Otumba de Gómez Farías
is the town and seat of the municipality that is also called Otumba
, in the State of Mexico
. It is located to the northeast of Mexico City
near the archeological site of Teotihuacan
. The name 'Otumba' comes from Náhuatl Otompan
, "place of Otomis
") It is famous as the location of the Battle of Otumba
. Otumba is located in the extreme east of the State of Mexicowith
an altitude of 2349.41 m. It borders with the municipalities of Axapusco
, San Martín de las Pirámides
and borders the states of Tlaxcala
The modern town of Otumba de Gomez Farias had a population of 9,242 in 2005 and an elevation of 2,360 meters above sea level.
The paintor P. Gonzalo Carrasco Espinoza (1859 - 1936) is from Otumba. There is a museum dedicated to him in the "Casa de Cultura" (House of Culture).
Notable places here include the Oztotipac Monastery, the Zempoala Aqueduct, the former monastery of Otumba Purísima Concepción, and a cave occupied by the Chichimecas in Oxtotipac. A fun festival called the "Donkey Fair" is held every year on May 1.
The town was founded as a village by the Otomis. Legend says it was founded by one of the six sons of Iztacmoxcoautl. It was likely the center of power for the Otomis of the area during the Classic period.around the second half of the fourteenth century. According to Fernando de Alva Ixtlilxóchitl in 1395 AD Techotlalatzin, tlatoani of Texcoco, gave the Otomi refuge in Otompan after the fall of Xaltocan. The village grew during the fifteenth century, to be subject to the domination of Texcoco and part of the Triple Alliance (Tenochtitlan, Texcoco and Tlacopan). After 1428, Otompan was an Aztec city-state , a semi-autonomous unit within the vast domain of the Aztec Triple Alliance. As such, it had dominiion over Oztotipac, Ahuatepec, Xaltepec, Axapusco, Tlamapa and Xalmimilolpan.
The Battle of Otumba
The Battle of Otumba is part of the story of the Fall of Tenochtitlan
, called La Noche Triste
. The Spanish had to flee the Aztec capital and reach Tlaxcalan
, where they would find allies. After being beleaguered on the causeway leading out of the city, Spanish forces arrived at the plain of Otumba Valley (Otompan)
, where they were met by an Aztec army intent on their destruction. However, despite the fact that they had already seen horses, seeing Spanish knights
in full regalia proved to have shock value, as they had never seen such in open battlefield. Another decisive element was Cortes' decision to directly attack an Aztec general as soon as he recognized the commander and killed him. Despite the poor condition and heavy losses of the Spanish army and the overwhelming number of Aztec warriors, the Spanish prevailed and were able to reach Tlaxcalan to regroup.20 000 Aztecs were killed. While the town lends its name to this battle, it really occurred in a place called Temalacatitlán.
As municipal seat, the town of Otumba de Gomez Farias has govening jurisdiction over the following communities: San Martín, Ahuatepec (Ahuatepec), Belém, Buenavista, San José Coamilpa (Ejido de Otumba), Coyotepec, Cuautlacingo, Rancho el Mayorazgo, Oxtotipac, Rancho las Papas (Rancho de Don Jorge Olvera), Poyoxco, San Francisco Tlaltica, Rancho San Lorenzo, San Marcos (San Marcos Tlaxuchilco), San Miguel Xolco, Santa Bárbara, Santiago Tolman, San Juan Tocuila (Tocuila), Barrio Xamimilolpa (Xolpa), Xochihuacán, Tepa Grande (Rancho Guadalupe Tepa), Tlalmimilolpa, San José de las Presas (Cuautenco), Colonias Jacarandas, Rancho San Nicolás Tlaxomulco, Santa Gertrudis, Campero (Ejido San Marcos), Ejido Buenavista (La Mocha), Colonia Coamilpa, Colonia Chacalco, Rancho Santa Brígida, Tlahuico, Tecalco, La Zumbona, Granja San Cosme, Santiago Tolman, San Telmo, Santa Bárbara (Ejido Santa Bárbara), Colonia los Capulines, Granja los Conquianes, Colonia los Remedios, Rancho la Puente, Granja Liberacos Uno, El Colorado, El Monte, Jagüeycillos, Rancho ZR, La Cruz, San Miguel Axalco Chico, Nueva Colonia de Axalco, and El Potrero.
It has a land area of 143.42 square kilometers with three types terrain: hilly areas 15%, farmland 40% and fallow land 45%. In 2005, the total municipal population was 29,873.
It main activity are the farming and retail sales. The extension of agricultural land represents 58.41%. This includes livestock raising such as cattle, pigs, goats, sheep, horses, domestic fowl, rabbits and bees.Trade is an important activity for the municipality's economy, including establishments as general stores, construction supply, pharmacies, butcher shops, stationary stores, and others.