutka-M" (AT-3B Sagger B) on an elevatable mount with overhead cover. A total of 14 missiles are carried on board. This model is found in regimental and divisional anti-tank units of MRDs, the anti-tank regiments of combined arms armies (CAA), and in the anti-tank regiment or brigade in the artillery division of a front. It has a crew of 2.
      • 9P133 "Malyutka" - this is an improved model with bigger sight 9S446 instead of the original 9S414. The 9P133 can launch the more capable 9M14P "Malyutka-P" (AT-3C Sagger C) and 9M14P1 missiles of which it carries from 16 to 18. It uses SACLOS guidance system. The vehicle also has additional windscreen on the front between the drivers windscreen and the sight mounting.
    • 9P124 - ATGM carrier vehicle with 4 radio-guided 9M17M "Skorpion-M" (AT-2B Swatter B) AT missiles on an elevatable mount with overhead cover. In the hull are four more missiles. It uses MCLOS guidance system. The 9P124 has a crew of 2. It was also known under designation BRDM-3.
      • 9P137 "Flejta" - improved model that uses the 9K8 "Flejta" system which allows usage of 9M19P ATGMs with SACLOS instead of MCLOS guidance. Th launcher has 5 rails instead of 4.
    • 9P148 "Konkurs" - ATGM launcher vehicle with 5 wire-guided 9M113 "Konkurs" (AT-5 Spandrel). The AT-5 launcher can also fire the 9M111 "Fagot" (AT-4 Spigot) missile. The early production model of 9P148 could only fire 9M113 "Konkurs". The crew reloads the launcher through a small hatch located behind it. The gunner controls the missiles through a sight mounted on the front right of the vehicle. The 9P148 can carry a total of 10 9M111 and 10 9M113 or 14 9M113. From 1996 some Russian 9P148 were fitted with an improved 1PN66 day/night thermal sight. In the West, it was also known under the incorrect designation BRDM-3.
      • 9P148 "Konkurs" with the whip antenna mount fitted to the right hand side pistol port. This is the standard production model.
    • 9P31 - launcher vehicle for the 9M31 surface-to-air missile, belonging to the 9K31 Strela-1 (NATO: SA-9 "Gaskin") vehicle-mounted low-altitude SAM system. The SAM launching system with quadruple canister replaces the machine gun turret on top of the vehicle, it is capable of 360 degrees traverse and limited elevation. It is lowered for travel. The vehicle doesn't have the belly wheels. The vehicle carries 8 missiles. The crew went down to three (commander, driver and gunner).
      • 9P31 with resupply racks on the upper sides of the hull.
      • 9P31 fitted with the passive radar detection system 9S12 (FLAT BOX A) and three sensors mounted around the carrier vehicle (one next to the launcher, one on the centre of engine deck and one between windscreens), giving it 360 degree coverage. This system emits no radar energy but can detect radio waves emitted from aircraft, giving the vehicle warning about incoming aircraft and aiding in the acquisition of the target aircraft with the optical system. Typical tactics call for the launch of two missiles against each target to improve the chance of destroying it.
    • ZS-82 (zvukoveshchatel’naya stantsiya) - PsyOps vehicle with a large box speaker array on top of an unarmed turret.
    • TM-1 - BRDM-2 armoured scout car converted into a fire and rescue vehicle. It has visual warning device on top of the unarmed turret.
    • ATM-1 "Ingul" - civilianised emergency transport vehicle without turret.
    • BRDM-2 converted for civil use. The turret, armoured shutters on the front windshields and firing ports have been removed. Two windows have been added on front corners of the hull. Another four windows have been added on each side of the hull (two per each). Turn lights have been placed next to the head lights.
    • BRDM-2 converted for civil use. The turret, armoured shutters on the front windshields and firing ports have been removed. Two hatches have been added on front corners of the hull. Two windows have been added on each side of the hull. The turret was replaced by a big hatch. There's an additional IR spotlight in the front of the driver's hatch. Two rear view mirrors have been added. The vehicle has new four driving lights and six turning lights (four on the front and one on each side of the hull). The driving lights and front turning lights are additionally protected. The vehicle also has a big bumper in the front. The vehicle also has small side hatches in place of the side periscopes.

Afghanistan

  • BRDM-2 converted into an improvised fire support vehicle with a complete 57 mm rocket pod and pylon from aircraft or helicopter mounted upside down on the turret roof.

Belarus

  • Alesiya - Modified BRDM-2 for civilian usage as an amphibious armoured truck.

Bosnia and Herzegovina

  • BRDM-2 based tank destroyers converted into APCs.

