Greek and Latin roots in English

The following is an alphabetical list of Greek and Latin roots commonly used in English.

Those used in medicine and medical terminology are not listed here but instead in Wikipedia's List of medical roots, suffixes and prefixes.


Root Meaning In English Origin Language Etymology (Root Origin) English Examples
a-, ab-, abs- from, away from, away, different from, separated from Latin ab "away", from Greek apo "away" abnormal, abrasion, absorb, abstract
a-, an- not, without Greek Greek α-/αν- "a-/an" "not" atypical, ahistorical
ac-, ak-, acu- sharp or pointed Latin acutus past participle of acuere "to sharpen", from acus "needle" acid, acupunture
acr-, acro- height, summit, tip Greek Greek άκρος ákros "high", "extreme" acrophobia acrobat, acronym acromegalia
ad- (related cognate prefixes a-, ac-, af-, ag-, al-, ap-, as-, at-) movement to or toward; in addition to Latin ad "to", "toward" adapt, advance, ascend
adip- fat Latin adeps, adipis "fat" adipose
aer-, aero- air, atomsphere Greek from Greek aer "air" aeronautics, aerosol,
aesth- feeling, sensation Greek from Greek aisthētikos "of sense perception" from aisthanesthai "to perceive" aesthetics
agr-, agri- field Greek and Latin from Greek agros and Latin ager, agr- "field" agriculture, pilgrim
am-, amor- love, loving Latin amor "love" from amāre "to love" amateur, amorous
ambi- both, on both sides Latin ambi "on both sides" ambidextrous, ambivalent
amic-, -imic- friend Latin amicus amicable
amphi- around, about, both, on both sides of, both kinds Greek amphi "on both sides" amphibian
ampl- ample Latin amplus amplification
ana- again, against, back Greek from Greek prefix ana- "again", "against" anaphylaxis anabaptist
anima- breath Latin anima "breath" animal, animation
ann- anni-, anno-, -enn- year, yearly Latin annus "year" annual, anniversary, millennium
ant-, anti- against, opposed to, preventive Greek anti "before" "against" antibiotic, antibody, antipodes
ante-, anti- before, in front of, prior to Latin Latin from Greek anti "before", "against" antediluvian, antebellum, anticipate
anth-, antho- flower Greek anthos "flower" anther, anthology
anthropo-, anthro- human Greek anthropos "man" anthropology, anthropomorphic
aqu- water Latin aqua aquarium
ar- plow, till Latin arare arable
ar- burn, dry Latin arere, "be dry or parched" arid
archaeo-, archeo- ancient Greek arkhaios "ancient" from arhkē "beginning" archeology, archaic
arct- , arcto- Relating to the North Pole or the region near it; relating to cold; used as the scientific name of some bear species, e.g. ursus arctos horribilis Greek arktos "bear" Arctic Ocean
argent- silver Latin argentum "silver" argent, Argentina
arthr- , arthro- joint Greek arthon "joint" arthropod
astr-, astro- star, star shaped Greek astron "star" astronomy
athl- prize Greek athlos "contest" athlete
aud-, audi- hearing, listening, sound Latin audire "to hear" auditorium, auditory, audio
aug- grow, increase Latin augēre "to increase" augmentation, inauguration
aur- relating to gold, or gold-colored Latin aurum "gold" aureole, aure
auri- Relating to the ear Latin auris "ear" auricle
aut- auto- self; directed from within Greek αυτός (autos) "self", "same" automobile, autonomy
avi- bird Latin avis "bird" aviary, aviation
axi- axis Greek Latin from Greek axios "worth" axis, axiology


