Anna

Anna

[ah-nuh]
Freud, Anna, 1895-1982, British psychoanalyst, b. Vienna, Austria. Continuing the work of her father, Sigmund Freud, she was a pioneer in the psychoanalysis of children. She received her training in Vienna before emigrating (1938) with her father to England, where she founded and directed a clinic for child therapy. In an influential 1937 work, she argued that the ego had an active role in resolving conflict and tension. Other psychoanalysts, including Heinz Hartmann and Erik Erikson, advanced her ideas in their own work. Her writings include Normality and Pathology in Childhood (1965) and The Writings of Anna Freud (7 vol., 1973).

See biography by R. Coles (1992).

Held, Anna, 1873?-1918, American musical comedy actress, b. Paris. She is remembered for her beauty and charm and for her tempestuous off-stage life. After she had small singing and dancing parts in Paris, success came to her when Florenz Ziegfeld (whom she subsequently married) persuaded her to come to the United States to star in the first of his lavish productions, A Parlor Match (1896). She was long a favorite on the New York stage; some of her outstanding performances were seen in The Little Duchess, The Parisian Model, and Miss Innocence.
Anna (Anna Ivanovna), 1693-1740, czarina of Russia (1730-40), daughter of Ivan V and niece of Peter I (Peter the Great). On the death of her distant cousin, Peter II, she was chosen czarina by the supreme privy council, which thus hoped to gain power for itself. Anna signed articles limiting her power, but she soon restored autocratic rule, with support from the lesser nobility and the imperial guards. She made minor concessions to the nobles but restored the security police and terrorized opponents. Distrusting the nobility, she excluded Russians from high positions and surrounded herself with Baltic Germans. Her favorite, Ernst Johann von Biron, had the greatest influence. Allied with Holy Roman Emperor Charles VI, Anna intervened in the War of the Polish Succession (1733-35), installed Augustus III as king of Poland, and attacked Turkey in 1736. Charles's separate peace with the Turks at Belgrade forced Russia to make peace in turn, at the price of all recent conquests except Azov. During Anna's reign began the great Russian push into central Asia. She was succeeded by her grandnephew, Ivan VI.
Anna, [Gr.,=Heb. Hannah], in the Bible. 1 Aged prophetess who hailed Jesus' presentation at the Temple. 2 In the Book of Tobit, the mother of young Tobias.
Seghers, Anna, 1900-1983, German novelist, whose original name was Netty Reiling Rádvanyi. She won fame with her first novel of social protest, The Revolt of the Fishermen, (1929, tr. 1930), but in 1933 she was forced to leave Germany. In Mexico she wrote The Seventh Cross (1939, tr. 1942), a poignant story of escape from a concentration camp. Other works include Transit (1942, tr. 1944) and a study of Tolstoy and Dostoyevsky (1963). After World War II she settled in East Berlin.
Seward, Anna, 1742-1809, English poet, called the Swan of Lichfield. A member of the Lichfield literary group, which included Thomas Day and Erasmus Darwin, she was acquainted also with Dr. Johnson and James Boswell. She bequeathed her literary works to Sir Walter Scott, who edited them (3 vol., 1810).

See selected letters, with short biography (ed. by H. Pearson, 1936).

Sewell, Anna, 1820-78, English author. Her only work, Black Beauty (1877), the story of a horse, became a children's classic and has gone into many reprints. Her mother, Mary Wright Sewell, 1797-1884, was also a popular writer for children.

See study by M. J. Baker (1957).

Bijns, Anna, 1494?-1575?, Flemish poet of Antwerp. Her three volumes (1528, 1548, 1567) of lyric verse place her among the foremost Dutch poets of her age. She excelled in robust satires passionately inveighing against the social evils of the day and deploring the Reformation. Bijns's religious poetry is sincere and moving.
Akhmatova, Anna, pseud. of Anna Andreyevna Gorenko, 1888-1966, Russian poet of the Acmeist school. Her brief lyrics, simply and musically written in the tradition of Pushkin, attained great popularity. Her themes were personal, emotional, and often ironic. Among her most popular volumes are Chiotki [the rosary] (1914) and Iva [the willow tree] (1940). She was married to the Acmeist poet Gumilev until 1918. Akhmatova remained silent for two decades. She began publishing again at the outbreak of World War II, after which her writings regained popularity. A courageous critic of Stalinism with a large underground following, she was harshly denounced by the Soviet regime in 1946 and 1957 for "bourgeois decadence."

