In this glossary of psychiatric terms
, mostly Greek
, secondly French
and some English
terms, as used in psychiatric
literature, were defined. We have included many other terms with the passage of time and aim to broaden this article to include most of the psychopathological
terms in use.
There are many psychiatric terms that are of foreign-language, mostly Greek, origin; and are thus not easily understood by many English speakers. Most of these terms refer to expressions dating from the early days of psychiatry in Europe. This glossary aims to make the meaning of these terms clearer.
List of terms
Abreaction is an emotional release or discharge following recall of a painful experience. Used sometimes by police, forensics after administering amobarbital
, in neurology, refers to a lack of will or initiative. The patient is unable to act or make decisions independently. It may range from subtle to overwhelming in severity.
for color. This term includes color blindness
Illusions (Misperceptions) associated with and/or based on changes with mood for example at midnight a person may take a shadow as a ghost, but in the early part of night this may not be the case.
Akataphasia (Kraepelin 1896) refers to disorder of thought expression in speech and results due to dissolution of logical ordering of trains of thought..
Is a feeling of 'inner restlessness' often brought on as a side effect of anti-psychotic medication
. People with akathisia
have a desire to keep moving and are unable to keep still even though their movements are voluntary (as opposed to other movement disorders such as tardive dyskinesia which is involuntary). It most often affects the legs. When mild it is usually worse at night.
The term was coined by Dr Peter Sifneos to describe a condition where the person is unable to put into words the emotions he feels.
Alice in Wonderland experience
In Alice in Wonderland experience
subjects perceive objects (including animals and other humans, or parts of humans, animals, or objects) as appearing substantially smaller than in reality. Generally, the object appears far away or extremely close at the same time. Alternate term for this is somaesthetic aura
. Also see #Lilliputian hallucinations
is the repetition of initial consonant sounds in neighbouring words. For example, "When I struck and slapped my humble horse, he began to run rapidly."
Literally, this term means "not having words". This refers to poverty of speech generally seen in chronic psychotic disorders such as schizophrenia. This may be seen in advanced dementia too.
, or mata galap: The term comes from Malaysia in its origin. The phrase "running amok" also comes from this syndrome. This is a rare culture bound syndrome in which the subject (known as a pengamok) suddenly withdraws from his peers and family and gets violent towards people around him and may also use whatever weapon available to him. He is very difficult to be stopped at that stage. Ultimately he falls into a sleep or stupor and when wakes up having little knowledge of his violent behaviour.
refers to a state of mind in which the subject finds no pleasure in anything. This is seen in severe depressive
states and schizoid personality disorder
is a phenomenon in which a patient usually suffering from stroke is unaware and indifferent towards his disability. #Hemiasomatognosia
is a subtype of anosognosia in which the person suffering from hemiplegia neglects one half of his body.
, occasionally known as Anton-Babinski syndrome, is a form of cortical blindness in which the patient denies the visual impairment. The patient may attempt to walk, bumping into objects and injuring himself.
Anton syndrome is caused by damaging the occipital lobes bilaterally or from disrupting the pathway from the primary visual cortex into the visual association cortex.
Anwesenheit refers to the feeling of presence of something or some person. It can be seen in normal grief reaction, schizophrenia and some emotionally arousing situations.
This is an alternate term for delusional perception. It is one of the Schneiderian
first rank symptoms and is defined as a true perception, to which a patient attributes a false meaning. For example, a person may see written "No Trespassing" on a board and may infer from this that intelligence agencies are spying on him.