Root Meaning In English Origin Language Etymology (Root Origin) English Examples
bac- rod-shaped Latin from baculum rod bacilla, bacteria
baro- weight, pressure Greek (barus) barometer, barograph, baroreceptor
basi- at the bottom Greek from βαίνω, to walk, march, βάσις "step" basic, basis
bath- deep, depth Greek βαθυς (bathus), (bathos) batholith
be-, beat- bless Latin beatus, beare beatification
bell(i)- war Latin bellum, belli bellicose, belligerent, Ante Bellum
ben- good, well Latin bene (adverb) benefit, benign
bi- two Latin bis, "twice" / bini, "in twos" binocular, bigamy
bib- drink Latin bibere imbibe
bibl- book Greek βιβλίον bibliography, bible
bi(o)- life Greek βίος (bios) biology, biologist, biosphere
blast- germ, embryo, bud, cell with nucleus Greek βλαστάνω, "to put forth shoots" sideroblast
bon(i)- good Latin bonus bonify, bonitary
bor- north Greek / Latin (boreas) βόρρας, "the north wind" borealis
bot- plant Greek botany
bov- cow, ox Latin bos, bovis bovine
brachi-, brachio- arm Greek βραχιων (brachion)
brach- short Greek (brachus)
brad- slow Greek βραδύς bradycardia
branch- gill Greek
brev(i)- brief, short (time) Latin brevis, breviare abbreviation, brevity
briz- nod Greek (brizō)
brom- oats, broom, shadow (bromos)
bronch- windpipe Greek βρόγχος bronchitis
bront- thunder Greek (brontē) Brontosaurus
bucc- cheek, mouth, cavity Latin bucca buccal
bulb- bulbous Latin bulbus
bulla- bubble, flask Latin ebullio, "to bubble, boil" ebullient
bursa- pouch, purse Latin bursary, disburse


Root Meaning In English Origin Language Etymology (Root Origin) English Examples
cac(o)- bad Greek (kakos) cacophony
cad-, -cid-, cas- fall Latin cadere accident, cadence, case
calc- stone Latin probably from Greek from Latin calx "lime", probably from Greek khalix "pebble" "limestone" calculus, calcite, calcium
calli- beautiful Greek from Greek kallos "beauty" calligraphy
calor- heat Latin calor "heat" calorie
calyp- cover Greek (kaluptein) apocalypse
camer- vault Latin camera bicameral, camera
camp- field Latin campus "field", "level ground" champion, campaign
can(i)- dog Latin canis "dog" canine, Canis Major
can-, cant- sing Latin canere "sing" canto, cantata, cantor
cand- glowing, iridescent Latin candere "to be white or glisten" candid, incandescent, candle, candela
cap-, -cip-, capt-, -cept- take, hold Latin capere "take or hold" (note the vowel change from a to i in compounds) capture, captive, conception, recipient
capit-, -cipit- head Latin caput, capitis "head" capital, chief, chef
capr- goat Latin caper, capri Capricorn, caprine
caps- box, case Latin capsa capsule
carbo- coal Latin carbo, carbonis carbon
carcer- jail Latin carcer, carcerare incarceration
carci- cancer (disease) Latin from Greek Latin from Greek karkinos "crab" carcinoma
cardi(o)- relating to the heart Greek kardia "heart" [cardiology]], cardiograph
cardin- hinge Latin cardo, cardinis cardinal
carn- flesh Latin caro, carnis carnival, carnivore
carpo- relating to fruit Greek from Greek karpos "fruit" carpology
carp- relating to the wrist Greek from Greek karpos "wrist" carpal, carpal tunnel syndrome
cata- down Greek kata "down" catastrophe, catatonia
caten- chain Latin catena concatenation
cathar- pure Greek (katharos) catharsis
caud- tail Latin cauda caudal
cav- hollow Latin cavus "hollow" cave, cavity, excavation
ced-, cess- go Latin cedere procession, recede
celer- quick Latin celer, celerare acceleration, celerity
cen(o)- new Greek (kainos)
cen(o)- common Greek (koinos)
cens- Latin censere census
cent- hundred Latin centum "hundred" cent, centennial, centurion
centen- hundred each Latin centeni centenary
centesim- hundredth Latin centesimus centesimal, centesimation
centr- center Greek (kentron) eccentric
cephalo- head Greek from Greek kephale "head" cephalopod, encephalogram
ceram- clay Greek (keramos) ceramic
cerat- horn Greek from Greek keras "horn" ceratin, cornea
cern- Latin cernere discern
cervic- relating to the neck, relating to the cervix Latin cervix, cervicis "neck" cervix, cervical
ceter- other Latin ceterus et cetera
chiro- of the hand or hands Greek from Greek kheir "hand" chiroptera, chiropractic
chelo- relating to a turtle Greek from Greek khelone "tortoise" chelonia
chloro- green Greek from Greek khlōros "green" chlorine, chlorophyll
choreo- relating to dance Greek from Greek khoreia "dancing in unison" from khoros "chorus" choreography
chord- cord Latin chorda "rope" chordata
chrom- color Greek khrōma "color" chromosome, chromium
chryso- gold Greek khrusos "gold" chrysolite
cili- eyelash Latin cilium cilia
cine- motion Greek (kine-) cinema
ciner- ash Latin cinis, cineris incineration
cing-, cinct- gird Latin cingere succinct
circ- circle Latin circus circus
circum- around Latin circum "around" circumference
cirr- orange Greek kirros cirrhosis
cirr- curl, tentacle Latin cirrus cirrus
civ- citizen Latin civis civility
clad- branch Greek (klados)
clar- clear Latin clarus clarity, declaration
clast- broken Greek klastos "broken" iconoclast
claud-, -clud-, claus-, -clus- close Latin claudere clause, exclusion
clav- key Greek from Greek kleis "key" from kleiein "to close" conclave
cl(e)ist- closed
cleithr- bar, key
clement- mild Latin clemens, clementis clemency, inclement
clin- bed, lean, recline Latin -clinare declination, inclined
cochl- shell Greek
coel- hollow Greek (koilos)
cogn- know Latin cognitive
col- strain Latin colare, colum colander
coll- neck Latin collum collar
color- color Latin color coloration
con-, co-, col-, com- with, together, joined Latin cum connect, collide, compress
condi- season Latin condire condiment
cono- cone Greek konos conic, conical
contra- against Latin contra
copro- dung Greek (kopros) coprolite
corac- raven Greek (korax, korakos) coracoid
cord- heart Latin cor, cordis accord, cordial
corn- horn Latin cornu cornucopia
coron- crown Latin corona, coronare corona, coronation
corpor- body Latin corpus, corporis corporation, corpse
cortic- bark Latin cortex, corticis
cosmet- Greek (kosmet-) cosmetics, cosmetology
cost- rib Latin costa costal
cotyl- cup Greek (kotulē) cotyledon
crani- skull cranium
crass- thick Latin crassus crassitude
cre- make Latin creare creation, creature
crep- boot, shoe Greek (krēpis, krēpidos)
cribi- sieve
cric- ring
cris-, crit- judge Greek crisis, critic
crisp- curled Latin crispus
crist- crest
crosso- fringe, tassel Greek (krossoi)
cru(rals)- shank
cruc(i)- cross Latin crux, crucis crucial, crucifix, crucify
crypt- hidden Greek (kruptos) cryptic, cryptography
cten- comb Greek (kteis, ktenos)
cub- cube Greek (kubos) cubic, cuboid
cub- lie Latin cubare incubation
culin- kitchen Latin culina culinary
culp- blame, fault Latin culpa culpable, exculpate
cune- wedge Latin cuneus cuneiform
curr-, curs- run Latin currere concurrent, recursion
curv- bent Latin curvus curvature
cusp- lance, point Latin cuspis, cuspidis bicuspid
cut(i)- skin Latin cutis cuticle
cyan- blue Greek κυανός (kuanos) cyanide
cycl- circular Greek κύκλος (kuklos) bicycle, cycle, cyclone
cylind- roll Greek (kulindros) cylinder
cyn- dog Greek (kuōn, kunos) cynosure
cyst- capsule Greek (kustis) cystic
cyt(o)- cell Greek (kutos) cytoplasm


