Expressed juice of apples. Apples are ground to a fine pulp and then pressed. Hard (alcoholic) cider is fermented in vats for up to three months before being filtered and aged (see fermentation). Sweet cider is unfermented and either drunk fresh (as in the U.S.) or mellowed in pressurized tanks first (particularly in Europe). Most cider in the U.S. is now pasteurized. Juice that is pasteurized, treated with a preservative, and often clarified before being hermetically sealed in cans or bottles is marketed as apple juice.
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Due to the heavy equipment required to extract juice from apples, apple juice is almost always commercially produced as opposed to the juices from easily juiced fruits such as oranges or lemons. In the United States, unfiltered fresh apple cider is produced by many small and large farms and mom and pop-type businesses. Apple juice is one of the most common fruit juices in the world, with world production led by China, followed by Poland, Germany and the United States.
Apple juice concentrate is produced by evaporating fresh apple juice that is extracted from fresh apples. Fresh apple juice has a concentration of around 11 to 13 brix. Evaporating the fresh juice reduces packaging volume and shipping costs. The high concentration also helps reduce spoilage of the product.
There are two types of apple juice concentrate, clear apple juice concentrate and cloudy apple juice concentrate. Pectin and starch are removed during the production process to produce clear apple juice concentrate. Cloudy apple juice concentrate's appearance arises as a result of evenly-distributed small pulp suspensions in the juice concentrate.