Aphemia is the alternate term for mutism
. Mutism is absence of speech with apparently normal level of consciousness. Mutism can be dissociative (hysterical) in which an individual (commonly a child or adolescent) stops speaking at once without involvement of any neurological or physical contributing factor; or it can be elective (selective) in which a child does not speak at all in certain situations (such as in school) but speaks well in other conditions (like at home or at play). A rare cause of mutism is akinetic mutism which results due to a lesion
around 3rd ventricle
Apperception is a normal phenomenon and refers to the ability to understand sensory inputs in their context, to interpret them and to incorporate them into experience. Failure of apperception is seen in delirious
is a form of psychogenic gait disturbance in which gait becomes impaired in the absence of any neurological or physical pathology. The person usually walks in a bizarre manner. He staggers and appears as if going to fall but always manages to catch hold of something in time. Sometimes these people cannot even stand but on the other hand they are well able to move their legs while lying down or sitting. Often associated with conversion disorder or somatization disorder.
Alternate term for Loosening of association. A milder form of derailment of thought, in which a person goes on jumping from one topic to another and there is little connection among the topics. This is in contrast to flight of ideas where a person jumps from one topic to another and there is a connection among the topics.
See also #Entgleisen term introduced by (Cameron).
Autistic thinking is a term used to refer to thinking not in accordance with the facts of reality and emphasizes preoccupation with inner experience. See also #Dereistic thinking.
Jaspers defined this as a delusion arising without apparent cause. For example, suddenly, without apparent cause, having the delusional belief that you are an alien.
An uncommonly used term used for suicide committed by jumping from a very high place.
Automatic obedience is an exaggerated co-operation with an examiner's request, as if the patient were an 'automaton' robotically obeying a command. It is usually a sign of catatonia.
are sequences of activity that occur without conscious control. They may be simple and repetitive (tic
-like) or complex, and are usually natural-looking but purposeless; for example, repeatedly going through the motions of buttering a piece of bread when there is no bread there. Automatic behaviour is not
usually recalled afterwards.
Autoscopy is the reduplicative hallucination
of "seeing one's own body at a distance" and the person sees it from the place where he or she is located. Autoscopy is sometimes used synonymously with out-of-body experience
Belle Indifference (‘La belle indifference’)
Belle Indifference or #La belle indifférence
is characterized by a lack of concern and/or feeling of indifference about a disability or symptom and is seen in hysteria or dissociative disorder; common symptom of conversion disorder.
Blocking and derailment
Abnormal loss of train of thought.
Bouffée délirante is a French term used in the past for acute and transient psychotic disorders (F23 in ICD-10). In DSM-IV, it is described as "Brief Psychotic Disorder" (298.8). The symptoms usually have an acute onset and reach their peak within two weeks. The symptoms start resolving in a few weeks and complete recovery usually occurs within 2-3 months.
Brain fag is an example of a culture-bound syndrome. Once a common term for mental exhaustion, it is now encountered almost exclusively in West Africa. Seen predominantly in male students, it generally manifests as vague somatic symptoms, depression, and difficulty concentrating. Read the article for details.
Teeth Grinding Behaviour usually seen in children is called Bruxism
Capgras' syndrome or Illusion des sosies
In Capgras syndrome, the patient feels that a person familiar to him, usually a family member has been replaced by a double i.e. an identical looking imposter. Capgras Syndrome and Fregoli syndrome along with some other conditions are classified as delusional misidentification syndrome.
It is named after Joseph Capgras (1873-1950), a French psychiatrist who first described the disorder in a paper by Capgras and Reboul-Lachaux1,2 in 1923. They used the term l'illusion des sosies (the illusion of doubles) to describe the case of a French woman who complained that various doubles had taken the place of people she knew. However, the term illusion has a subtly different meaning from delusion in psychiatry so Capgras delusion is used as a more suitable name.
is the term for catatonic
rigidity of the limbs which often results in abnormal posturing for long intervals.
is an attack of muscular flaccidity especially in response to extreme emotional stimuli. It has to be differentiated from syncope
where consciousness is lost and heart rate goes slow.
Cerea flexibilitas, meaning "waxy flexibility", is characterized by a patient's movements having the feeling of a plastic resistance, as if the person were made of wax. This occurs in catatonic schizophrenia, and a person suffering from this condition can have his limbs placed in fixed positions as if the person were in fact made from wax.
is manifest by abnormal voluntary movements. The term comes from Greek word choreia
, since large groups of muscles are usually involved which leads to writhing dancing movement.
