Antoine

Antoine

[an-twahn; Fr. ahn-twan]
Simon, Antoine, 1736-94, French revolutionary, often called "the shoemaker," a member of the Commune of Paris. He and his wife guarded the dauphin, Louis XVII, in prison. Their reputed brutality and coarseness made them infamous. A friend of Maximilien Robespierre and Jean Paul Marat, Simon was executed after the coup of 9 Thermidor.
Gérin-Lajoie, Antoine, 1824-82, French Canadian author and journalist, b. Quebec prov. After serving as an editor (1845-52) on the Minerve, a Montreal newspaper, he entered government employment and spent the later part of his life as assistant librarian of Parliament. He also founded two short-lived literary magazines, Les Soirées canadiennes and Le Foyer canadien. His most popular works, the two novels Jean Rivard le défrieheur (1874) and Jean Rivard l'économiste (1876), idealize the simple life of rural French Canadians. He also wrote Dix Ans au Canada, de 1840 à 1850, a history of the government in that crucial time.
Court, Antoine, 1696-1760, French Protestant preacher, called the Restorer of Protestantism in France. He was successful in reorganizing the remnants of the persecuted Calvinists in France. With a price on his head, he escaped to Lausanne in 1730, where he spent the remainder of his life directing the theological seminary that he founded.
Coysevox, Antoine, 1640-1720, French sculptor. He enjoyed the patronage of Louis XIV and produced a great part of the sculpture at Versailles. His Winged Horses, at the entrance to the Tuileries gardens, and his portrait and memorial sculptures show free, vigorous, and original treatment. The bust of Condé (Le Havre), that of Colbert (Versailles), and the tomb of Mazarin (Louvre) are notable works.
Duprat, Antoine, 1463-1535, chancellor of France and cardinal. First president of the Paris Parlement (1508), he was a trusted adviser of Louise of Savoy, who appointed him tutor to her son, the future King Francis I. Upon assuming the throne in 1515, Francis I made Duprat chancellor. Duprat negotiated the Concordat with Leo X (1516), which increased the royal authority over the Roman Catholic Church. Using his office to augment the growth of absolute monarchy, he sought to decrease the power of the parlements and reformed the financial system. In 1525 he governed France during the king's brief captivity following the battle of Pavia. His wife having died (1508), Duprat took Holy Orders in 1516 and was made a cardinal in 1527 and papal legate in 1530.
Daniel, Antoine (Saint Antony Daniel), 1600-1648, French missionary in the New World, a Jesuit priest. He came in 1632 to Canada and in 1634 went with Father Jean Brébeuf as missionary to the Huron. He was killed by the Iroquois. One of the Jesuit martyrs of North America, he was beatified in 1925 and canonized in 1930. Feast: Mar. 16 (among the Jesuits) and Sept. 26.
Étex, Antoine, 1808-88, French sculptor, painter, and architect. A pupil of Ingres, he is best known as a sculptor. Among his works are two large groups, Resistance and Peace, on the Arc de Triomphe de l'Étoile, Paris; Géricault's tomb; and the monument to Ingres at Montauban.
Antoine, André, 1858-1943, French theatrical director, manager, and critic. In opposition to the teachings of the Paris Conservatory, he formed (1887) his own company, the Théâtre Libre. There he presented, by private subscriptions, foremost works of the naturalistic school. He emphasized an intimate style of acting and a realistic use of space and tried to eliminate grand posturing. Financial failure forced him to relinquish the theater (1894). In 1897 he founded the Théâtre Antoine, where he continued the tradition of his Théâtre Libre for 10 years. He was director (1906-14) of the Odéon in Paris and after World War I became a respected drama critic.
Antoine, Père, 1748-1829, Spanish priest in New Orleans, a Capuchin friar. His family name was Mareno, and the Spanish name given to him by the church was Antonio de Sedella. Through many years of service at St. Louis Cathedral under Spanish, briefly French, and then U.S. rule, he won great love and respect from his French congregation, who had previously regarded his harshness with distaste. He was almost constantly at war with the authorities. The Spanish colonial rulers once sent him back as a prisoner to Spain, and U.S. officials were later highly incensed at his secret dealings with the Spanish. The legend that he was empowered to introduce the Inquisition to Louisiana but refrained from doing so is apparently based on fact.
Pevsner, Antoine, 1886-1962, Russian sculptor and painter. He was influenced by cubism while in Paris in 1911 and 1913. During World War I he was in Norway with his brother Naum Gabo. They returned to Moscow after the Russian Revolution. Pevsner taught at the Moscow academy and associated with avant-garde artists such as Malevich and Tatlin. He and Gabo worked together in 1920 on the manifesto of constructivism. In sculpture Pevsner created constructivist works in bronze and other materials, such as his portrait of Marcel Duchamp (1926; Yale Univ.). His rhythmic, abstract designs intended a new synthesis of the plastic arts. Impending conflict with the regime caused Pevsner to leave the Soviet Union in 1922. The next year he settled in France. Several of his constructions are in the Museum of Modern Art, New York City.

