Relatively long-lived fish, Australian salmon are a favored target of recreational fishers, and both commercial and traditional Māori fisheries. They are also common bycatch of the snapper, mullet, trevally, and mackerel fisheries. These species are all taken in great numbers by way of purse seine nets and trawling. They are also caught by skilled fishermen along the southern coastline of Australia by beach seining. Due to declining numbers and ever-increasing annual catch sizes, the future viability of the Australian salmon stock has been put into question.
Scales and eyes are relatively large - in the Australian herring, Arripis georgianus, the eyes are approximately one fifth the length of the head in diameter. The large mouth is terminal, and the jaws are lined with bands of sharp villiform (brushlike) teeth. The lateral line runs along the upper sides of the body.
The Western Australian salmon, Arripis truttacea, is the largest species at a maximum 96 cm (three feet) standard length (that is, excluding the caudal fin) and 10.5 kg in weight. The Australian herring is the smallest species at maximum 41 cm (16 inches) fork length (that is, from the snout to the middle of the caudal fin's fork) and 800 g. Australian salmon share a passing resemblance to the unrelated yellowtail amberjack, Seriola lalandi, locally known as "kingfish", with which larger salmon are sometimes confused.
All species are strongly countershaded; dorsal colours range from dark blue-green in A. trutta, green in A. georgianus, and steel-blue to grayish- or greenish-black in A. truttacea; the colours fade to a silver-white ventrally. A smattering of yellow, gray, or blackish spots embellishes the dorsal half, the spots arranged vertically or longitudinally in a series of rows. There are marked differences in subadult coloration: for example, on the flanks of juvenile Australian herring are a series of dark golden vertical bars.
All species are oceanic spawners. Reports of A. trutta being anadromous and spawning in freshwater are not correct; this may be due to confusion with sea run specimens of exotic brown trout, S. trutta, or anadromous populations of native spotted mountain trout, Galaxias truttaceus.
Arripis georgianus are thought - due to females retaining both ripe and unripe eggs - to be "partial spawners"; that is, they may spawn over a long period with no real peaks. In contrast, A. trutta and A. truttacea are thought to be "serial batch spawners", completing their spawning season after a series of small "burst" spawnings.
Australian salmon form immense schools with hundreds to thousands of individuals, as both adults and juveniles. They are carnivorous and feed primarily on small fish such as pilchard; crustaceans such as krill, copepods, and other zooplankton (the latter comprising the bulk of the juvenile diet). The zoobenthos is also sampled to some extent, with primarily shellfish, crabs, and annelid worms eaten. The salmon are very fast swimmers, and are sometimes seen mingling with ostensibly similar species of carangids, such as trevally; this is an example of mutualism.
Together with the carangids, Australian salmon feed en masse by co-operatively bullying baitfish up to the surface; this herding technique is exploited by seabirds which are quickly attracted to, and feed upon, the foaming mass of fish at the surface. This commensal relationship between the salmon and the birds is noted to be especially strong in such species as the White-fronted Tern, Sterna striata, Fluttering Shearwater, Puffinus gavia, and Buller's Shearwater, Puffinus bulleri. The baitfish made available by the salmon's herding behaviour may also be important to the reproductive success of winter-nesting birds; the decline of the salmon stocks has evoked concern for these bird species, some of which - such as the Fairy Tern, Sterna nereis, - are endangered
Aside from seabirds, the salmon are also important in the diets of cetaceans such as Orca and Bottlenose Dolphins; several species of large sharks, for example; great white, dusky, copper, and sand tiger sharks; and eared seals such as the Australian Sea Lion.
The Māori of New Zealand, to whom the fish are known as kahawai, koopuuhuri and kooukauka, fish for the salmon in subsistence and customary capacities. The fish were (and are) caught with lines of flax fibre and elaborate hooks of bone, wood, shell such as paua , or stone. The salmon are filleted before being hung on racks to dry. Recreational fishers also seek Australian salmon for their renowned mettle when hooked; the salmon are a challenge to land and often jump, occasionally standing on their tails. A significant number are taken for sport. No records of total recreational catches are kept, but the year's estimated catch of Australian herring from Western Australia's Blackwood River estuary beginning May, 1974 was 68,000 individuals
Commercial fishing practices undertaken across Australia and New Zealand have been highly criticised in various recreational fishing magazines as being excessive. Many high profile anglers such as those on Fishing WA have made statements that the commercial fish catch in Western Australia and Australia in general is beyond the scope necessary for human and animal consumption, and that they are far more valuable as a recreational fish species. The ease of catching salmon, which tend to form schools of several tonnes, has meant that recreational fishers are finding fewer of these species in inshore waters during season (the migration patterns of salmon mean they come into warmer waters during the Autumn).