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Bab Ballads

The Bab Ballads are a collection of light verse by W. S. Gilbert, illustrated with his own comic drawings. Gilbert wrote the Ballads before he became famous for his comic opera librettos with Arthur Sullivan. In writing the Bab Ballads, Gilbert developed his unique "topsy-turvy" style, where the humour was derived by setting up a ridiculous premise and working out its logical consequences, however absurd. The Ballads also reveal Gilbert's cynical and satirical approach to humour. They became famous on their own, as well as being a source for plot elements, characters and songs that Gilbert would recycle in the Gilbert and Sullivan operas. The Bab Ballads take their name from Gilbert's childhood nickname, and he later began to sign his illustrations "Bab".

Nothing else quite like the Ballads has ever been produced in the English language. They contain both satire and nonsense, as well as a great deal of utter absurdity. The Ballads were read aloud at private dinner-parties, public banquets, and even in the House of Lords. The ballads have been much published, and there are even recordings of readings of some of them.

Early history

Gilbert himself explained how the Ballads came about:

In 1861 Fun was started, under the editorship of Mr. H. J. Byron. With much labour I turned out an article three-quarters of a column long, and sent it to the editor, together with a half-page drawing on wood. A day or two later the printer of the paper called upon me, with Mr Byron's compliments, and staggered me with a request to contribute a column of 'copy' and a half-page drawing every week for the term of my natural life. I hardly knew how to treat the offer, for it seemed to me that into that short article I had poured all I knew. I was empty. I had exhausted myself: I didn't know any more. However, the printer encouraged me (with Mr. Byron's compliments), and I said I would try. I did try, and I found to my surprise that there was a little left, and enough indeed to enable me to contribute some hundreds of columns to the periodical throughout his editorship, and that of his successor, poor Tom Hood! (Gilbert, 1883).

For ten years Gilbert wrote articles and poems for Fun, of which he was also the drama critic. Gilbert's actual first column "cannot now be identified" (Stedman 1996, p. 11). The first known contribution is a drawing titled "Some mistake here" on page 56 of the 26 October 1861 issue of Fun (Plumb 2004, p. 499). However, some of Gilbert's early work for the journal remains unidentified, because many pieces were unsigned. The earliest pieces that Gilbert himself considered worthy to be collected as Bab Ballads started to appear in 1865, and then much more steadily from 1866–1869.

The series takes its title from the nickname "Bab," which is short for "baby," and may also be an homage to Charles Dickens's pet name, "Boz." Gilbert did not start signing his drawings "Bab" regularly until 1866, and he did not start calling the poems "Bab Ballads" until the first collected edition of them was published in 1869. Thereafter, his new poems in Fun were captioned "The Bab Ballads," and he started numbering them, with "Mister William" (published 6 February 1869) as No. 60.

It is not certain which poems Gilbert considered to be Nos. 1–59. Ellis counts backwards, including only those poems with drawings, and finds that the first Bab Ballad was "The Story of Gentle Archibald" (Ellis 1970, p. 13). However, Gilbert didn't include "Gentle Archibald" in his collected editions, while he did include several poems published earlier than that. Moreover, Gilbert did not limit the collected editions to poems with illustrations.

By 1870, Gilbert's Bab Ballad output started to tail off considerably, corresponding to his rising success as a dramatist. The last poem that Gilbert himself considered to be a Bab Ballad, "Old Paul and Old Tim," appeared in Fun in January 1871. In the remaining forty years of his life, he would make only a handful of verse contributions to periodicals. Some posthumous editions of the Ballads have included these later poems in the canon, although Gilbert did not.

Subsequent publication

By 1868, Gilbert's poems had won sufficient popularity to justify a collected edition. He selected forty-four of the poems (thirty-four of them illustrated) for an edition of The “Bab” Ballads – Much Sound and Little Sense. A second collected edition, More “Bab” Ballads, including thirty-five ballads (all illustrated), appeared in 1872.

In 1876, Gilbert collected fifty of his favourite poems in Fifty “Bab” Ballads, with one poem being collected for the first time ("Etiquette") and twenty-five poems that had appeared in the earlier volumes being left out. As Gilbert explained it:

The period during which they were written extended over some three or four years; many, however, were composed hastily, and under the discomforting necessity of having to turn out a quantity of lively verse by a certain day in every week. As it seemed to me (and to others) that the volumes were disfigured by the presence of these hastily written impostors, I thought it better to withdraw from both volumes such Ballads as seemed to show evidence of carelessness or undue haste, and to publish the remainder in the compact form under which they are now presented to the reader. (Gilbert 1876, p. vii).