Cuba

  • BRDM-2 converted into a mortar platform. It was recently developed by Cuba. The turret has been removed and a M-38/43 120 mm mortar has been mounted in the modified crew compartment. Three large boxes with ammunition and equipment are located behind the roof opening.

Czech Republic

  • LOT-B or BRDM-2/99 (lehký kolový obrnený transportér) - Upgraded model with Renault DCI 4C turbocharged diesel engine with power of 162 hp (121 kW), side hatches, slat-type armour over vision ports, a new NBC protection system, GPS, boxed-in exhausts, six MB smoke grenade dischargers, reworked turret with square extrusion on side, new day/night vision devices and an NSVT 12.7 mm heavy machine gun. The vehicle doesn't have the belly wheels. The vehicle also has a small radio antenna on the left hand side of the hull, next to the driver's hatch. It is also known as BRDM-2NG.
    • LOT-VR (velitelská verze) - Command version of the LOT-B with additional signals equipment and a generator.
  • OKV-P (obrnìné kolové vozidloà pro policii) - Police variant with a turret replaced by a spare wheel and a hatch next to it. It also has side hatches on each side of the hull, bigger armoured windows, police lighting array mounted on the roof, large front bumper with a registration plate, inset head, side and big turn lights, four side observation devices with slotted grills, two on the either side of the hull over the side hatches and two in the front corners of the hull with rear view mirrors in front of them, additional light on the roof, small turn lights on each side of the hull and boxed in exhaust on the left-hand side of the hull's rear.
  • BRDM-2RKhb with removed armament from the turret.
  • BRDM-2ch - Czech improved BRDM-2RKhb used by radiological and chemical reconnaissance teams. It carriers among other equipment the GSP-11 or GSP-12 Automatic Chemical Agent Detector Alarm, CHP-79 Chemical Agent Detector, IT-65 or DP-86 Radiation Meter, R-123 Radio, KPO-1 Area Marking System and MK-3 Area Marking System. The original armament was replaced with a single 7.62 mm PKT coaxial general purpose machine gun.

Estonia

  • BRDM-2 modified for usage by Estonian police. The armament has been removed and a conical antenna was placed on top of the turret. The firing ports also have been removed. There's also an IR spotlight on top of the turret. There are two periscopes in side of the turret. The vehicle has two rear view mirrors.

former East-Germany

  • SPW-40P2 (Schützenpanzerwagen) - NVA designator for BRDM-2. It was also known under designation SPW BRDM-2.
    • SPW-40P2(K) - locally developed command version with telescopic mast. It was used by commanders of reconnaissance platoons and companies.
    • SPW-40P2 M/F - signals vehicle with R-123MT radio and TNA-3 navigation system.
    • SPW-40P2 (Ch) - NVA designator for BRDM-2Rkh.
    • SPW-40P2UM - NVA designator for BRDM-2UM.
      • SPW-40P2UM fitted with 2x4 mechanical launcher systems for the FLG 5000 illuminating rockets that were operated from within the vehicle. Only one vehicle was modified in 1987.
      • SPW-40P2UM fitted with 2x5 mechanical launcher systems for the FLG 5000 illuminating rockets that were operated from outside the vehicle. Only one vehicle was modified in 1987.

Iraq

  • BRDM-2 armed with 23 mm gun with top handle and cylindrical flash eliminator instead of 14.5 mm KPV heavy machine gun and a 7.62 mm PKT coaxial general purpose machine gun. It was intended to be used for fire support.
  • BRDM-2 armed with ZPU-2 twin 14.5 mm antiaircraft heavy machine guns instead of a turret. Also the hull has been stretched. It's intended to be used for fire support and air defense. This vehicle is used by New Iraqi Army.

Israel

  • BRDM-2 converted into an ATGM launcher vehicle with its turret replaced by a pintle mount for TOW-type ATGM launcher.

Hungary

  • BRDM-2 armoured scout car with two rear view mirrors. Used by Hungarian unit of ISAF.
  • VS BRDM-2 (vegyi sugárfelderítö úszó gépkocsi) - NBC reconnaissance vehicle. The initial model with the large flat box on top of the engine deck is no longer in service. The current model is very similar to the BRDM-2RKhb but has a square metal flag dispenser on the right rear. Specialsed equipment consists of detection and analising equipment MK-67P, DS-10, Gid-3, IH-95 and TMF-2.