Root Meaning In English Origin Language Etymology (Root Origin) English Examples
dactyl- finger Greek δάχτυλο, finger dactylology, pterodactyl
damn-, -demn- Latin damnare condemn, damnation
deb- owe Latin debere, debitus debit
deci- tenth part Latin decimus, tenth; from decem, ten decibel, decimate
deca-, dec-, deka-, dek- ten Greek deka, ten decagram, decahedron
delt- Greek (delta) deltoid
dem- people Greek demos, people demagogue, democracy
den- ten each Latin deni denary
dendr-, dendro- resembling a tree Greek dendron: akin to drys, tree dendrite
dens- thick Latin densus condense, density
dent- tooth Latin dens, dentis dental, dentures
derm- skin Greek δέρμα (derma) skin hypodermic
deuter- second Greek δεύτερος (deuteros) "second" Deuteronomy
dexter- right Latin dexter dexterity
dextro- right Greek δεξ-, right
di- two Greek
dia- apart, through Greek δια diameter
dict- say, speak Latin dicere, dictus dictation
digit- finger Latin digitus digital
dino- terrible, fearfully great Greek (deinos) dinosaur
dipl- Greek diploid, diplosis
doc-, doct- teach Latin docere, doctus docile, doctor
dodec- twelve Greek δωδεκα (dodeka) dodecasyllabic
dog-, dox- opinion, teaching Greek dogmatic
dom- Latin domus dome
dorm- sleep Latin dormire dormant, dormitory
dors- back Latin dorsum dorsal
du- two Latin duo dual
dub- doubtful Latin dubious
duc-, duct- lead Latin dux abduction, conductor, introduce
dulc- sweet Latin dulcis
dur- hard Latin durus durable
dy- two Greek (duo) dyad
dys- badly, ill Greek δυσ dysentery