Gilbert's readers were not happy with the loss, and in an 1882 edition Gilbert published all of the poems that had appeared in either The “Bab” Ballads or More “Bab” Ballads, once again excluding "Etiquette." (Some twentieth-century editions of More “Bab” Ballads included "Etiquette," although Gilbert had not done so.)

In 1890, Gilbert produced Songs of a Savoyard, a volume of sixty-nine detached lyrics from the Savoy Operas, each with a new title, and some of them slightly reworded to account for the changed context. Many of them also received "Bab" illustrations in the familiar style. He also included two deleted lyrics from Iolanthe (footnoted as "omitted in representation"). The effect was that of a new volume of Bab Ballads. Indeed, Gilbert had entertained calling the volume The Savoy Ballads (Ellis 1970, p. 27, n. 53).

Finally, in 1898, Gilbert produced The “Bab” Ballads with which are included Songs of a Savoyard. This volume included all of the Bab Ballads that had appeared in any of the earlier collected volumes, the sixty-nine "Songs of a Savoyard" from the 1890 volume, and eighteen additional lyrics in the same format from the four new operas he had written since then. The Bab Ballads and illustrated opera lyrics alternated, creating the impression of one integrated body of work.

For the 1898 volume, Gilbert also added over two hundred new drawings, providing illustrations for the ten ballads that had previously lacked them, and replacing most of the others. He wrote:

I have always felt that many of the original illustrations to "The Bab Ballads" erred gravely in the direction of unnecessary extravagance. This defect I have endeavoured to correct through the medium of the two hundred new drawings which I have designed for this volume. I am afraid I cannot claim for them any other recommendation. (Gilbert 1897).

It was in this form that the Ballads remained almost constantly in print through the expiration of the copyright at the end of 1961. James Ellis's new edition in 1970 restored the original drawings, retaining from the 1898 edition only those drawings that went with the previously unillustrated ballads.

Identification and Attribution

There is no universally agreed list of poems that constitute the Bab Ballads. The series clearly includes all of the poems that Gilbert himself published under that title, but there are others he did not include in any of the collected editions in his lifetime. Most writers have accepted as "Bab Ballads" any poetry (whether illustrated or not) that Gilbert contributed to periodicals, not counting poems written or repurposed as operatic lyrics.

After Gilbert's death, there were several attempts to identify additional ballads that were missing from the collected editions that had been published to that point. Dark & Gray (1923), Goldberg (1929), and Searle (1932) identified and published additional ballads, not all of which have been accepted as canon. The most recent edition, edited by James Ellis (1970), includes all of those that Gilbert himself acknowledged, all of those from Dark & Gray, Goldberg, and/or Searle that Ellis finds authentic, plus others identified by no other previous compilers.

There are several ballads that Ellis identifies as Gilbert's either on stylistic grounds or by the presence of a "Bab" illustration accompanying the poem in the original publication. These include two distinct poems called "The Cattle Show," as well as "Sixty-Three and Sixty-Four," "The Dream," "The Baron Klopfzetterheim," and "Down to the Derby." These attributions are provisional, and not accepted by all scholars, because the poems themselves are unsigned, and Gilbert sometimes provided illustrations for the work of other writers.

Starting with the "new series" of Fun (those with 'n.s.' in the source reference), Gilbert's authorship is not in doubt, as the pieces for which he was paid can be confirmed from the proprietors' copies of that journal, which now reside in the Huntington Library.

List of Bab Ballads

The table below lists all of the Bab Ballads that are included in Ellis (1970). The second column shows the reference for the periodical in which each poem originally appeared, and the third column shows the collection(s) that have included the poem. The following abbreviations are used:

  • TBB: The Bab Ballads (London: John Camden Hotten, 1868).
  • MBB: More Bab Ballads (London: Routledge, 1872)
  • 50BB: Fifty Bab Ballads ((London: Routledge, 1876)
  • D&G: W.S. Gilbert: His Life and Letters, Sidney Dark & Rowland Grey (Methuen, 1923).
  • Goldberg: Story of Gilbert and Sullivan, Isaac Goldberg (John Murray, 1929).
  • Searle: Lost Bab Ballads, Townley Searle (G. P. Putnam's Sons, Ltd. 1932),.
  • Ellis: The Bab Ballads, James Ellis, ed. (Belknap Press, 1970).

