Definitions

Aramburu

Aramburu

[ah-rahm-boo-roo]
Aramburu, Pedro Eugenio, 1903-70, president of Argentina (1955-58). An army general, he participated in the overthrow of Juan Perón in Sept., 1955, and that November he replaced Gen. Eduardo Lonardi as provisional president. With the vice president, Admiral Isaac Rojas, he ruled by decree, suppressing strikes and revolts and vigorously driving the Peronists from business, government, and military posts. He later returned the country to constitutional democracy and scheduled free elections, in which he ruled out military figures (including himself) as presidential candidates. After Arturo Frondizi was elected president in Feb., 1958, Aramburu retired from the army. He ran unsuccessfully for president in 1963. In May, 1970, he was kidnapped by a Peronist guerrilla group and murdered, allegedly for his part in the execution of 27 Peronist leaders after an unsuccessful coup attempt in 1956.

Pedro Eugenio Aramburu Cilveti Army General. Born in Río Cuarto, Córdoba on May 21, 1903. He was a major force behind the military uprising against Juan Perón in 1955. He became president of Argentina from November 13, 1955 to May 1, 1958. He was kidnapped by the leftwing Peronist organization Montoneros on May 29, 1970, and executed in retaliation for involvement in June 1956, in the execution of General Juan José Valle, a loyal Army officer to the Peronist regime.

Military career

  • He studied in the Colegio Militar de la Nación
  • 1922: Sub-lieutenant
  • 1939: Major
  • 1943: Teacher in the Escuela de Guerra
  • 1951: Brigadier
  • Director of the Escuela de Guerra
  • 1955: Commander in Chief of the Army
  • 1958: Lieutenant general.

15 years of anti-Peronist political power

In September 1955, Aramburu participated in a military coup called the "Revolución Libertadora". He led the hardliners, and assumed the Presidency of Argentina himself, on November 13, 1955, with the support of Admiral Isaac ["El Caballo"] Rojas, who became Vice-President.

The "Revolucion Libertadora" which overthrew Juan Domingo Perón was in opposition to Peronist fascism. It was triggered in part by the Perón's violent and public confrontation with the Catholic Church, the Press and the Ambassador of the United States, Spruille Braden as well as the imprisonment opposition leaders and economic pandemonium. The Revolución Libertadora freed all political prisoners, lifted a ban on free press and reestablish democracy calling almost immediately for free elections without the participation of the Peronist Party.

Aramburu's military government forced Perón into Perón and barred the Peronist party from further elections. Known Peronists were persecuted and often imprisoned or murdered. Perón lived in exile in Spain until 1973 under the protection of Generalísimo Francisco Franco.

After the end of his presidential term in 1958, Aramburu retired from the military career and devoted himself entirely to politics.

He ran for president in 1963, forming the "Union del Pueblo Argentino" (UDELPA, Union of the Argentine People), with the slogan: "Vote UDELPA and HE won't return" ("Vote UDELPA y no vuelve"), referring to Perón.

With the Peronists banned, the Presidential elections resulted in Arturo Umberto Illia becoming president, with Aramburu coming in third.

Yet the military retained much real power, censoring both Peronism and its leader. The fragility of Argentine democracy was shown when Illia was overthrown in 1966 by a military coup led by General Juan Carlos Onganía.

In all those 15 years, Pedro Eugenio Aramburu was popular with much of the press. He often gave his opinions on society and politics (especially in Gente magazine, representative of Argentine high society).

In 1970, he was mentioned as a possible Presidential candidate.

Montoneros

In 1960's, rumors about Perón's return to Argentina were circulated daily. From his exile in Spain, his voice grew stronger and stronger. At the same time, leftist strength grew in Argentina as in much of South America. The example of Che Guevara influenced a generation of students in schools and universities that supported international socialism.

It was in this atmosphere that the Montoneros, led by Mario Alberto Firmenich were formed.

It is possible that the Montoneros would not have been really relevant had they not chosen the resounding "terrorist" action of kidnapping and executing the former president Pedro Eugenio Aramburu. Many commentators around the world called it a simple case of justice delayed, a "people's execution."

Death of Aramburu

On May 29, 1970 at noon, Aramburu was seized on the streets of Buenos Aires. Aramburu's disappearance kept Argentinian society on tenterhooks for a month, before it was discovered that Aramburu had been murdered three days after his kidnapping, with his corpse left in a farm in Timote, Carlos Tejedor, in the Buenos Aires Province.

In the following months, statements from the Montoneros flooded the media. Among other things they claimed historical reasons for their actions such as "the execution of 27 Peronist leaders after an unsuccessful Peronist rebellion in 1956", known as the José León Suárez massacre.

In 1974, his body was kidnapped by the Montoneros. The body was to be held until the President Isabel Peron brought back Evita Peron's body.

See also

External links

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