Anomura (sometimes Anomala) is a group of decapod crustaceans, including hermit crabs and others. Although the names of many anomurans includes the word crab, all true crabs are in the sister group to the Anomura, the Brachyura (the two groups together form the clade Meiura).

The name Anomala reflects the unusual variety of forms in this group; whereas all crabs share some obvious similarities, the various groups of anomurans are quite dissimilar. The name Anomura derives from an old classification in which reptant decapods were divided into Macrura (long-tailed), Brachyura (short-tailed) and Anomura (differently-tailed).

As decapods (meaning ten-legged), Anomurans have ten pereiopods, but the last pair of these is often hidden inside the gill chamber (under the carapace) and is used for keeping the gills clean. Since this arrangement is never found in true crabs, a "crab" with only eight pereiopods must be an Anomuran.

The Infraorder Anomura is divided into four superfamilies:



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