Starting with "Mister William," Gilbert assigned numbers to most of the ballads that appeared in Fun. Those numbers are shown in the second column after the source reference.

Ballad Title Original Source Reference Collections
The Advent of Spring Fun, II (1 February 1862), 200. Ellis
The Cattle Show Fun, V (12 December 1863), 121. Searle, Ellis
The Cattle Show The Comic News, I (19 December 1863), 180. Ellis
Sixty-Three and Sixty-Four Fun, V (2 January 1864), 162. Ellis
The Dream Fun, V (27 February 1864), 242. Goldberg, Ellis
The Baron Klopfzetterheim Fun, VI (19, 26 March.; 2, 9, 16 April 1864), 8-9, 18, 21, 38, 48. Searle, Ellis
Down to the Derby Fun, VI (28 May 1864), 110, 111. D&G, Searle, Ellis

Something Like Nonsense Verses Fun, n.s., I (10, 24 June 1865), 31, 51. Ellis
Ode to my Clothes Fun, n.s., I (10 June 1865), 33. Ellis
The Student Fun, n.s., I (1 July 1865), 67. Ellis
Tempora Mutantur Fun, n.s., I (15 July 1865), 82. TBB, Ellis
The Bachelors' Strike Fun, n.s., I (22 July 1865), 99. Ellis
A Bad Night Of It Fun, n.s., I (19 August 1865), 139. Ellis
To Phœbe Fun, n.s., I (26 August 1865), 144. TBB, 50BB, Ellis
Ozone Fun, n.s., II (16 September 1865), 2. Ellis
To the Terrestrial Globe Fun, n.s., II (30 September 1865), 29. TBB, 50BB, Ellis
The Monkey in Trouble Fun, n.s., II (7 October 1865), 31. Ellis
Back Again! Fun, n.s., II (7 October 1865), 39. Ellis
To My Absent Husband Punch, XLIX (14 October 1865), 151. Goldberg, Searle, Ellis