Root Meaning In English Origin Language Etymology (Root Origin) English Examples
ec- out Greek (ek) eccentric
eco- house Greek (oikos) ecology, economics, ecumenism
ecto- outside Greek (ektos) ectoderm
ed- eat Latin edere edible
ego- self egocentric
em-, empt- buy Latin emere exemption, redeem
eme- vomit Greek (emetos) emetic
emul- Latin aemulus, aemulare emulation
en-, em- in Greek (en) emphasis
endo- inside Greek (endo) endocrine
engy- narrow Greek
ennea- nine Greek (ennea) ennead, enneagon
ensi- sword
eo- dawn, east Greek
epi-, ep- upon Greek (epi) epicenter, epoch
epistem- knowledge or science Greek
equ-, -iqu- even, level Latin aequus equal
equ- horse Latin equus equestrian
erg- work Greek (ergon) ergonomics
err- stray Latin errare aberration, errant
erythr(o)- red Greek ερυθρος (eruthros) erythrocyte
eso- within Greek (esō) esoteric
eth- Greek εθος (ethos)
ethm- sieve Greek
ethn- Greek (ethnos) ethnic
etym(o)- true Greek (etumos) etymology
eu- well Greek (eu) euphoria
eur- wide Greek (eurus)
ex-, e- from, out of Latin ex exclude, extrude, extend
exo- outside Greek exothermic
exter-, extra- outer Latin exterior
extrem- Latin extremus extremity


Root Meaning In English Origin Language Etymology (Root Origin) English Examples
fab- bean Latin faba
fac-, -fic-, fact, -fect- make Latin facere, factus defect, factory, manufacture
falc- sickle Latin falx, falcis
fall-, -fell-, fals- Latin fallere, falsus falsity
fallac- false Latin fallax, fallacis fallacy
famili- Latin familiarity
fant- Greek fantasy
fasc- bundle Latin fascis fascicle
fatu- foolish, useless Latin fatuus fatuous, infatuate
feder- Latin foedus, foederis confederation, federal
fel- cat Latin feles feline
felic- happy, merry Latin felix, felicis felicity
fell- suck Latin fellare fellation
femin- women, quality or condition of being female Latin femina femininity
femor- thigh Latin femur, femoris femoral
fend-, fens- Latin fendere defend, offense
fenestr- window Latin fenestra fenestration
fer- carry Latin ferre reference, transfer
feroc- fierce Latin ferox, ferocis ferocity
ferr- iron Latin ferrum ferrous
fet- stink Latin fetere fetid
fic- fig Latin ficus
fid- faith, trust Latin fides confide
fil- thread Latin filum filament
fili- Latin filius affiliate
find-, fiss- split Latin findere fission
firm- Latin firmus, firmare confirmation
fistul- hollow, tube
fl- blow Latin flare flatulence, inflation
flacc- flabby Latin flaccus flaccid
flav- yellow Latin flavus flavonoid
flect-, flex- bend Latin flectere inflection, flexor
flig-, flict- strike Latin fligere inflict
flor- flower Latin flos, floris floral, florid
flu-, flux- flow Latin fluere, fluxus effluent, fluency
foc- hearth Latin focus focal
fod-, foss- dig Latin fodere, fossus fossil
foen- hay
foli- leaf Latin folium defoliate
font- spring Latin fons, fontis
for- bore Latin forare perforation
form- shape Latin forma deformity, formation
fornic- vault Latin fornix fornication
fort- strong Latin fortis fortification
fovea- shallow round depression
frang-, -fring-, fract-, frag- break Latin frangere fracture, fragment, infringe
frater- brother Latin frater fraternity
fric-, frict- rub Latin friction
frig- cold Latin frigere frigid
front- forehead Latin frons, frontis frontal
fruct-, frug- fruit Latin frux, fructis fructose
fug- flee Latin fugere centrifuge, fugitive, refuge
fum- smoke Latin fumus fume, fumigate
fund- bottom Latin fundus, fundare
fund-, fus- pour Latin fundere fundamental, profundity, profusion
fung-, funct- do Latin fungi function
fur-, furt- steal Latin furare furtive
furc- fork Latin furca bifurcation
fusc- dark Latin fuscus obfuscation


