Furniture is the mass noun for the movable objects which may support the human body (seating furniture and beds), provide storage, or hold objects on horizontal surfaces above the ground. Storage furniture (which often makes use of doors, drawers, and shelves) is used to hold or contain smaller objects such as clothes, tools, books, and household goods. (See List of furniture types.)
Furniture can be a product of artistic design and is considered a form of decorative art. In addition to furniture's functional role, it can serve a symbolic or religious purpose. Domestic furniture works to create, in conjunction with furnishings such as clocks and lighting, comfortable and convenient interior spaces. Furniture can be made from many materials, including metal, plastic, and wood. Furniture can be made using a variety of woodworking joints which often reflect the local culture.
Furniture has been a part of the human experience since the development of non-nomadic cultures. Evidence of furniture survives from the Neolithic
Period and later in antiquity
in the form of paintings
, such as the wall Murals
discovered at Pompeii
, and examples have been excavated in Egypt
and found in tombs in Ghiordes
, in modern day Turkey
A range of unique stone furniture has been excavated in Skara Brae a Neolithic village, located in Orkney, Scotland. The site dates from 3100-2500BC and due to a shortage of wood in Orkney, the people of Skara Brae were forced to build with stone, a readily available material that could be worked easily and turned into items for use within the household. Each house shows a high degree of sophistication and was equipped with an extensive assortment of stone furniture, ranging from cupboards, dressers and beds to shelves, stone seats and limpet tanks. The stone dressers were regarded as the most important as it symbolically faces the entrance in each house and is therefore the first item seen when entering, perhaps displaying symbolic objects, including decorative artwork such as several Neolithic Carved Stone Balls also found at the site.
The Classical World
Early furniture has been excavated from the 8th-century B.C. Phrygian tumulus
, the Midas Mound, in Gordion
. Pieces found here include tables
and inlaid serving stands. There are also surviving works from the 9th-8th-century B.C. Assyrian
palace of Nimrud
. The earliest surviving carpet, the Pazyryk
Carpet was discovered in a frozen tomb in Siberia
and has been dated between the 6th and 3rd century B.C.. Recovered Ancient Egyptian
furniture includes a 3rd millennium B.C. bed
discovered in the Tarkhan Tomb
, a c.2550 B.C. gilded
set from the tomb of Queen Hetepheres
, and a c. 1550 B.C. stool
. Ancient Greek
furniture design beginning in the 2nd millennium B.C., including beds
and the klismos chair
, is preserved not only by extant works, but by images on Greek vases
. The 1738 and 1748 excavations of Herculaneum
introduced Roman furniture, preserved in the ashes of the 79 A.D.
eruption of Vesuvius
, to the eighteenth century.
Early Modern Europe
The furniture of the Middle Ages
was usually heavy, oak
, and ornamented with carved designs. Along with the other arts, the Italian Renaissance
of the fourteenth and fifteenth century marked a rebirth in design, often inspired by the Greco-Roman
tradition. A similar explosion of design, and renaissance of culture in general, occurred in Northern Europe, starting in the fifteenth century. The seventeenth century, in both Southern and Northern Europe, was characterized by opulent, often gilded Baroque
designs that frequently incorporated a profusion of vegetal and scrolling ornament. Starting in the eighteenth century, furniture designs began to develop more rapidly. Although there were some styles that belonged primarily to one nation, such as Palladianism
in Great Britain
, others, such as the Rococo
were perpetuated throughout Western Europe.
The nineteenth century is usually defined by concurrent revival styles
, including Gothic
, Neoclassicism, Rococo, and the Eastlake Movement
. The design reforms
of the late century introduced the Aesthetic movement
and the Arts and Crafts movement
. Art Nouveau
was influenced by both of these movements.
The first three-quarters of the twentieth century are often seen as the march towards Modernism
. Art Deco
, De Stijl
, Wiener Werkstätte
, and Vienna Secession
designers all worked to some degree within the Modernist idiom. Postmodern
design, intersecting the Pop art
movement, gained steam in the 1960s and 70s, promoted in the 80s by groups such as the Italy-based Memphis movement. Transitional furniture
is intended to fill a place between Traditional and Modern tastes.
has a quite distinct history. The traditions out of Pakistan
, and Japan
are some of the best known, but places such as Korea
, and the countries of South East Asia
have unique facets of their own.
Traditional Japanese furniture is well known for its minimalist style, extensive use of wood, high-quality craftsmanship and reliance on wood grain instead of painting or thick lacquer. Japanese chests are known as Tansu, and are some of the most sought-after of Japanese antiques. The antiques available generally date back to the Tokugawa era.
Chinese furniture is traditionally better known for more ornate pieces. The use of uncarved wood and bamboo and the use of heavy lacquers are well known Chinese styles. It is worth noting that China has an incredibly rich and diverse history, and architecture, religion, furniture and culture in general can vary widely from one dynasty to the next.
Types of furniture