My Return Punch, XLIX (21 October 1865), 153. Ellis
Musings in a Music Hall Fun, n.s., II (28 October 1865), 69. D&G, Ellis
Pantomimic Presentiments Fun, n.s., II (2 December 1865), 111. Ellis
The Bar and its Moaning Fun, n.s., II (9 December 1865), 122. Ellis
To Euphrosyne Fun, n.s., II (23 December 1865), 150. Ellis
The Phantom Curate Fun, n.s., II (6 January 1866), 162. TBB, 50BB, Ellis
To a Little Maid Fun, n.s., II (6 January 1866), 167. Ellis, TBB, 50BB
Ferdinando and Elvira Fun, n.s., II (17 February 1866), 229. TBB, 50BB, Ellis
The Pantomime "Super" to His Mask Fun, n.s., II (24 February 1866), 238. TBB, 50BB, Ellis
The Yarn of The "Nancy Bell" Fun, n.s., II (3 March 1866), 242-243. TBB, 50BB, Ellis
Monsieur le Blond on London Fun, n.s., II (3 March 1866), 249. Ellis
Haunted Fun, n.s., III (24 March 1866), 12. TBB, 50BB, Ellis
The Reverend Rawston Wright Fun, n.s., III (28 April 1866), 67. Searle, Ellis
The Story of Gentle Archibald Fun, n.s., III (19 May 1866), 100-101. D&G, Searle, Ellis
To My Bride Fun, n.s., III (9 June 1866), 125. TBB, 50BB, Ellis
Only a Dancing Girl Fun, n.s., III (23 June 1866), 146. TBB, 50BB, Ellis
To My Steed Fun, n.s., III (23 June 1866), 152. Ellis
King Borria Bungalee Boo Fun, n.s., III (7 July 1866), 167. TBB, 50BB, Ellis
Jack Casts His Shell Fun, n.s., IV (6 October 1866), 37. Ellis
How to Write an Irish Drama Fun, n.s., IV (1 December 1866), 127. Ellis
General John Fun, n.s., V (1 June 1867), 127. TBB, Ellis
Sir Guy the Crusader Fun, n.s., V (8 June 1867), 139. TBB, Ellis
Sir Galahad the Golumptious Fun, n.s., V (15 June 1867), 149. Ellis
Disillusioned Fun, n.s., V (6 July 1867), 173. TBB, Ellis
John and Freddy Fun, n.s., V (3 August 1867), 222. TBB, Ellis
Lorenzo de Lardy Fun, n.s., V (10 August 1867), 225. TBB, Ellis
The Bishop and the Busman Fun, n.s., V (17 August 1867), 238. TBB, Ellis
Babette's Love Fun, n.s., V (24 August 1867), 247. TBB, Ellis
Fanny and Jenny Fun, n.s., V (7 September 1867), 269. D&G, Searle, Ellis
Sir Macklin Fun, n.s., VI (14 September 1867), 6-7. TBB, 50BB, Ellis
The Troubadour Fun, n.s., VI (21 September 1867), 15. TBB, 50BB, Ellis
Ben Allah Achmet Fun, n.s., VI (28 September 1867), 25. TBB, Ellis
The Folly of Brown Fun, n.s., VI (5 October 1867), 35. TBB, Ellis
Joe Golightly Fun, n.s., VI (12 October 1867), 54. TBB, Ellis
The Rival Curates Fun, n.s., VI (19 October 1867), 57. TBB, 50BB, Ellis
Thomas Winterbottom Hance Fun, n.s., VI (26 October 1867), 74-75. TBB, 50BB, Ellis
A. and B.; OR, The Sensation Twins Fun, n.s., VI (2 November 1867), 77. Goldberg, Searle, Ellis
Sea-Side Snobs Fun, n.s., VI (9 November 1867), 88. Searle, Ellis
The Bishop of Rum-ti-Foo Fun, n.s., VI (16 November 1867), 104. TBB, 50BB, Ellis
The Precocious Baby Fun, n.s., VI (23 November 1867), 113. TBB, 50BB, Ellis
Baines Carew, Gentleman Fun, n.s., VI (30 November 1867), 124. TBB, 50BB, Ellis
A Discontented Sugar Broker Fun, n.s., VI (14 December 1867), 137. TBB, 50BB, Ellis
The Force of Argument Fun, n.s., VI (21 December 1867), 149. TBB, Ellis
At A Pantomime Fun, n.s., VI (28 December 1867), 165. TBB, 50BB, Ellis
The Three Kings of Chickeraboo Fun, n.s., VI (18 January 1868), 191. TBB, Ellis
The Periwinkle Girl Fun, n.s., VI (1 February 1868), 211. TBB, Ellis
Captain Reece Fun, n.s., VI (8 February 1868), 221. TBB, 50BB, Ellis
Thomson Green and Harriet Hale Fun, n.s., VI (15 February 1868), 242. TBB, Ellis
Bob Polter Fun, n.s., VI (29 February 1868), 260-261. TBB, 50BB, Ellis
The Ghost, the Gallant, the Gael, and the Goblin Fun, n.s., VII (14 March 1868), 6. TBB, 50BB, Ellis
Ellen McJones Aberdeen Fun, n.s., VII (21 March 1868), 16. TBB, 50BB, Ellis
The Sensation Captain Fun, n.s., VII 4 April 1868), 43. TBB, Ellis
Trial by Jury Fun, n.s., VII (11 April 1868), 54. Ellis
The Reverend Micah Sowls Fun, n.s., VII (18 April 1868), 65. TBB, Ellis
Peter the Wag Fun, n.s., VII (25 April 1868), 75. TBB, 50BB, Ellis
The Story of Prince Agib Fun, n.s., VII (16 May 1868), 107. TBB, 50BB, Ellis
Gentle Alice Brown Fun, n.s., VII (23 May 1868), 111. TBB, 50BB, Ellis
Pasha Bailey Ben Fun, n.s., VII (6 June 1868), 133. MBB
Blabworth-cum-Talkington Fun, n.s., VII (20 June 1868), 153. Goldberg, Searle, Ellis
The Sailor Boy To His Lass Fun, n.s., VII (27 June 1868), 163, MBB, 50BB, Ellis
Sir Conrad and the Rusty One Fun, n.s., VII (4 July 1868), 174. D&G, Searle, Ellis
The Cunning Woman Fun, n.s., VII (25 July 1868), 205. MBB, Ellis
The Modest Couple Fun, n.s., VII (8 August 1868), 225. MBB, Ellis
The "Bandoline" Player Fun, n.s., VII (22 August 1868), 246. D&G, Searle, Ellis