Bibliography

See her Selected Poems (tr. 1969), Poems of Akhmatova (tr. 1973), and The Complete Poems of Anna Akhmatova (1990, in Russian and English translation); her autobiographical writings in My Half Century: Selected Prose (1992), ed. by R. Meyer; biographies by A. Haight (1976, repr. 1990), R. Reeder (1995) and E. Feinstein (2006); study by S. N. Driver (1972).

(born Feb. 14, 1847, Newcastle upon Tyne, Northumberland, Eng.—died July 2, 1919, Moylan, Pa., U.S.) U.S. minister and suffragist. She arrived in the U.S. with her family in 1851. By age 15 she was a frontier schoolteacher, and in 1880 she became the first woman minister of the Methodist Protestant Church. She took up the causes of temperance and woman suffrage in 1885 and became an important spokesperson for both. She earned a medical degree the next year and later served as president of the National American Woman Suffrage Association (1904–15). She performed home-front war work during World War I, for which she received the Distinguished Service Medal in 1919. She died shortly before women gained the right to vote.

Learn more about Shaw, Anna Howard with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born March 30, 1820, Yarmouth, Norfolk, Eng.—died April 25, 1878, Old Catton, Norfolk) British writer. She was introduced to writing by her mother, an author of juvenile best-sellers, and her concern for the humane treatment of horses began early in life. Confined to her house as an invalid, she spent her last years writing the children's classic Black Beauty (1877), a fictional autobiography of a gentle, highbred horse. It had a strong moral purpose and is said to have been instrumental in abolishing the cruel practice of using the checkrein (a short rein used to prevent a horse from lowering its head).

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Eleanor Roosevelt, 1950.

(born Oct. 11, 1884, New York, N.Y., U.S.—died Nov. 7, 1962, New York City) U.S. first lady and diplomat. The niece of Theodore Roosevelt, she married her distant cousin, Franklin D. Roosevelt, in 1905. She raised their five children and became active in politics after her husband's polio attack (1921). As first lady (1933–45), she traveled around the U.S. to report on living conditions and public opinion for her husband, and she supported humanitarian causes such as child welfare, equal rights, and social reforms. During World War II, she traveled in Britain and the South Pacific as well as to U.S. military bases to help raise morale. She wrote the syndicated column “My Day,” as well as several books. After her husband's death, she was appointed a delegate to the UN (1945, 1949–52, 1961), whose founding she had strongly advocated. As chair of its Commission on Human Rights (1946–51), she helped draft the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948). In the 1950s she traveled around the world for the UN and remained active in the Democratic Party.

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Self-portrait, painting on canvas by Angelica Kauffmann; in the Staatliche Museen Preussischer elipsis

(born Oct. 30, 1741, Chur, Switz.—died Nov. 5, 1807, Rome, Papal States) Swiss-born Italian painter. She began studying art in Italy as a child, showing great precocity, and in 1766 her friend Joshua Reynolds took her to London. There she became known for her decorative work with architects such as Robert Adam. Her pastoral compositions incorporate delicate and graceful depictions of gods and goddesses; though her paintings are Rococo in tone and approach, her figures are Neoclassical (see Classicism and Neoclassicism). Her portraits of female sitters are among her finest works. After marrying the painter Antonio Zucchi (1726–95), she returned to Italy in 1781.

Learn more about Kauffmann, (Maria Anna) Angelica (Catharina) with a free trial on Britannica.com.

orig. Anna Andreyevna Gorenko

Anna Akhmatova.

(born June 23, 1889, Bolshoy Fontan, near Odessa, Ukraine, Russian Empire—died March 5, 1966, Domodedovo, near Moscow) Russian poet. She won fame with her first poetry collections (1912, 1914). Soon after the Revolution of 1917, Soviet authorities condemned her work for what they perceived as its narrow preoccupation with love and God, and in 1923, after the execution of her former husband on conspiracy charges, she entered a long period of literary silence. After World War II she was again denounced and expelled from the Writers Union. Following Joseph Stalin's death in 1953, she was slowly rehabilitated. In her later years she became the influential centre of a circle of younger Russian poets. Her longest work, Poem Without a Hero, is regarded as one of the great poems of the 20th century. Regarded today as one of the greatest of all Russian poets, she is also admired for her translations of other poets' works and for her memoirs.

Learn more about Akhmatova, Anna with a free trial on Britannica.com.

Anna Freud, circa 1970.

