3,4-Methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA or Tenamfetamine) is a psychedelic hallucinogenic drug and empathogen/entactogen of the phenethylamine family. It is mainly used as; a recreational drug, an entheogen, and a tool in use to supplement various types of practices for transcendence, including in meditation, psychonautics, and illegal psychedelic psychotherapy, whether self administered or not. It was first synthesized by G. Mannish and W. Jacobson in 1910. There are about 20 different synthetic routes described in the literature for its preparation.
A recreational dose of MDA is commonly between 80 and 160mg. The “R” optical isomer is more potent than the “S” optical isomer. Although there is some debate, the duration of the drug is now generally believed to be roughly 6 to 10 hours (In the late 90s, Alexander Shulgin changed his opinion of the duration to 3-6 hours).
MDA is thought to have similar pharmacological mechanisms and effects as MDMA (Ecstasy). Like MDMA, MDA causes serotonin release, which may explain the similar euphoria and empathogen/entactogen effects. However, MDA has a higher affinity for 5-HT2A receptors, thus causing more psychedelic-like effects, such as hallucinations.
MDA is said to share with MDMA empathogen/entactogenic effects. Because of these effects, MDA was called the "love drug" and was alleged to stand for “Mellow Drug of America” in the 1960s. While it is generally similar to MDMA, users report that MDA has more psychedelic or hallucinogenic qualities and less empathogen/entactogenic effects than MDMA. MDA is also considered less predictable than MDMA and thus its effects can vary greatly from person to person. However, no properly controlled experiments have compared these drugs in people.
MDA also differs from its methylated cousin MDMA in its acute toxicity, in that it is clearly more toxic, with toxicity indicative of overstimulation of the central nervous system. Symptoms of acute toxicity may include agitation, sweating, increased blood pressure and heart rate, dramatic increase in body temperature, convulsions, and death. Death is usually caused by cardiac effects and hemorrhaging in the brain. The website erowid.org lists the fatality rate at roughly 2 in 100,000 users. The LD50 in mice has been reported as 92mg/kg by intraperitoneal injection.
US Patent Issued to NHWA Pharma., Shanhai Institute of Pharmaceutical Industry on Aug. 6 for "Aralkyl Piperidine Derivatives and Their Uses as Antalgic or Ataractic Agent" (Chinese Inventors)
Aug 06, 2013; ALEXANDRIA, Va., Aug. 6 -- United States Patent no. 8,501,778, issued on Aug. 6, was assigned to NHWA Pharma. Corp. (Xuzhou,...
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