Sir Barnaby Bampton Boo Fun, n.s., VII (29 August 1868), 255. MBB, Ellis
Boulogne Fun, n.s., VIII (12 September 1868), 7. Searle, Ellis
Brave Alum Bey Fun, n.s., VIII (19 September 1868), 16. MBB, Ellis
Gregory Parable, LL.D. Fun, n.s., VIII (3 October 1868), 35. MBB, Ellis
Lieutenant-Colonel Flare Fun, n.s., VIII (10 October 1868), 46. MBB, Ellis
The Hermit Fun, n.s., VIII (17 October 1868), 62. Goldberg, Searle, Ellis
Annie Protheroe Fun, n.s., VIII (24 October 1868), 65. MBB, 50BB, Ellis
The Captain and the Mermaids Fun, n.s., VIII (7 November 1868), 85. MBB, 50BB, Ellis
An Unfortunate Likeness Fun, n.s., VIII (14 November 1868), 96. MBB, 50BB
A Boulogne Table d'Hôte Tom Hood's Comic Annual for 1868 (London: Fun office, 1868), 78. Searle, Ellis
The Railway Guard's Song Tom Hood's Comic Annual for 1868 (London: Fun office, 1868), 79. Ellis
The Undecided Man Tom Hood's Comic Annual for 1868, (London: Fun office, 1868) 79. Searle, Ellis
Premonitory Symptoms Fun, n.s., VIII (28 November 1868), 117. Ellis
Lost Mr. Blake Fun, n.s., VIII (28 November 1868), 121. MBB, 50BB, Ellis
Little Oliver Fun, n.s., VIII (5 December 1868), 132. MBB, Ellis
What Is A Burlesque? Belgravia Annual, ed. M. E. Braddon (London, 1868), 106-107. Ellis
The Phantom Head Fun, n.s., VIII (19 December 1868), 151. Goldberg, Searle, Ellis
The Politest of Nations! Fun, n.s., VIII (2 January 1869), 173. Ellis
Woman's Gratitude Fun, n.s., VIII (9 January 1869 ), 176-177. Goldberg, Searle, Ellis
The Baby's Vengeance Fun, n.s., VIII (16 January 1869), 188. MBB, 50BB, Ellis
The Two Ogres Fun, n.s., VIII (23 January 1869), 204. MBB, Ellis
Mister William Fun, n.s., VIII (6 February 1869), 218. No. 60. MBB, 50BB, Ellis
The Martinet Fun, n.s., VIII (13 February 1869), 228. No. 61. MBB, 50BB, Ellis
The King of Canoodle-Dum Fun, n.s., VIII (20 February 1869), 238-239. No. 62. MBB, 50BB, Ellis
First Love Fun, n.s., VIII (27 February 1869), 248. No. 63. MBB, Ellis
The Haughty Actor Fun, n.s., IX (27 March 1869), 31. No. 64. MBB, 50BB, Ellis
The Two Majors Fun, n.s., IX (3 April 1869), 41. No. 65. MBB, 50BB, Ellis
The Three Bohemian Ones Fun, n.s., IX (10 April 1869), 51. No. 66. D&G, Searle, Ellis
The Policeman's Beard Fun, n.s., IX (1 May 1869), 75. No. 67. Goldberg, Searle, Ellis
The Bishop of Rum-ti-Foo Again Fun, n.s., IX (8 May 1869), 85. No. 68. MBB, 50BB, Ellis
A Worm Will Turn Fun, n.s., IX (15 May 1869), 104. No. 69. MBB, Ellis
The Mystic Selvagee Fun, n.s., IX (22 May 1869), 112. No. 70. MBB, 50BB, Ellis
Emily, John, James, and I Fun, n.s., IX (29 May 1869), 115. No. 71. MBB, 50BB, Ellis
The Ghost to his Ladye Love Fun, n.s., IX (14 August 1869), 223. Ellis
Prince Il Baleine Fun, n.s., IX (28 August 1869), 253. No. 72. D&G, Searle, Ellis
The Way of Wooing Fun, n.s., X (11 September 1869), 13. No. 73. MBB, 50BB, Ellis
The Scornful Colonel Fun, n.s., X (25 September 1869), 31. No. 74. Goldberg, Searle, Ellis
The Variable Baby Fun, n.s., X (9 October 1869), 51. No. 75. Goldberg, Searle, Ellis
The Ladies of the Lea Fun, n.s., X (30 October 1869), 75. No. 76. Goldberg, Searle, Ellis
Hongree and Mahry Fun, n.s., X (20 November 1869), 105. No. 77. MBB, 50BB, Ellis
Etiquette The Graphic, I (25 December 1869, Christmas Number), 6-7. 50BB, Ellis
The Reverend Simon Magnus Fun, n.s., X (5 February 1870), 215. No. 78. MBB, 50BB, Ellis
My Dream Fun, n.s., XI (19 March 1870), 15. No. 79. MBB, 50BB, Ellis
Damon v. Pythias Fun, n.s., XI (26 March 1870), 31. No. 80. MBB, Ellis
The Bumboat Woman's Story Fun, n.s., XI (9 April 1870), 45. No. 81. MBB, 50BB, Ellis
The Fairy Curate Fun, n.s., XII (23 July 1870]), 32-33. No. 82. MBB, 50BB, Ellis
Phrenology Fun, n.s., XII (6 August 1870), 45. No. 83. MBB, 50BB, Ellis
The Perils of Invisibility Fun, n.s., XII (20 August 1870), 65. No. 84. MBB, 50BB, Ellis
The Wise Policeman Fun, n.s., XII (22 October 1870), 156. No. 85. Ellis
A Drop of Pantomime Water The Graphic, II, 25 December 1870, Christmas Number), 20. Ellis
Old Paul and Old Tim Fun, n.s., XIII (28 January 1871), 35. No. 86. MBB, Ellis
"Eheu! Fugaces" The Dark Blue, III (April 1872), 142-143. Searle, Ellis
Jester James Time, I (April 1879), 54-57. Ellis
The Policeman's Story Time, I (May 1879), 166-168. Ellis
The Thief's Apology Illustrated Sporting and Dramatic News, XXII (6 December 1884), "Holly Leaves" (Christmas number), 267. Ellis
The King and the Stroller The Queen's Christmas Carol: An Anthology of Poems, Stories, Essays, Drawings and Music by British Authors, Artists and Composers (London: The Daily Mail, 1905), 80-81. Ellis