(born Dec. 3, 1895, Vienna, Austria—died Oct. 9, 1982, London, Eng.) Austrian-born British psychiatrist, founder of the field of child psychiatry. Daughter of Sigmund Freud, she pioneered in developing psychoanalytic theory and practice. In The Ego and Defense Mechanisms (1936), Freud called repression the principal human defense mechanism. This gave a strong, new impetus to the role of ego in psychology. She and her terminally ill father escaped Nazi-dominated Austria for London in 1938. She co-wrote three books on the effects of war on children. A summation of her thoughts is found in Normality and Pathology in Childhood (1968).

Learn more about Freud, Anna with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born March 30, 1820, Yarmouth, Norfolk, Eng.—died April 25, 1878, Old Catton, Norfolk) British writer. She was introduced to writing by her mother, an author of juvenile best-sellers, and her concern for the humane treatment of horses began early in life. Confined to her house as an invalid, she spent her last years writing the children's classic Black Beauty (1877), a fictional autobiography of a gentle, highbred horse. It had a strong moral purpose and is said to have been instrumental in abolishing the cruel practice of using the checkrein (a short rein used to prevent a horse from lowering its head).

Learn more about Sewell, Anna with a free trial on Britannica.com.

Anna Ivanovna, enameled miniature by an unknown artist, 18th century; in the collection of Mrs. elipsis

(born Jan. 28, 1693, Moscow, Russia—died Oct. 17, 1740, St. Petersburg) Empress of Russia (1730–40). After the death of Peter II, the Supreme Privy Council, Russia's actual ruling body, offered Anna the throne (as the daughter of Ivan V) if she agreed to conditions placing the real power in the council's hands. She initially agreed but later tore up the conditions, abolished the council, and reestablished the autocracy, countenancing a severely repressive regime. She occupied herself primarily with extravagant amusements and relied on her lover, Ernst Johann Biron (1690–1772), and a group of German advisers to manage the state. Shortly before her death, Anna named as her successor her grand-nephew Ivan (later Ivan VI).

Learn more about Anna (Ivanovna) with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born Feb. 14, 1847, Newcastle upon Tyne, Northumberland, Eng.—died July 2, 1919, Moylan, Pa., U.S.) U.S. minister and suffragist. She arrived in the U.S. with her family in 1851. By age 15 she was a frontier schoolteacher, and in 1880 she became the first woman minister of the Methodist Protestant Church. She took up the causes of temperance and woman suffrage in 1885 and became an important spokesperson for both. She earned a medical degree the next year and later served as president of the National American Woman Suffrage Association (1904–15). She performed home-front war work during World War I, for which she received the Distinguished Service Medal in 1919. She died shortly before women gained the right to vote.

Learn more about Shaw, Anna Howard with a free trial on Britannica.com.

Anna Freud, circa 1970.

(born Dec. 3, 1895, Vienna, Austria—died Oct. 9, 1982, London, Eng.) Austrian-born British psychiatrist, founder of the field of child psychiatry. Daughter of Sigmund Freud, she pioneered in developing psychoanalytic theory and practice. In The Ego and Defense Mechanisms (1936), Freud called repression the principal human defense mechanism. This gave a strong, new impetus to the role of ego in psychology. She and her terminally ill father escaped Nazi-dominated Austria for London in 1938. She co-wrote three books on the effects of war on children. A summation of her thoughts is found in Normality and Pathology in Childhood (1968).

Learn more about Freud, Anna with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born Dec. 2, 1083—died circa 1153) Byzantine historian. Daughter of the emperor Alexius I Comnenus, she conspired with her mother against her brother John II Comnenus; when the plot was discovered, she was forced to enter a convent. There she wrote the Alexiad, a biography of her father and a pro-Byzantine account of the early Crusades.

Learn more about Anna Comnena with a free trial on Britannica.com.

orig. Anna Andreyevna Gorenko

Anna Akhmatova.

(born June 23, 1889, Bolshoy Fontan, near Odessa, Ukraine, Russian Empire—died March 5, 1966, Domodedovo, near Moscow) Russian poet. She won fame with her first poetry collections (1912, 1914). Soon after the Revolution of 1917, Soviet authorities condemned her work for what they perceived as its narrow preoccupation with love and God, and in 1923, after the execution of her former husband on conspiracy charges, she entered a long period of literary silence. After World War II she was again denounced and expelled from the Writers Union. Following Joseph Stalin's death in 1953, she was slowly rehabilitated. In her later years she became the influential centre of a circle of younger Russian poets. Her longest work, Poem Without a Hero, is regarded as one of the great poems of the 20th century. Regarded today as one of the greatest of all Russian poets, she is also admired for her translations of other poets' works and for her memoirs.

Learn more about Akhmatova, Anna with a free trial on Britannica.com.

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