Refers to a thought disorder wherein thinking takes a roundabout manner to get to an answer. Differentiable from tangentiality by the speaker eventually getting back to the point. For example: "My mother's job? She used to sit around the house doing nothing but drinking, she'd just sit there and stew, making noises, chugging her drinks. She threw my dad out of the house. I'll never forget that, the way she did it. Anyways, my mom was a waitress."
Thought disorder wherein words are chosen or repeated based on similar sounds, instead of semantic meaning. "The train rain brained me. He ate the skate, inflated yesterdays gate toward the cheese grater."
This refers to retention of non-verbal and implicit memory in sufferers of Korsakov's syndrome. 11
Clouding of consciousness
Clouding of consciousness is a global impairment in higher central nervous functioning. All aspects of cognitive
functioning are affected. On mental status examination
it is manifest by disorientation
in time, place and person, memory difficulties caused by failure to register and recall, aphasia
, and agnosia
. Impaired perception
functioning leads to illusions
often in the visual sensory modality. This then causes agitation and distress and secondary delusions
. The term 'confusion state' is sometimes used to mean clouding of consciousness, but should be avoided if at all possible because it is ambiguous.
A patient in a coenestopathic state has a localized distortion of body awareness.
is the confusion of imagination with memory, and/or the confusion of true memories with false memories.
is the hysterical
production of neurological symptoms.
is the involuntary utterance of socially inappropriate phrases. It is a phonic tic associated with Tourette syndrome
, although less than 15% of persons with Tourette's have coprolalia.
Cotard's syndrome is a nihilistic delusional syndrome in which, for example, patient believes that he denies his own existence or existence of his body parts and belongings etc. and has a firm conviction about that. This can be seen usually in schizophrenia and severe depressive states especially in context of a bipolar disorder.
Literally jumping out of window. Usually used in context of attempted or completed suicide. Also see #autokabalesis. 11
In Déjà vu, a person feels undue familiarity to an event or a person. For example, he feels that the same thing has happened before or he or she has met this person before, etc.
In Déjà pensé, a completely new thought sounds familiar to the person and he feels as he has thought the same thing before at some time.
Psychiatrist Emil Kraepelin was the first to draw a distinction between what he termed dementia praecox ("premature dementia") and other psychotic illnesses. In 1911, dementia praecox was renamed schizophrenia by psychiatrist Eugen Bleuler, who found Kraepelin's term to be misleading, as the disorder is not a form of dementia, premature or otherwise.
Dementia pugilistica, also called "chronic traumatic encephalopathy", "pugilistic Parkinson's syndrome", "boxer's syndrome", and "punch-drunk syndrome", is a neurological disorder which affects career boxers and others who receive multiple dazing blows to the head. The condition develops over a period of years, with the average time of onset being about 16 years after the start of a career in boxing.
Dereistic thinking is an old descriptive term used to refer to thinking not in accordance with the facts of reality and experience and following illogical, idiosyncratic reasoning. This term is also used interchangeably with autistic thinking though not an exact synonym.: dereitic emphasizes disconnection from reality and autistic emphasizes preoccupation with inner experience.
Alternate term for Organic hallucinaosis. This state cannot be diagnosed if the halluinatoy state is under effect of alcohol or substance misuse or if the patient fulfills the criterion for delirium
In Dhat syndrome there is a complaint of premature ejaculation or impotence and a belief that semen is being passed in the urine.
The Doppelgänger is a phenomenon in which the person feels that his exact “double” is present alongside him every time and goes with him wherever he goes.
Écho de la pensée
In écho de la pensée, meaning "thought echo" in French, thoughts seem to be spoken aloud just after being produced. The patient hears the 'echo' of his thoughts in the form of a voice after he has made the thought. See also #Gedankenlautwerden and #Thought Sonorization.