See also

References

Dark, Sidney; Rowland Grey (1923). W. S. GIlbert – His Life and Letters. London: Methuen & Co. Ltd. Gilbert, W. S. (1869). The “Bab” Ballads – Much Sound and Little Sense. London: John Camden Hotten. Gilbert, W. S. ([1872]). More “Bab” Ballads. London: George Routledge & Sons. Gilbert, W. S. (1876). Fifty “Bab” Ballads. London: George Routledge & Sons. Gilbert, W. S. (1882). The “Bab” Ballads – Much Sound and Little Sense. London: George Routledge & Sons. Complete edition in one volume incorporating the original “Bab” Ballads and More “Bab” Ballads. Gilbert, W. S. "William Schwenck Gilbert: an Autobiography". Theatre n.s., I 217–24. Gilbert, W. S. (1890). Songs of a Savoyard. London: George Routledge & Sons. Gilbert, W. S. (1898). The Bab Ballads with which are included Songs of a Savoyard. London: George Routledge & Sons. Gilbert, W. S. (1904). The Bab Ballads with which are included Songs of a Savoyard. 6th edition., London: Macmillan and Co., Limited. Gilbert, W. S. (1932). Lost Bab Ballads. London: G. P. Putnam's Sons Ltd. Gilbert, W. S. (1970). The Bab Ballads. Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press. ISBN 0-674-05800-3. Goldberg, Isaac (1929). The Story of Gilbert and Sullivan or The ‘Compleat’ Savoyard. London: John Murray. Plumb, Philip "Gilbert, the snake in the Garden of Eden". W. S. Gilbert Society Journal 2 (16): 496–499. Stedman, Jane W. (1996). W. S. Gilbert – A Classic Victorian and His Theatre. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Notes

External links

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