Poland

  • BRDM-2RS - Polish designation for BRDM-2RKhb.
  • BRDM-2 armoured scout car fitted with barbed wire on the turret. It was used by Polish unit of SFOR.
  • BRDM-2M-96 - The biggest problem with the BRDM-2 pointed out by the Polish crews was the fact that the crew compartment was cramped. To address this issue WKMech design team decided to remove the belly wheels. This gives it much more space for the crew or more space for two more soldiers who can be sent out of the vehicle to recon the surrounding area thus limiting the possibility of the car to ride into a trap set up by the enemy. To ensure the ability to quickly enter and exit the vehicle, side doors were added on both sides of the hull. It has PNK-72 night vision device for the driver which is used during night time operations instead of the normal TNP-A day sight. It replaces the old TWN-2B. The commander has the POD-72 day/night sight which gives him a field of view of 360 degrees. It is mounted in the front of the commander's copula. BRDM-2M-96 also has new seats for the crew, new generation heater for the engine and fighting compartment, GPS, new communication equipment (including the Sotas internal communication system) and a spare wheel mounted on the rear of the hull. Designed in 1996. Used by Polish Kosovo Force units.
    • BRDM-2M-96 fitted with barbed wire on the turret. It was used by Polish unit of SFOR.
    • BRDM-2M-96 fitted with small IR spotlight over the armament. Used by Polish unit of KFOR.
    • BRDM-2M-96i - BRDM-2M-96 additionally fitted with an Iveco Aifo 8040 6-cylinder diesel engine with power of 165 hp (123 kW). It also has new stowage arrangements, two-circuit break system, 24V electrical system, two rear view mirrors on both sides of the hull and additional protection of its head lights. Designed in 1997.
      • BRDM-2M-96i fitted with barbed wire on the turret. It was used by Polish unit of SFOR.
      • ASRAD - Polish missile air defense system based on BRDM-2M-96i. It consists of two types of vehicles: fire unit and command vehicle with a radar.
      • BRDM-2M-96ik \"Szakal\" - (Szakal - Jackal) Designed in 2003 by WZMech for the Polish troops in Iraq. It has Iveco Aifo 8040SRC 6-cylinder diesel engine, air conditioning unit mounted on left-hand-side of the hull, new accumulators, Fonet internal communication system, RRC-9500 radio, R-3501 portable radio and .50cal WKM-B heavy machine gun instead of the 14.5 mm KPVT heavy machine gun. The gunner has the new CDN-1 day/night sight.
        • BRDM-2M-96ik \"Szakal\" fitted with improvised armour skirts.
        • BRDM-2M-96ik \"Szakal Plus\" - (Szakal - Jackal) Because of the high risk of Polish BRDM-2M-96ik \"Szakal\" armoured scout cars getting hit and destroyed or damaged by RPG launchers, in 2004 the WZMech design team fitted it with RPG fence all around vehicle, anti-cumulation screens, additional armour and internal anti-splinter mats. Thanks to this modernization the BRDM-2M-96ik \"Szakal Plus\" can resist hits 7.62 mm armour piercing rounds, anti-infantry mines and old RPG types like the RPG-7. As a result of all that additional protection however the weight of the vehicle went up to 8.5 tonnes. Prototype.
      • BRDM-2M-97 \"Żbik-B\" - BRDM-2M-96i with Iveco Aifo 8040 SRC-21.11 6-cylinder diesel engine with fuel supply of 145 liters, new transmission system, Deugra fire and explosion protection system, ZPD 24/2 additional power source, Thermo 90DW heater, axial compressor, UNZ-50 inert navigation system with a GPS, AAS-1 Taifos radiation detection system, SSC-1A Obra laser warning system, new NBC system, filtration system, TNPT-1 sight for the commander, heavily modified manually operated turret with a top hatch, armed with 12.7 mm NSVT heavy machine gun (480 rounds) and 7.62 mm PKT coaxial general purpose machine gun (2000 rounds). The gunner has a new CDN-1 day/night sight. The new turret allows larger elevation of the armament, -4,5 to +32,5 degrees. The turret also has a pintle mount for 9P135M launcher which can fire four 9M111 \"Fagot\" (AT-4 Spigot) or 9M113 \"Konkurs\" (AT-5 Spandrel) ATGMs. The vehicles fitted with ATGM launcher are known under designation BRDM-2BF. The turret also has six 81 mm Cytryn smoke grenade launchers in the front of it in rows of three and stowage basket in the rear. The vehicle also carries weapons and equipment used by 2-3 man recon squads: 60 mm LM-60K mortar (12 rounds), RPG-7 (10 rounds), 7.62 mm PKM general purpose machine gun (1400 rounds), 26 mm wz. 78 flare gun, 18 hand grenades and LNS laser range-finder. The weight of the vehicle went up to 8 tonnes. The maximum speed decreased from 100 km/h to 90 km/h on road and from 10 km/h to 4.2 km/h in water. The range of the vehicle decreased to 500 km. The dimensions also increased, the vehicle is now 6.29 m long and 2.43 m high. However the width and ground clearance of the vehicle decreased as the vehicle is now 2.425 m wide and has ground clearance of 285 mm. It is also known under designation BRDM-2B.
        • BRDM-2M-97C \"Żbik-P\" - BRDM-2M-97 \"Żbik-B\" with footplate over side episcopes.
        • BRDM-2M-98 \"Żbik-A\" - Command version of BRDM-2M-97 \"Żbik-B\" with more sophisticated reconnaissance equipment which consists of a BAA electro-optical system made by STN Atlas-Elektronik and an AN/PPS-5C aka SEI MSTAR ground surveillance radar. The vehicle also has additional radio equipment. Only a prototype was made which underwent trails in 2001. It is also known under designation BRDM-2A.
  • BRDM-2 R-1A - command and signals vehicle with two R-123Z and one R-107 radio and a telescopic mast. It is used by commanders of anti-tank subunits. In service since 1986.
  • BRDM-2 R-5 - command vehicle with R-130 and R-123M radios, R-323 and R-870M receivers (R-870M is used to receive transmissions sent out by the reconnaissance aircraft), two sword antennas and an AZI frame antenna. It also has mounts for a frame antennae on the right-hand side of the top of the hull. BRDM-2 R-5 is used by commanders of reconnaissance units. It can operate evenly with other BRDM-2 armoured scout cars. It has a crew of 4 (driver, commander, radio operator and gunner). It is also known under designation BRDM-2D where \\"D\\" stands for \\"Dowodzenie\\" - command.