See biography by his brother, Alexi Pevsner (1964).

(born Oct. 10, 1684, Valenciennes, France—died July 18, 1721, Nogent-sur-Marne) French painter. Son of a roof tiler in Valenciennes, he was apprenticed to a local artist. At 18 he moved to Paris, where he worked for a series of painters; one of them was a theatrical scenery painter, and much of Watteau's work consequently embraced the artifice of the theatre, particularly the commedia dell'arte and the ballet. His works typified the lyrically charming and graceful Rococo style. The greatest, his Pilgrimage to the Island of Cythera, depicts pilgrims setting out for (or departing from) the mythic island of love and was his presentation piece when he was inducted into the academy in 1717. The academicians, unable to fit him into any of the recognized categories, welcomed him as a painter of fêtes galantes (“elegant festivities”), an important new genre to which countless later Rococo pictures belong.

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Louis de Saint-Just, portrait after a red chalk drawing by Christophe Guérin, 1793.

(born Aug. 25, 1767, Decize, France—died July 28, 1794, Paris) French Revolutionary leader. In support of the French Revolution, he wrote the radical Esprit de la révolution et de la constitution de France (1791) and was elected to the National Convention in 1792. A close associate of Maximilien Robespierre and a member of the Committee of Public Safety, he was elected president of the Convention in 1793 and sponsored the Ventôse (March) Decrees, which confiscated property of the Revolution's enemies and redistributed it to the poor. He led the victorious attack against the Austrians at Fleurus (in modern Belgium). A fanatical leader of the Reign of Terror, he was arrested in the Thermidorian Reaction and guillotined.

Learn more about Saint-Just, Louis (-Antoine-Léon) de with a free trial on Britannica.com.

orig. Natan Borisovich Pevzner

(born Jan. 18, 1886, Oryol, Russia—died April 12, 1962, Paris, France) Russian-born French sculptor and painter. After travels to Paris and Oslo, he returned to become a professor at Moscow's school of fine arts. He helped form the Suprematist group, and in 1920 he and his brother, Naum Gabo, issued the Realist Manifesto of Constructivism. He settled in Paris in 1923. He used zinc, brass, copper, and celluloid for his early sculptures; later he relied mainly on parallel arrays of bronze wire soldered together to form plates, which he joined to form intricate shapes.

Learn more about Pevsner, Antoine with a free trial on Britannica.com.

Louis de Saint-Just, portrait after a red chalk drawing by Christophe Guérin, 1793.

(born Aug. 25, 1767, Decize, France—died July 28, 1794, Paris) French Revolutionary leader. In support of the French Revolution, he wrote the radical Esprit de la révolution et de la constitution de France (1791) and was elected to the National Convention in 1792. A close associate of Maximilien Robespierre and a member of the Committee of Public Safety, he was elected president of the Convention in 1793 and sponsored the Ventôse (March) Decrees, which confiscated property of the Revolution's enemies and redistributed it to the poor. He led the victorious attack against the Austrians at Fleurus (in modern Belgium). A fanatical leader of the Reign of Terror, he was arrested in the Thermidorian Reaction and guillotined.

