Voluntary fellowship of people suffering from alcoholism who seek to become and stay sober through mutual self-help by meeting in local, independent groups to share their common experience. Anonymity, confidentiality, and understanding of alcoholism as a disease free members to speak frankly. Many consider AA to be the most successful method of coping with alcoholism; participation raises the chances of success of other treatments. Its 12 steps to recovery include acknowledgment of the problem, faith in a “higher power” as understood by each individual, self-examination, and a desire to change for the better and to help others recover. Begun in 1935 by two alcoholics, AA has grown to some 2 million members worldwide. Similar organizations for abusers of other substances and for habitual gamblers and debtors are based on its principles.
Learn more about Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) with a free trial on Britannica.com.
Some of these scripts are used to forward email lists to the newsgroup alt.activism.underground. By doing this, activists can read important action alerts and other information without being included on the servers email lists that run the lists. Email headers are removed from these posts, as well as email addresses themselves are altered to help avoid spam.
Unix bash scripts are used because it is easy for other to alter or correct errors in the scripts, and because it is an easy way to try out new ideas. It is used as a rough draft, before the eventual move to stable binary programs.