The Town of Aurelius is at the western edge of the county and borders the City of Auburn.
The first official settler arrived in 1789, but prior immigrants were believed to be making homes on lands belonging to the native Iroquois.
The Town of Aurelius, formed in 1789 was already an existing town when Cayuga County was formed from Onondaga County in 1799.
In 1815, Auburn set itself apart by incorporating as a village.
The west town line is defined by Cayuga Lake, one of the larger Finger Lakes. Conjoined US 20 and NY 5 is a major east-west highway. New York State Route 90 is a north-south highway along the shore of Cayuga Lake. New York State Route 326 passes across the southeast part of the town.
There were 1,124 households out of which 31.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 59.8% were married couples living together, 8.5% had a female householder with no husband present, and 27.4% were non-families. 22.9% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.7% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.59 and the average family size was 3.05.
In the town the population was spread out with 25.6% under the age of 18, 6.2% from 18 to 24, 27.1% from 25 to 44, 24.4% from 45 to 64, and 16.7% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 40 years. For every 100 females there were 98.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 98.0 males.
The median income for a household in the town was $41,202, and the median income for a family was $48,188. Males had a median income of $34,125 versus $22,895 for females. The per capita income for the town was $19,323. About 7.4% of families and 8.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 10.0% of those under age 18 and 4.7% of those age 65 or over.