Learn more about Saint-Just, Louis (-Antoine-Léon) de with a free trial on Britannica.com.

“Diana,” bronze sculpture by Houdon, c. 1777; in the Louvre, Paris

(born March 20, 1741, Versailles, Fr.—died July 15, 1828, Paris) French sculptor. He studied with Jean-Baptiste Pigalle in Paris and in 1761 won the Prix de Rome. In Rome (1764–68) he achieved immediate fame with an anatomical study of a standing man (circa 1767), casts of which were widely used in art academies. He became a member of the Royal Academy in Paris (1777) with his reclining Morpheus. He produced numerous religious and mythological works that are definitive expressions of the decorative 18th-century Rococo style of sculpture. His greatest strength was in capturing the individuality of his portrait subjects, including such luminaries as Denis Diderot, Catherine II the Great, Benjamin Franklin, the Marquis de Lafayette, and Voltaire. In the U.S. he made a marble statue of George Washington (1788). The vividness of physiognomy and character in his busts places him among the greatest portrait sculptors in history.

Learn more about Houdon, Jean-Antoine with a free trial on Britannica.com.

“Diana,” bronze sculpture by Houdon, c. 1777; in the Louvre, Paris

(born March 20, 1741, Versailles, Fr.—died July 15, 1828, Paris) French sculptor. He studied with Jean-Baptiste Pigalle in Paris and in 1761 won the Prix de Rome. In Rome (1764–68) he achieved immediate fame with an anatomical study of a standing man (circa 1767), casts of which were widely used in art academies. He became a member of the Royal Academy in Paris (1777) with his reclining Morpheus. He produced numerous religious and mythological works that are definitive expressions of the decorative 18th-century Rococo style of sculpture. His greatest strength was in capturing the individuality of his portrait subjects, including such luminaries as Denis Diderot, Catherine II the Great, Benjamin Franklin, the Marquis de Lafayette, and Voltaire. In the U.S. he made a marble statue of George Washington (1788). The vividness of physiognomy and character in his busts places him among the greatest portrait sculptors in history.

Learn more about Houdon, Jean-Antoine with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born March 16, 1771, Paris, Fr.—died June 26, 1835, Paris) French painter. He was trained by his father, a painter of miniatures, and later byJacques-Louis David in Paris. In the 1790s he accompanied Napoleon on his campaigns as his official battle painter. The dramatic power of such paintings as Napoleon Visiting the Pesthouse at Jaffa (1804) influenced Théodore Géricault and Eugène Delacroix. When David went into exile after Napoleon's defeat, Gros took over his studio and tried to work in the Neoclassical style. His best works after 1815 were portraits. Haunted by a sense of failure, he drowned himself in the Seine. He was a leading figure in the development of Romanticism.

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(born Sept. 29, 1640, Lyon, Fr.—died Oct. 10, 1720, Paris) French sculptor. In 1666 he became sculptor to Louis XIV and by 1678 was working at Versailles. He was known for his portrait busts, which show a naturalism and animation of expression that anticipates the Rococo style. He also executed decorative sculpture for the royal gardens and did much interior decoration. Coysevox exerted considerable influence on the development of French portrait sculpture in the 18th century.

Learn more about Coysevox, Antoine with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born March 16, 1771, Paris, Fr.—died June 26, 1835, Paris) French painter. He was trained by his father, a painter of miniatures, and later byJacques-Louis David in Paris. In the 1790s he accompanied Napoleon on his campaigns as his official battle painter. The dramatic power of such paintings as Napoleon Visiting the Pesthouse at Jaffa (1804) influenced Théodore Géricault and Eugène Delacroix. When David went into exile after Napoleon's defeat, Gros took over his studio and tried to work in the Neoclassical style. His best works after 1815 were portraits. Haunted by a sense of failure, he drowned himself in the Seine. He was a leading figure in the development of Romanticism.

