Computing is usually defined like the activity of using and developing computer technology, computer hardware and software. It is the computer-specific part of information technology. Computer science (or computing science) is the study and the science of the theoretical foundations of information and computation and their implementation and application in computer systems.
Computing Curricula 2005 defined computing:
In a general way, we can define computing to mean any goal-oriented activity requiring, benefiting from, or creating computers. Thus, computing includes designing and building hardware and software systems for a wide range of purposes; processing, structuring, and managing various kinds of information; doing scientific studies using computers; making computer systems behave intelligently; creating and using communications and entertainment media; finding and gathering information relevant to any particular purpose, and so on. The list is virtually endless, and the possibilities are vast.
The term computing
has sometimes been narrowly defined, as in a 1989 ACM
report on Computing as a Discipline
The discipline of computing is the systematic study of algorithmic processes that describe and transform information: their theory, analysis, design, efficiency, implementation, and application. The fundamental question underlying all computing is 'What can be (efficiently) automated?'
Computing Curricula 2005 also recognizes that the meaning of computing depends on the context:
Computing also has other meanings that are more specific, based on the context in which the term is used. For example, an information systems specialist will view computing somewhat differently from a software engineer. Regardless of the context, doing computing well can be complicated and difficult. Because society needs people to do computing well, we must think of computing not only as a profession but also as a discipline.
The term computing is also synonymous with counting and calculating. In earlier times it was used in reference to mechanical computing machines..
Science and theory
See information processor
for a high-level block diagram.
After the commoditization of memory
, attention turned to optimizing CPU performance at the instruction level. Various methods of speeding up the fetch-execute cycle include:
History of computing
Wired and wireless computer network
Computing technology based wireless networking (CbWN)
The main of goal of CbWN is to optimize the system performance of the flexible wireless network.
Other data topics
Classes of computers
Companies - current
Companies - historic
- Acorn, bought by Olivetti
- Bendix Corporation
- Burroughs Corporation, merged with Sperry to become Unisys
- Compaq, bought by Hewlett-Packard
- Control Data
- Data General
- Digital Equipment Corporation, bought by Compaq, in turn bought by Hewlett-Packard
- Digital Research - produced system software for early Intel microprocessor-based computers
- English Electric Company
- General Electric, computer division bought by Honeywell, then Bull
- Honeywell, computer division bought by Bull
- Lisp Machines, Inc.
- Micro Instrumentation and Telemetry Systems produced the first widely sold microcomputer system (kit and assembled)
- Nixdorf Computer, bought by Siemens
- Packard Bell
- Prime Computer
- Royal McBee
- Scientific Data Systems, sold to Xerox
- Sinclair Research, created the ZX Spectrum, ZX80 and ZX81
- Southweat Technical products Corporation produced microcomputers systems (kit and assembled), peripherals, and software based on Motorola 6800 and 6809 microcomputer chips
- Sperry, which bought UNIVAC, and later merged with Burroughs to become Unisys
- Varian Data Machines, a division of Varian Associates which was bought by Sperry
See also: Standardization and Standards organization
See also Open standard