Literally means jumping off the rails. Alternate term used for derailment of thought (a morbid form of loosening of association or #asyndesis). A Schneiderian term by origin. In this form of thought the patient jumps from one topic to another during conversation and both topics have literally no connection with each other. This is in contrast with flight of ideas where connection is present between one topic and another.
are hallucinations beyond the possible sensory field, e.g., 'seeing' somebody standing behind you is a visual extracampine hallucination experience.
is imagining that expresses desires and aims.
The moods of a patient with fatuous affect resemble the moods of a child. This condition is seen in hebephrenic schizophrenia.
Folie à deux
Also called induced psychosis, folie à deux is a delusional disorder shared by two or more people who are closely related emotionally. One has real psychosis while the symptoms of psychosis are induced in the other or others due to close attachment to the one with psychosis. Separation usually results in symptomatic improvement in the one who is not psychotic.
Folie communiquée, folie imposée, folie induite, and folie simultanée are the four subtypes of folie à deux.
Folie communiquée, or subtype C of folie à deux, occurs when a normal person suffers a contagion of his ideas after resisting them for a long time. Once he acquires these beliefs he maintains them despite separation.
Folie imposée, or subtype A of folie a deux, is the most common form in which the dominant person imposes a delusion into a person who was not previously mentally ill. Separation of the two results in improvement of the non-dominant person.
In folie induite, or subtype D of folie a deux, a person who is already psychotic adds the delusions of a closely associated person to his own.
In folie simultanée, or subtype B of folie a deux, a delusional system emerges simultaneously and independently in two closely related persons, and the separation of the two would not be beneficial in the resolution of psychopathology.
In Fregoli syndrome, the person has a delusional belief that different people are in fact a single person who changes appearance or is in disguise. The delusional person often believes that he or she is being persecuted by the person he or she believes to be in disguise.
In Gedankenlautwerden , a patient hears thoughts spoken aloud. Thoughts are heard in the form of a voice at the same time as they are thought, not afterwards. See also Écho de la pensée and Thought Sonorization
Gegenhalten is a catatonic
phenomenon in which the subject opposes all passive movements with the same degree of force as applied by the examiner. It is slightly different from negativism
in which the subject does exactly the opposite to what is asked in addition to showing resistance.
Hemiasomatognosia is a subtype of #anosognosia in which the person suffering from hemiplegia neglects one half of his body.
Hyposchemazia is characterized by the reduced awareness of a patient's body image and Aschemazia by the absence of it. These disorders can have many varied causes such as physical injuries, mental disorders, or mental or physical states. These include transection of the spinal cord, parietal lobe lesions (e.g. right middle cerebral artery thrombosis), anxiety, depersonalization, epileptic auras, migraines, sensory deprivation, and vertigo (i.e. "floating on air").
Idée fixe is an alternate term for an overvalued idea. In this condition, a belief that might seem reasonable both to the patient and to other people comes to dominate completely the patient's thinking and life.
Ideas of alienation
Thoughts that one's own body part or action is not of one's own.
Ideas of influence
Thoughts that one's own action is caused by someone else's will or some other external cause.
Ideas of reference
Delusional ideas wherein seemingly random stimuli is thought to be referring to the individual. For example, if a car beeps outside, the individual feels it was directed toward him or herself.
An illusion is a false perception
Jargon aphasia,is characterized by incoherent, meaningless, speech with a neologisms (newly invented words). These are unconscious thoughts that find expression when one is off one's guard and must be consciously repressed.
Klüver Bucy syndrome
In Kluver-Bucy syndrome, a patient will display placidity, hyperorality, hypersexuality, and hyperphagia. This condition results from bilateral destruction of the amygdaloid bodies of the limbic system.
Knight's Move thinking
Knight's Move thinking a phenomenon similar to derailment of thought or loosening of associations, is characterized by odd, tangential associations between ideas that lead to disruptions in the smooth continuity of speech. The name for this disorder likely derives from the odd movement pattern of knights in the game of Chess.