Russia

  • BRDM-2M - Modernised version. There are actually several upgrades with this designator. All of them have the original gasoline engine replaced by a diesel engine (GAZ-562 of 175hp or Steyr D.245-9 of 136hp), six MB smoke grenade dischargers on the back of the turret and some are additionally fitted with a BTR-80 style turret, new wheels, GPS etc. The version that was selected by the Russian armed forces is made by Arzamas. Other models have a new turret MA3 or MA4 that is also mounted on the MT-LBM series. All models have engine exhaust on the right-hand-side of the vehicle only. Some have raised horizontal engine decks to fit the new engines.
  • BRDM-2PPM - BRDM-2 converted into a fire and rescue vehicle. The armoured shutters on the front windshields and firing ports have been removed. Two windows have been added on front corners of the hull. Another four windows have been added on each side of the hull (two per each). two of the driving lights have been removed. The turret has been replaced with some kind of crate. There are two side hatches. There's a small hatch in the rear most probably used to make repairs easier.
  • Uba - BRDM-2 converted for civil use. The front of the hull has been completely rebuilt as it was replaced by a tall superstructure, tall enough to have an adult man standing inside. The superstructure has two windshields in the front and a window on each of the front hull corners. There are two small windows on each side of the side door. The vehicle also has two rear view mirrors and an additional IR spotlight on the top of the superstructure.

Serbia

  • “Kurjak” (wolf) - A significant place among Yugoimport SDPR's development projects belongs to KURJAK - the armored and armed reconnaissance vehicle, created by upgrading the well-known BRDM-2. The accent was on increasing the level of armor protection, the firepower and spectrum of task performed by this vehicle on the modern battlefield. The capacity of \\"Kurjak\\" is eight fully equipped infantry soldiers, but it can be also used as a fire support vehicle to the embarkation crew, as a reconnaissance vehicle and against different lightly armored or unarmored ground and air targets. When touching on the new subsystems, we must mention TOMS - stabilised multi-spectral optoelectronic device, used for reconnaissance in day, night and low-visibility conditions. When connected to the command-information system and the GPS receiver, TOMS manifests its best feature: exchange of information with a higher command post or with joint forces. Compared to its original - BRDM-2, this vehicle features improved firepower by using the locally produced 20 mm gun, providing Kurjak with enviable combat flexibility and autonomy on the battlefield. On cutomer's request, the 20 mm gun could be replaced with a light turret suitable for installation of the heavy 12.7 machinegun, 7.62 machinegun or 30 mm automatic grenade launcher. Potential clients are also offered a possibility to replace the existing engine with a new 173 HP engine and a new gearbox to increase the vehicle maneuvarability. The vehicle also has radio antenna mounted rear right hand side of the hull as well as a small rear view mirror on the left hand side of the vehicle. In view of the above characteristics and the current global trends in development, modernization and conversion of light carriers, Kurjak represents a modern solution not only for peace-keeping forces, but also for rapid reaction forces and the units intended asymmetric warfare.

