apostate

Weill, Kurt (Julian)

(born March 2, 1900, Dessau, Ger.—died April 3, 1950, New York, N.Y., U.S.) German-born U.S. composer. Son of a cantor, by age 15 he was working as a theatre accompanist. He studied composition briefly with Engelbert Humperdinck, and a conductor's post gave him wide experience. For a master class with Ferruccio Busoni (1920), he wrote his first symphony. He gained attention with his one-act opera Der Protagonist (1925); its sparse and spiky style prefigured that of his greatest works. In 1927 he teamed with Bertolt Brecht to write The Threepenny Opera (1928) in a new “cabaret” style; the musical had enormous success in Berlin and elsewhere. In 1930 the two produced The Rise and Fall of the City of Mahagonny. When the Nazis took power in 1933, he fled to Paris with his wife, Lotte Lenya, where he wrote The Seven Deadly Sins (1933). In 1935 the couple immigrated to the U.S.; there he collaborated on musicals such as Knickerbocker Holiday (1938) and Lost in the Stars (1949). Two of his songs, the “Morität” (“Mack the Knife”) from Threepenny Opera and “September Song” from Knickerbocker Holiday, have remained especially popular.

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(born Oct. 26, 1951, New York, N.Y., U.S.) U.S. painter. He studied at the University of Houston and the Whitney Museum of American Art. In the 1980s he was a leading exponent of Neo-Expressionism. His works exhibit an ambivalent emotional tone, jarring colour harmonies, and a rough-hewn style; his best-known works incorporate shards of broken plates. Though he has enjoyed considerable success, there has been controversy regarding both the quality of his art and his aggressive self-promotion. Starting in the 1990s, Schnabel began to pursue film. He received widespread critical acclaim for his direction of Before Night Falls (2000), a film about Cuban poet Reinaldo Arenas.

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(born March 2, 1900, Dessau, Ger.—died April 3, 1950, New York, N.Y., U.S.) German-born U.S. composer. Son of a cantor, by age 15 he was working as a theatre accompanist. He studied composition briefly with Engelbert Humperdinck, and a conductor's post gave him wide experience. For a master class with Ferruccio Busoni (1920), he wrote his first symphony. He gained attention with his one-act opera Der Protagonist (1925); its sparse and spiky style prefigured that of his greatest works. In 1927 he teamed with Bertolt Brecht to write The Threepenny Opera (1928) in a new “cabaret” style; the musical had enormous success in Berlin and elsewhere. In 1930 the two produced The Rise and Fall of the City of Mahagonny. When the Nazis took power in 1933, he fled to Paris with his wife, Lotte Lenya, where he wrote The Seven Deadly Sins (1933). In 1935 the couple immigrated to the U.S.; there he collaborated on musicals such as Knickerbocker Holiday (1938) and Lost in the Stars (1949). Two of his songs, the “Morität” (“Mack the Knife”) from Threepenny Opera and “September Song” from Knickerbocker Holiday, have remained especially popular.

Learn more about Weill, Kurt (Julian) with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born May 5, 1817, Wayne county, Ind., U.S.—died July 7, 1899, Irvington, Ind.) U.S. politician. He was admitted to the bar in 1840 and practiced law in several Indiana towns. By the mid-1840s he was a Whig member of the Indiana state legislature and a frequent author of antislavery newspaper articles. Elected to the U.S. House of Representatives as a member of the Free Soil Party in 1848, he was that party's vice-presidential candidate in 1852. In 1856 he helped form the Republican Party. Again serving in the House (1861–71), he played an important role in making emancipation a Northern war aim in the American Civil War. In 1867 he helped prepare articles of impeachment against Pres. Andrew Johnson. He later wrote books and articles on reform causes, including women's suffrage.

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(born Oct. 26, 1951, New York, N.Y., U.S.) U.S. painter. He studied at the University of Houston and the Whitney Museum of American Art. In the 1980s he was a leading exponent of Neo-Expressionism. His works exhibit an ambivalent emotional tone, jarring colour harmonies, and a rough-hewn style; his best-known works incorporate shards of broken plates. Though he has enjoyed considerable success, there has been controversy regarding both the quality of his art and his aggressive self-promotion. Starting in the 1990s, Schnabel began to pursue film. He received widespread critical acclaim for his direction of Before Night Falls (2000), a film about Cuban poet Reinaldo Arenas.

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Range of the eastern Alps. It extends southeast from the Carnic Alps in northeastern Italy to the city of Ljubljana, Slvn. The highest peak is Triglav (9,396 ft [2,864 m]), also the highest point in Slovenia.

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or Julian the Apostate Latin Julianus Apostata orig. Flavius Claudius Julianus

Julian the Apostate, detail of a marble statue; in the Louvre, Paris

(born AD 331/332, Constantinople—died June 26/27, 363, Ctesiphon, Mesopotamia) Roman emperor (361–363), noted scholar and military leader. The nephew of Constantine I, he was raised a Christian but converted to mystical paganism. As caesar (subemperor) in the west, he restored the Rhine frontier and was proclaimed Augustus (senior emperor) by his armies. Though Constantius II initially objected to Julian as his successor, he accepted him on his deathbed (361). As emperor Julian proclaimed freedom of worship for pagans and Christians in 361; he nevertheless promoted paganism over Christianity, against which he committed acts of violence and persecution. He introduced austerity to government, reducing imperial staff and overhauling imperial finances. To reassert Roman power in the east he attacked Persia; the effort failed, and he was killed in a retreat near Baghdad.

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(born May 5, 1817, Wayne county, Ind., U.S.—died July 7, 1899, Irvington, Ind.) U.S. politician. He was admitted to the bar in 1840 and practiced law in several Indiana towns. By the mid-1840s he was a Whig member of the Indiana state legislature and a frequent author of antislavery newspaper articles. Elected to the U.S. House of Representatives as a member of the Free Soil Party in 1848, he was that party's vice-presidential candidate in 1852. In 1856 he helped form the Republican Party. Again serving in the House (1861–71), he played an important role in making emancipation a Northern war aim in the American Civil War. In 1867 he helped prepare articles of impeachment against Pres. Andrew Johnson. He later wrote books and articles on reform causes, including women's suffrage.

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(born Jan. 14, 1940, Nashville, Tenn., U.S.) U.S. politician and civil-rights leader. The son of prominent educators, Bond graduated from Morehouse College. In 1960 he helped create the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC). In 1965 he was elected to the Georgia legislature, but his support of a SNCC statement accusing the U.S. of violating international law in the Vietnam War caused the legislature to deny him his seat. He was twice reelected and was twice more refused entry. The U.S. Supreme Court ruled his exclusion unconstitutional in December 1966, and he assumed his seat in January 1967. He later served in the state senate (1975–87). In 1998 he became chairman of the NAACP.

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