Koro is a culture-specific syndrome usually seen in Chinese people. It involves a morbid fear of retraction of the penis into the abdomen with the belief that this will lead to death.
(also known as laughing sickness due to the outbursts of laughter that mark its second phase) was first noted in New Guinea in the early 1900s. Kuru is now known to be a prion
disease, one of several known transmissible spongiform encephalopathies
La belle indifférence
La belle indifférence is characterized by a lack of concern and an indifference about a disability and is seen in hysteria or dissociative disorders; common symptom in conversion disorder.
Latah is a culture-specific syndrome usually seen in Southeast Asia and involves startle-induced disorganization, hypersuggestibility, automatic obedience, and echopraxia (a tendency to mimic examiner’s or other person’s actions). It is usually associated with women.
There is controversy over whether Latah is a real psychiatric condition, or merely a display of exhibitionism that would otherwise not be socially acceptable.
L'homme qui rit
In l'homme qui rit, meaning "The man who laughs" in French, a patient displays inappropriate laughter accompanied by release phenomena of the frontal subdominant lobe.
Lilliputian hallucinations are characterized by abnormal perception of objects as being shrunken in size but normal in detail. Usually seen in Delirium Tremens.
In logoclonia, the patient often repeats the last syllable of a word. Symptom of Parkinson's Disease.
Logorrhoea, also known as "volubility", is characterized by a patient's fluent and rambling speech using numerous words.
Mania a potu
Mania a potu is an alcohol intoxication state with violent and markedly disinhibited behavior. This condition is different from violent behavior in otherwise normal individuals who are intoxicated.
Mitgehen is an extreme form of mitmachen in which very slight pressure leads to movement in any direction, also called the "anglepoise" effect or "anglepoise lamp sign". This is done despite instructions that the patient resist the pressure, as the patient often views the slight pressure as forcibly grasping and moving the patient.
In mitmachen, the patient's body can be put into any posture, despite instructions given that the patient resist.
Moria is the condition characterized by euphoric behavior, such as frivolity and the inability to act seriously. In addition there is a lack of foresight and a general indifference. It is found in frontal lobe lesions, often along with #Witzelsücht particularly when the orbital surface is damaged. Recent research has shown its presence in frontotemporal dementia.
Negativism is found if, on examination, a patient resists attempts to move him and does opposite to what is asked. It is usually a sign of catatonia
. It may progress to (catatonic) rigidity. It is slightly different from gegenhalten
in which the patient resists movement but does not perform the opposite movement.
The omega sign is the occurrence of a fold (like the Greek letter omega
, Ω ) in the forehead above the root of the nose produced by the excessive action of the corrugator muscle
. It is sometimes seen in depression
From Greek oneiros, meaning dream. In the Oneiroid state one feels and behaves as though in a dream. Also known as Oneirophrenia
as described by Ladislas J. Meduna
See #Oneiroid state
or article on Oneirophrenia
Palilalia is characterized by the repetition of a word or phrase ie the subject continues to repeat a word or phrase after once having said. It is a perseveratory phenomenon.
Palinacousis refers to a phenomenon in which the subject continues to listen to a word, a syllable or any sound, even after the withdrawal of stimulus. It is a type of #perseveration
a visual image persists after the stimulus has gone (similar to an afterimage
seen after looking into a bright light).
A Freudian slip, or parapraxis, is an error in speech, memory or physical action that is believed to be caused by the unconscious mind.
Paraschemazia is characterized by a distortion of a patient's body image. It can be caused by hallucinogenic drugs such as LSD and mescalin, epileptic auras, and sometimes migraines.
a vague or random stimulus is mistakenly perceived as recognizable. A common example is perceiving the image of a face in clouds. Pareidolia is a type of illusion and hence called pareidolic illusion.
