Anna

Anna

[ah-nuh]
Freud, Anna, 1895-1982, British psychoanalyst, b. Vienna, Austria. Continuing the work of her father, Sigmund Freud, she was a pioneer in the psychoanalysis of children. She received her training in Vienna before emigrating (1938) with her father to England, where she founded and directed a clinic for child therapy. In an influential 1937 work, she argued that the ego had an active role in resolving conflict and tension. Other psychoanalysts, including Heinz Hartmann and Erik Erikson, advanced her ideas in their own work. Her writings include Normality and Pathology in Childhood (1965) and The Writings of Anna Freud (7 vol., 1973).

See biography by R. Coles (1992).

Held, Anna, 1873?-1918, American musical comedy actress, b. Paris. She is remembered for her beauty and charm and for her tempestuous off-stage life. After she had small singing and dancing parts in Paris, success came to her when Florenz Ziegfeld (whom she subsequently married) persuaded her to come to the United States to star in the first of his lavish productions, A Parlor Match (1896). She was long a favorite on the New York stage; some of her outstanding performances were seen in The Little Duchess, The Parisian Model, and Miss Innocence.
Anna (Anna Ivanovna), 1693-1740, czarina of Russia (1730-40), daughter of Ivan V and niece of Peter I (Peter the Great). On the death of her distant cousin, Peter II, she was chosen czarina by the supreme privy council, which thus hoped to gain power for itself. Anna signed articles limiting her power, but she soon restored autocratic rule, with support from the lesser nobility and the imperial guards. She made minor concessions to the nobles but restored the security police and terrorized opponents. Distrusting the nobility, she excluded Russians from high positions and surrounded herself with Baltic Germans. Her favorite, Ernst Johann von Biron, had the greatest influence. Allied with Holy Roman Emperor Charles VI, Anna intervened in the War of the Polish Succession (1733-35), installed Augustus III as king of Poland, and attacked Turkey in 1736. Charles's separate peace with the Turks at Belgrade forced Russia to make peace in turn, at the price of all recent conquests except Azov. During Anna's reign began the great Russian push into central Asia. She was succeeded by her grandnephew, Ivan VI.
Anna, [Gr.,=Heb. Hannah], in the Bible. 1 Aged prophetess who hailed Jesus' presentation at the Temple. 2 In the Book of Tobit, the mother of young Tobias.
Seghers, Anna, 1900-1983, German novelist, whose original name was Netty Reiling Rádvanyi. She won fame with her first novel of social protest, The Revolt of the Fishermen, (1929, tr. 1930), but in 1933 she was forced to leave Germany. In Mexico she wrote The Seventh Cross (1939, tr. 1942), a poignant story of escape from a concentration camp. Other works include Transit (1942, tr. 1944) and a study of Tolstoy and Dostoyevsky (1963). After World War II she settled in East Berlin.
Seward, Anna, 1742-1809, English poet, called the Swan of Lichfield. A member of the Lichfield literary group, which included Thomas Day and Erasmus Darwin, she was acquainted also with Dr. Johnson and James Boswell. She bequeathed her literary works to Sir Walter Scott, who edited them (3 vol., 1810).

See selected letters, with short biography (ed. by H. Pearson, 1936).

Sewell, Anna, 1820-78, English author. Her only work, Black Beauty (1877), the story of a horse, became a children's classic and has gone into many reprints. Her mother, Mary Wright Sewell, 1797-1884, was also a popular writer for children.

See study by M. J. Baker (1957).

Bijns, Anna, 1494?-1575?, Flemish poet of Antwerp. Her three volumes (1528, 1548, 1567) of lyric verse place her among the foremost Dutch poets of her age. She excelled in robust satires passionately inveighing against the social evils of the day and deploring the Reformation. Bijns's religious poetry is sincere and moving.
Akhmatova, Anna, pseud. of Anna Andreyevna Gorenko, 1888-1966, Russian poet of the Acmeist school. Her brief lyrics, simply and musically written in the tradition of Pushkin, attained great popularity. Her themes were personal, emotional, and often ironic. Among her most popular volumes are Chiotki [the rosary] (1914) and Iva [the willow tree] (1940). She was married to the Acmeist poet Gumilev until 1918. Akhmatova remained silent for two decades. She began publishing again at the outbreak of World War II, after which her writings regained popularity. A courageous critic of Stalinism with a large underground following, she was harshly denounced by the Soviet regime in 1946 and 1957 for "bourgeois decadence."

Bibliography

See her Selected Poems (tr. 1969), Poems of Akhmatova (tr. 1973), and The Complete Poems of Anna Akhmatova (1990, in Russian and English translation); her autobiographical writings in My Half Century: Selected Prose (1992), ed. by R. Meyer; biographies by A. Haight (1976, repr. 1990), R. Reeder (1995) and E. Feinstein (2006); study by S. N. Driver (1972).

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