Armand

Armand

[ahr-muhnd; Fr. ar-mahn]
Fallières, Armand, 1841-1931, president of the French republic (1906-13). A lawyer, he became a member of the chamber of deputies in 1876. He was a member of various cabinets from 1882 to 1892, served briefly as premier, and was also president of the senate. He succeeded Émile Loubet as president.
Hammer, Armand, 1898-1990, American business executive, b. New York City. He began in his father's pharmaceutical business and then expanded it into the Soviet Union. He returned (1930) to New York, where he invested in whiskey, cattle, and broadcasting. He invested in Occidental Petroleum Corporation in the 1950s and expanded it into a company with over $10.1 billion in annual revenues. In the 1970s, a subsidiary of the company was involved in lawsuits concerning the dumping of toxic wastes into the Love Canal. Throughout his life, Hammer was an active promoter of peace and economic ties between the United States and the Communist countries. His extensive art collection is housed in the Armand Hammer Museum of Art and Cultural Center in Westwood, Calif.

See his autobiography, Hammer (1986); biography by S. Weinberg (1989).

(born , May 21, 1898, New York, N.Y., U.S.—died Dec. 10, 1990, Los Angeles, Calif.) U.S. industrialist and philanthropist. Hammer made his first million dollars in pharmaceuticals before earning his medical degree from Columbia University. He went to the Soviet Russia in 1921 to provide medical aid to famine victims and was persuaded by Vladimir Ilich Lenin to remain. His ventures, including a pencil manufacturing firm, were bought out by the Soviets in the late 1920s, and he returned to the U.S. laden with artworks formerly owned by the Romanov family. He increased his fortune in the U.S. through the whiskey and cattle industries and retired in 1956, but an investment in wildcat oil wells led to another career as head of the Occidental Petroleum Corp. (1957–90). He was a longtime advocate of broadening U.S.-Soviet trade ties. The Armand Hammer Museum in Los Angeles houses his art collection.

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(born , May 21, 1898, New York, N.Y., U.S.—died Dec. 10, 1990, Los Angeles, Calif.) U.S. industrialist and philanthropist. Hammer made his first million dollars in pharmaceuticals before earning his medical degree from Columbia University. He went to the Soviet Russia in 1921 to provide medical aid to famine victims and was persuaded by Vladimir Ilich Lenin to remain. His ventures, including a pencil manufacturing firm, were bought out by the Soviets in the late 1920s, and he returned to the U.S. laden with artworks formerly owned by the Romanov family. He increased his fortune in the U.S. through the whiskey and cattle industries and retired in 1956, but an investment in wildcat oil wells led to another career as head of the Occidental Petroleum Corp. (1957–90). He was a longtime advocate of broadening U.S.-Soviet trade ties. The Armand Hammer Museum in Los Angeles houses his art collection.

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Armand II de Vignerot du Plessis de Richelieu, duke of Aiguillon (1750 – 4 May 1800) succeeded his father Emmanuel-Armand de Richelieu, duc d'Aiguillon.

In 1789, as a member of the National Assembly, he became one of the first to ally himself with the Third Estate and to renounce the privileges of the nobility. He became a general in the Republican Army, but had to flee during the Reign of Terror of 1793–1794.

According to Michael Kelly (tenor) in his Reminiscences, the Duc d'Aiguillon was, in 1796, in London with the revolutionaries Charles Lameth and the orator Dupont. He states that the Duc had been 'one of the twelve peers of France, who, in former days, had an immense fortune, was a great patron of the arts, and so theatrical that he had a box in every theatre in Paris. He was particularly fond of music, and had been a pupil of Viotti (then leader of the Opera House orchestra, at which Kelly was stage manager).' Kelly introduced them to Richard Sheridan and other friends, though the Duke of Queensberry refused to meet d'Aiguillon. On learning that the Duc's fortune was entirely lost or sequestered, Kelly arranged for him to make a little money by copying sheet-music, which he did secretly during the day, continuing to attend the theatre in the evening. Eventually an order came from the Alien Office of the British Government that he and his friends must leave England in two days. The Duke went to Hamburg, and was condemned to be shot. 'They told me that he died like a hero,' wrote Kelly. The Duke left his favourite Danish dog in Kelly's care, shedding many tears on parting from it: the animal outlived its master, but pined and died soon afterwards.

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