Learn more about Gros, Antoine-Jean with a free trial on Britannica.com.

orig. Natan Borisovich Pevzner

(born Jan. 18, 1886, Oryol, Russia—died April 12, 1962, Paris, France) Russian-born French sculptor and painter. After travels to Paris and Oslo, he returned to become a professor at Moscow's school of fine arts. He helped form the Suprematist group, and in 1920 he and his brother, Naum Gabo, issued the Realist Manifesto of Constructivism. He settled in Paris in 1923. He used zinc, brass, copper, and celluloid for his early sculptures; later he relied mainly on parallel arrays of bronze wire soldered together to form plates, which he joined to form intricate shapes.

Learn more about Pevsner, Antoine with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born Sept. 29, 1640, Lyon, Fr.—died Oct. 10, 1720, Paris) French sculptor. In 1666 he became sculptor to Louis XIV and by 1678 was working at Versailles. He was known for his portrait busts, which show a naturalism and animation of expression that anticipates the Rococo style. He also executed decorative sculpture for the royal gardens and did much interior decoration. Coysevox exerted considerable influence on the development of French portrait sculpture in the 18th century.

Learn more about Coysevox, Antoine with a free trial on Britannica.com.

Antoine is a town in Pike County, Arkansas, United States, along the Antoine River. The population was 156 at the 2000 census.

Geography

Antoine is located at (34.036183, -93.421787). It is located on hills immediately west of the Antoine River.

According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 1.3 km² (0.5 mi²), all land.

History

The town of Antoine began as a stopping point on the old Southwest Trail to Texas in the early 1800's. It was named for a French trapper who was found dead at his camp beside the road (on the site of the present town cemetery). The only identification found on the man was his first name, "Antoine". He was buried on the hill by the river, and the gravesite became a landmark for travellers. Eventually, the name was given to the river and to the town that grew up beside it. Antoine's grave is located somewhere within the bounds of the town cemetery, although the marker has disappeared over time. There are also two Bois-D'Arc marker-trees of the Southwest Trail that remain alive within the town, both located on what is now Main Street/Arkansas Highway 29.

The town suffered little damage during the Civil War, remaining in Confederate hands until 1865. In the late 1860's and early 1870's, a major new railroad line was established through Southwest Arkansas. This event was of major importance to Antoine, since the new route was established about 20 miles southeast of the former main artery of commerce (the Southwest Trail), and thereby bypassed Antoine. Because of this, businesses and settlers began to abandon towns along the old route, and the town began a slow decline from which it ultimately never recovered.

In the 1890's and early 1900's, there was a logging and railroad boom in the area that lasted up through the Depression years. During this time, railroad connections were established with Gurdon to the south and Amity to the north, and with Delight to the west. The historic railroad trestle over the Antoine River was built in 1908 and remains in use today.

During the Depression and afterwards, Antoine experienced a slow but steady decline in population.

Today, the main activities include logging, ranching, truck farming, and tourism. Most residents work in the nearby cities of Arkadelphia, Hope, or Nashville.

Demographics

As of the census of 2000, there were 156 people, 64 households, and 44 families residing in the town. The population density was 118.1/km² (305.3/mi²). There were 74 housing units at an average density of 56.0/km² (144.8/mi²). The racial makeup of the town was 93.59% White, 5.77% Black or African American, and 0.64% from two or more races. 0.00% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.

There were 64 households out of which 31.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 59.4% were married couples living together, 7.8% had a female householder with no husband present, and 29.7% were non-families. 29.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 17.2% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.44 and the average family size was 3.02.

In the town the population was spread out with 26.3% under the age of 18, 8.3% from 18 to 24, 21.2% from 25 to 44, 26.3% from 45 to 64, and 17.9% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 42 years. For every 100 females there were 83.5 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 88.5 males.

The median income for a household in the town was $23,750, and the median income for a family was $24,583. Males had a median income of $14,583 versus $13,333 for females. The per capita income for the town was $13,191. About 7.3% of families and 12.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 15.9% of those under the age of eighteen and 18.2% of those sixty five or over.

References

External links

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