Oneness refers to the characteristic of being one. It can have various definitions:

  • Oneness refers to a Christian belief largely held by Oneness Pentecostals, including the United Pentecostal Church International, the Pentecostal Assemblies of the World, and related bodies. Oneness theology asserts that God is a singular Spirit, not a Trinity of persons as in traditional Roman Catholic, Eastern Orthodox and Protestant understanding. The Father and the Holy Ghost are one and the same person, says this teaching; "Father", "Son" and "Holy Ghost" are merely titles reflecting the different manifestations of the One True God in the universe. Jesus is believed by Oneness adherents to be both fully Divine and fully human; his Divine nature is believed to be the Father (who is also the Holy Ghost as well), united to Christ's human nature to form one Person, the Son. Thus the Father is not the Son (this distinction is crucial), but is in the Son as the fullness of his divine nature (Colossians 2:9). Although the Oneness belief in the union of the divine and human into one person in Christ is similar to the Chalcedonian formula, traditional Chalcedonians disagree sharply with them over their opposition to Trinitarian dogma. Chalcedonians see Jesus Christ as one single person uniting "God the Son" (a being whose existence is denied in Oneness belief), the eternal second person of the traditional Trinity, with human nature; while Oneness believers see Jesus as one single person uniting the Father himself--the one, the only, true God--with human nature to form "the Son of God". Unlike Trinitarians, Oneness believers do not accept the Son's eternal existence; the Son, say they, only came into being at the Incarnation (Hebrews 1:5). Oneness adherents point to Mark 12:29, where Jesus says that "the Lord our God is one Lord", i.e. one ruler; they insist that those who define God as a trinity of persons are saying that God is three different persons ruling, and thus three Lords, whether they are aware of this or not--the Athanasian Creed's words to the contrary notwithstanding. Oneness believers contrast their tenets not only with Trinitarianism, but also with the Arianism taught by Latter-day Saints, who hold that Christ is an entirely separate "god" from the Father and the Spirit, and Jehovah's Witnesses, who see him as a lesser deity than his Father. Oneness doctrine is explained in detail in UPCI minister Dr. David K. Bernard's The Oneness of God
  • Oneness also refers to other non-Pentecostal religious groups who deny the traditional Christian Trinity and believe in the singularity of God: see also Unitarianism, Sabellianism, and Nontrinitarianism.
  • Divine simplicity
  • Tawhid, the Islamic term for Monotheism
  • Oneness may also refer to the property of a positive number which counts the number of steps it takes to reach the number one iterating with the following rules: if a number is even then divide it by 2, if a number is odd then multiply it by 3 and add 1.
  • Oneness (album), by Carlos Santana

See also

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