This term refers to uncontrollable repetition of a particular response, such as a word, phrase, or gesture, despite the absence or cessation of the original stimulus. Usually it is seen in organic disorders of brain, head injury, delirium or dementia, however can be seen in schizophrenia as well.
This refers to schizophrenia in people with mild learning disability15.
Piblokto, Pibloktoq or Arctic hysteria is a condition exclusively appearing in Inuit societies living within the Arctic Circle. Appearing most prevalently in winter, it is considered to be a form of a culture-specific disorder.
Symptoms can include intense "hysteria" (screaming, uncontrolled wild behavior), depression, coprophagia, insensitivity to extreme cold and more. This condition is most often seen in dogs and Eskimo women.
Pseudologia fantastica is a condition in which a person grossly exaggerates his symptoms or even tells a lie about his symptoms in order to get medical attention . Seen in malingering and Munchausen syndrome.
Where the individual holds his/her head a few centimetres above the bed. No explanation is offered for this. It is a symptom of catatonia and can last for many hours.
is a term which refers to either the study of mental illness or mental distress or to
the manifestation of behaviours and experiences which may be indicative of mental illness or psychological impairment.
This syndrome is characterized by rapid rhythmic movements of lips so that it resembles a rabbit chewing. 11
It is a dystonic reaction.
In reduplicative hallucinations there is the preception of seeing a double. Particular kinds of reduplicative hallucination include autoscopy
and out-of-body experiences
is a delusional misidentification syndrome
in which the patient's surroundings are believed to exist in more than one physical location.
Is when a veridical perception in one modality produces a hallucination in another, e.g. seeing a doctor writing (visual) and then feeling him writing across one’s stomach (tactile).
Restlessness has two components: akathisia
(subjective "inner" restlessness) and Psychomotor agitation
(an excess of motor activity).
Mental retardation is a term used when a person has certain limitations in mental functioning and in skills such as communicating, taking care of him or herself, and social skills.
In Children: These limitations will cause a child to learn and develop more slowly than a typical child. Children with mental retardation may take longer to learn to speak, walk, and take care of their personal needs such as dressing or eating. They are likely to have trouble learning in school. They will learn, but it will take them longer. There may be some things they cannot learn.
Left-Right disorientation is one of the four cardinal signs of Gerstmann's syndrome
Scanning speech is an ataxic dysarthria
in which syllable durations are equalized. It is characteristic of the dysarthria
of multiple sclerosis
. Together with nystagmus
and intention tremor
it forms Charcot's triad
Schizophasia, or colloquially "word salad", is characterized by a patient's speech being an incoherent and incomprehensible mix of words and phrases. This occurs in patients suffering from schizophrenia.
A schnauzkrampf is a grimace resembling pouting sometimes observed in catatonic patients.
Sensitiver beziehungswahn, is an alternate term for ideas of reference. In this the person thinks as people are talking about him or observing him or a talk is going on about him on television or radio. Seen in social phobia, depression, delusional disorder F22.0 and in schizophrenia where they are often present up to a delusional extent.
The Stockholm syndrome
is a psychological
response sometimes seen in a hostage, in which the hostage exhibits loyalty to the hostage-taker, in spite of the danger (or at least risk) in which the hostage has been placed. Stockholm syndrome is also sometimes discussed in reference to other situations with similar tensions, such as battered person syndrome
, child abuse cases
, and bride kidnapping
(also spelled synæsthesia, synaesthesia, or synesthesia -- plural synesthesiae) -- from the Greek syn- meaning union and aesthesis meaning sensation -- is a neurological condition in which two or more bodily senses are coupled.
Telegrammatic or telegraphic speech
In telegraphic speech conjunctions
are missed out; meaning is retained and few words are used.
A combined term for #Gedankenlautwerden and #Écho de la pensée
is usually taken to mean profound inactivity not caused by reduction in consciousness
Meaningless repetition of words or phrases, not necessarily requiring external stimulus to elicit (as opposed to perseveration, which is an inappropriately persistent response to a stimulus). ref. Kaplan & Sadock (2003) Synopsis of Psychiatry
, 9th Ed., Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
It refers to an ill humoured mood state often accompanied by low mood and depressive symptoms. The people surrounding the patient often feel upset by this.
