The Association for Computing Machinery, or ACM, was founded in 1947 as the world's first scientific and educational computing society. Its membership was approximately 83,000 as of 2007. Its headquarters are in New York City.
ACM is organized into over 170 local chapters and 34 Special Interest Groups (SIGs), through which it conducts most of its activities. Additionally, there are over 500 college and university chapters The first student chapter was founded in 1961 at the University of Louisiana at Lafayette.
Many of the SIGs, like SIGGRAPH, SIGPLAN and SIGCOMM, sponsor regular conferences which have become famous as the dominant venue for presenting new innovations in certain fields. The groups also publish a large number of specialized journals, magazines, and newsletters.
ACM also sponsors other computer science related events such as the worldwide ACM International Collegiate Programming Contest (ICPC), and has sponsored some other events such as the chess match between Garry Kasparov and the IBM Deep Blue computer.
ACM Press publishes a prestigious academic journal,
Journal of the ACM
, and general magazines for computer professionals, Communications of the ACM
(also known as Communications
) and Queue
. Other publications of the ACM include:
- ACM Crossroads, the most popular student computing journal in USA
- A number of journals, specific to subfields of computer science, titled ACM Transactions. Some of the more prominent transactions include:
Although Communications no longer publishes primary research, and is not considered a prestigious venue, many of the great debates and results in computing history have been published in its pages, see the article on Communications of the ACM.
ACM has made almost all of its publications available to paid subscribers online at its Digital Library and also has a Guide to Computing Literature It also offers insurance and other services to its members.
The ACM Digital Library
contains a comprehensive archive of the organization's journals, magazines, and conference proceedings. Online services include a forum called Ubiquity and Tech News digest.
ACM requires the copyright of all submissions to be assigned to the organization as a condition of publishing the work. Authors may post the documents on their own websites, but they are required to link back to the digital library's reference page for the paper. Though authors are not allowed to charge for access to copies of their work, downloading a copy from the ACM site requires a paid subscription.
ACM's primary historical competitor has been the IEEE Computer Society
, which is the largest subgroup of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
. The IEEE focuses more on hardware and standardization issues than theoretical computer science
, but there is considerable overlap with the ACM's agenda. They occasionally cooperate on projects like developing computer science curricula.
There is also a mounting challenge to the ACM's publication practices coming from the open access movement. Some authors see a centralized peer-review process as less relevant and publish on their home pages or on unreviewed sites like arXiv. Other organizations have sprung up which do their peer review entirely free and online, such as Journal of Artificial Intelligence Research (JAIR), Journal of Machine Learning Research (JMLR) and the Journal of Research and Practice in Information Technology
The ACM Fellows Program
was established by Council of the Association for Computing Machinery in 1993 "to recognize and honor outstanding ACM members for their achievements in computer science and information technology and for their significant contributions to the mission of the ACM."
There are presently about 500 Fellows out of about 60,000 professional members.
A full list can be found on ACM's Website
Special Interest Groups
- SIGACCESS: Accessibility and Computing
- SIGACT: Algorithms and Computation Theory
- SIGAda: Ada Programming Language
- SIGAPL: APL Programming Language
- SIGAPP: Applied Computing
- SIGARCH: Computer Architecture
- SIGART: Artificial Intelligence
- SIGBED: Embedded Systems
- SIGCAS: Computers and Society
- SIGCHI: Computer-Human Interaction
- SIGCOMM: Data Communication
- SIGCSE: Computer Science Education
- SIGDA: Design Automation
- SIGDOC: Design of Communication
- SIGecom: Electronic Commerce
- SIGEVO: Genetic and Evolutionary Computation
- SIGGRAPH: Computer Graphics and Interactive Techniques
- SIGIR: Information Retrieval
- SIGITE: Information Technology Education
- SIGKDD: Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining
- SIGMETRICS: Measurement and Evaluation
- SIGMICRO: Microarchitecture
- SIGMIS: Management Information Systems
- SIGMM: Multimedia
- SIGMOBILE: Mobility of Systems, Users, Data and Computing
- SIGMOD: Management of Data
- SIGOPS: Operating Systems
- SIGPLAN: Programming Languages
- SIGSAC: Security, Audit, and Control
- SIGSAM: Symbolic and Algebraic Manipulation
- SIGSIM: Simulation and Modeling
- SIGSOFT: Software Engineering
- SIGUCCS: University and College Computing Services
- SIGWEB: Hypertext, Hypermedia, and Web
The ACM sponsors numerous conferences listed below. Most of the special interest groups also have an annual conference. ACM conferences are often very popular publishing venues and are therefore very competitive. For example, the 2007 SIGGRAPH
conference attracted about 30000 visitors, and CIKM only accepted 15% of the long papers that were submitted in 2005.
- CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems
- CIKM: Conference on Information and Knowledge Management
- DAC: Design Automation Conference
- FCRC: Federated Computing Research Conference
- GECCO: Genetic and Evolutionary Computation Conference
- SIGGRAPH Graphics and Interactive Techniques]
- Hypertext: Conference on Hypertext and Hypermedia
- JCDL: Joint Conference on Digital Libraries
- OOPSLA: International conference on Object-Oriented Programming, Systems, Languages, and Applications
- WWW: International conference on World Wide Web
The President of the ACM for 2008–2010 is Wendy Hall
of the University of Southampton
ACM is led by a Council consisting of the President, Vice-President, Treasurer, Past President, SIG Governing Board Chair, Publications Board Chair, three representatives of the SIG Governing Board, and seven Members-At-Large. This institution is often referred to simply as "Council" in Communications of the ACM.
ACM has five “Boards” that make up various committees and subgroups, to help Headquarters staff maintain quality services and products. These boards are as follows:
- Publications Board
- SIG Governing Board
- Education Board
- Membership Services Board
- Professions Board
ACM's Committee on Women in Computing
ACM's committee on women in computing
is set up to support, inform, celebrate, and work with women in computing. Dr. Anita Borg
was a great supporter of ACM-W. ACM-W provides various resources for women in computing as well as high school girls interested in the field. ACM-W also reaches out internationally to those women who are involved and interested in computing.
ACM has three kinds of chapters: Special Interest Group, Professional, and Student chapters.
Index of all Chapters
Professional Chapters include
Student Chapters include