Slovakia

  • BRDM-2 fitted with a new engine, new armament and side doors. Belly wheels have been removed.

Ukraine

  • BRDM-2D or BRDM-2SMD - by Morozov upgraded version with SMD-21-08 diesel engine with power of 145 hp (108 kW). It also has new transmission system and new radio equipment. The belly wheels have been removed and side hatches added. In service.
  • BRDM-2DI - upgrade from NRMZ with IVECO 138hp diesel engine and side doors. For the first time presented in 2005. Prototype.

United States of America

  • BRDM-2 used by US Army in OPFOR role. It is fitted with the MILES laser-tag system and the whoopie light to indicate if the vehicle is hit.

Operators

  • -
  • - mostly captured vehicles from the war with the Soviet Union, some were abandoned vehicles left behind by retreating Soviets and some were derelict vehicles left by the Soviets all over Afghanistan and brought back to working condition.
  • - 115
  • - 50
  • -
  • -
  • - 12
  • -
  • -
  • - 13 delivered by Belarus between 2002 and 2003.
  • - 100 BRDM-1/2
  • - BRDM-2RKh and 9P31
  • - 300 BRDM-2 and BRDM-2UM
  • -
  • - 7
  • - 268
  • - 4 delivered by Ukraine in 1998.
  • -
  • -
  • - New Iraqi Army uses a number of BRDM-2 armed with ZPU-2 twin 14.5 mm KPV antiaircraft heavy machine guns (See Iraq section for details). Ukraine delivered 13 BRDM-2 armoured scout cars to the New Iraqi Army in 2006. Iraqi Regular Army operated 1,300 BRDM-1 and BRDM-2 armoured scout cars and vehicles based on them.
  • -
  • - 2
  • -
  • - 10 in service as of 2006. 21 delivered by Poland between 1993 and 1995 (10 in 1993 and 11 in 1995).
  • -
  • - BRDM-2 and BRDM-2Rkh
  • - Late production BDRM-2 model and 9P133 ATGM launcher.
  • - 323 including 130 9P133 "Malyutka" and 9P148 "Konkurs" tank destroyers, a dozen of BRDM-2RS NBC reconnaissance vehicles, an unknown number of 9K31 Strela-1 surface-to-air missile launchers as well as BRDM-2 R-1A and BRDM-2 R-5 command vehicles, 88 BRDM-2 armoured scout cars modernized to BRDM-2M-96, BRDM-2M-96i and BRDM-2M-97 "Żbik-B" level and 12 BRDM-2 armoured scout cars modernized to BRDM-2M-96ik "Szakal" level.
  • Polisario - Late production BDRM-2 model and 9P31 SAM launcher.
  • - 10
  • - 120
  • - 2,000
  • - 28 (Conversion into combat vehicle for support of special forces, named Kurjak (WOLF)
  • -
  • - 60 delivered by Belarus between 2003 and 2004 (39 in 2003 and 21 in 2004).
  • - 950
  • Somaliland
  • - 30
  • - Delivered 13 BRDM-2 armoured scout cars to the New Iraqi Army in 2006.
  • - 400
  • - 200
  • -
  • -

Former Operators

  • - 30 BRDM-1 and BRDM-2, all withdrawn
  • - Passed on to the successor states.
  • - 9
  • - Passed on to the unified German state.
  • - Passed on to the successor states.
  • - 5 late production BDRM-2 model
  • - Passed on to the successor states.
  • - Captured a number of BRDM-2 armoured cars from Iraq during First Persian Gulf War and 2003 invasion of Iraq. The captured vehicles were tested on proving grounds and one was given to U.S. National Infantry Museum, Fort Benning and another one to the United States Army Ordnance Museum (Aberdeen Proving Grounds). Also some HMMWVes were modified by adding additional steel plats to resemble BRDM-2 armoured cars for OPFOR excises.
  • / - taken from GDR's army, all scrapped or sold to other countries.
  • - 100, passed on to successor states.
  • - Passed on to successor state.

References

  • Gau L-R., Plate J., Siegert J. (2001) Deutsche Militärfahrzeuge - Bundeswehr und NVA. Motorbuch Verlag. ISBN 3-613-02152-8

See also

External links


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