In vorbeigehen or vorbeireden, a patient will answer a question in such a way that one can tell the patient understood the question, although the answer itself may be very obviously wrong. For example "how many legs does a dog have?" - "six".
This condition occurs in Ganser syndrome and has been observed in prisoners awaiting trial. Vorbeigehen (giving approximate answers) was the original term used by Ganser but Vorbeireden (talking past the point) is the term generally in use (Goldin 1955). This behaviour is also seen in people trying to feign psychiatric disorders (hence association with prisoners)
Wahneinfall is alternate term for autochthonous delusions. This is one of the types of primary delusions in which a firm belief comes into the patient's mind 'out of the blue' or as an intuition, hence called delusional intuition. Other types of primary delusions include delusional mood (or atmosphere), delusional (apophanous perception) and delusional memories.
Waxy flexibility, aka #Cerea flexibilitas
, meaning is characterized by a patient's movements having the feeling of a plastic resistance, as if the person were made of wax. This occurs in catatonic schizophrenia, and a person suffering from this condition can have his limbs placed in fixed positions as if the person were in fact made from wax.
The Windigo (also Wendigo, Windago, Windiga, Witiko, and numerous other variants) is a culture-bound disorder which involves an intense craving for human flesh and the fear that one will turn into a cannibal. This once occurred frequently among Algonquian Indian cultures, though has declined with the Native American urbanization.
Witzelsucht is a tendency to tell inappropriate joke and creating excessive facetiousness and inappropriate or pointless humor. It is seen in Frontal lobe disorders usually along with #moria. Recent research has shown that it may also be seen in frontotemporal dementia.
Word Salad (derived from the German
Wortsalat) is characterized by confused, and often repetitious, language with no apparent meaning or relationship attached to them. It is often symptomatic of various mental illnesses, such as psychoses, including schizophrenia.
Wurgstimme refers to speaking in an odd muffled or strangled voice. It is mainly seen in schizophrenia. Click here
to listen to an example.
Zoofagus is a fictitious condition that was diagnosed by Dr. John Seward in Bram Stoker's novel, Dracula. Renfield, the mentally insane character who is diagnosed with the illness, is said to collect small animals at first, such as flies. Then, the flies attract spiders, and the spiders attract sparrows (the pattern is in a food chain, and each of the next largest animal eats the last of the smallest). In theory, it appears that Renfield desires to get the largest animal possible (perhaps even a human) so that he may eat it himself and collect all of the "life force" that the animal had consumed before him. After Dr. Seward's observations, he gives the proper title "zoofagus" to Renfield. Dr. Seward explains that this term that he created literally means "life eater".
1a. http://www.nichcy.org/pubs/factshe/fs8txt.htm (Dead Link?)
1b. Descriptive Psychopathology. .
2.Sims, Andrew Symptoms in the Mind: An Introduction to Descriptive Psychopathology. 3rd Edition,
3. Indian Journal of Psychiatry
5. Benjamin William Morrison - Post Mortem and Other Medical Evidence. Reconciliation and Social Justice Library. Retrieved on December 4., 2005.
6. Dorland's Illustrated Medical Dictionary
7. Capgras Syndrome
8. Bouffée délirante
9. Witzelsücht in frontotemporal dementia
10. Vorbeireden & Vorbeigehen
11. Glossary of Descriptive Psychopathology and Neuropsychiatry Alastair Macdonald, Owen Box, Frances Klemperer. Martin Dunitz, London 2000
13. GP Notebook
14. ICD-10 World Health Organization
15. The British Journal of Psychiatry 173: 145-153 (1998)
© 1998 The Royal College of Psychiatrists 'Pfropfschizophrenie' revisited. Schizophrenia in people with mild learning