Root Meaning in English Origin Language Etymology (Root Origin) English Examples
galact- milk Greek (gala) galactic
gastr- stomach Greek (gaster) gastric, gastroenterologist
ge(o)- earth Greek γη (gē) geology
gel- icy cold Latin gelum gelatin
ger-, gest- bear, carry Latin gerere digest, gestation
germin- sprout Latin germen, germinis germination
glabr- hairless Latin glaber glabrous
glaci- ice Latin glacies glacier
gladi- sword Latin gladius gladiator
glob- Latin globus global, globule
glori- glory Latin gloria glorify
glutin- glue Latin gluten, glutinis agglutination
grad-, gress- walk, step, go Latin gradus, gradere grade, regress
gramm- letter Greek γραμμα (gramma) grammatic
gran- grain Latin granum granary, granule
grand- grand Latin grandis grandiloquous
graph- draw, write Greek (graphē) graphic, graphology
grat- thank, please Latin gratus gratitude
grav- heavy Latin gravis gravity
greg- flock Latin grex, gregis gregarious, segregation
gubern- Latin gubernare gubernatorial
gust- taste Latin gustus gusto
guttur- throat Latin guttur guttural


Root Meaning in English Origin Language Etymology (Root Origin) English Examples
haem- blood Greek (haima) haemophilia
hal- salt Greek (hals) halogen
hal-, -hel- breathe Latin halare anhelation, inhale
hapl- simple Greek (haplos) haploid
haur, haust draw Latin haurire exhaust
heli- sun Greek helium
hemi- half Greek ήμισυς (hemisus) hemisphere
hen- one Greek (hen) henad, hyphen
hendec- eleven Greek (hendeka) hendecagon
hept- seven Greek (hepta) heptagon
her-, hes- cling Latin haerere adhesive, coherent
herb- Latin herba herbicide
herp- creep Greek herpetology
heter(o)- different, other Greek (heteros)
heur- find Greek heuristic
hex- six Greek (hex) hexagon
hibern- wintry Latin hibernus hibernation
hiem- winter Latin hiems hiemal
hipp- horse Greek (hippos) hippodrome
hirsu[t]- hairy Latin hirtus, hirsutus
hispid- bristly Latin hispidus
histri- actor histrionic
hod- way Greek (hodos) cathode
hol- whole Greek (holos) holistic
hom(o)- same Greek (homos) homosexual
homeo- like Greek (homoios)
homin- human Latin homo hominid
homal- even, flat Greek (homalos) anomalous
horm- that which excites Greek hormone
hort- garden Latin hortus horticulture
hum- ground Latin humus exhumation
hyal- glass Greek (hualos) hyaline, hyaloid
hydr(o)- water Greek hydrology
hygr- wet Greek (hugros) hygrology
hyo- U-shaped Greek
hyp(o)- under Greek (hupo) hyphen
hyper- above, over Greek (huper)
hypn- sleep Greek (hupnos) hypnosis
hyster- later Greek (husteros) hysteresis


Root Meaning In English Origin Language Etymology (Root Origin) English Examples
ichth- fish Greek (ichthus) ichthyology
icos- twenty Greek (eikosi) icosagon, icosahedron
id(o)- shape Greek (eidos) idol
idi(o) personal Greek (idios) idiom, idiosyncrasy, idiot
ign- fire Latin ignis igneous, ignition
in- (1), im- in, on Latin in invite, incur, intend
in- (2), il-, im-, ir- in, un- (negation) Latin in- illicit, impossible, inimical, irrational
infra- under Latin infra infrastructure
insul- island Latin insula insular, insulation
inter- among, between Latin inter (preposition) - among, between intermission, intercollegiate, intercourse
intra- within Latin intra intracollegiate
irasc-, irat- be angry Latin irasci irascible, irate
is(o)- equal, the same Greek (isos) isomorphic, isometric
-(i)tat- property of, quality of Latin quality, liberty
iter- again Latin iterum iteration
itin- route, way Latin iter, itinis - march, journey itinerary


Root Meaning In English Origin Language Etymology (Root Origin) English Examples
jac- lie Latin jacēre "to be thrown" adjacent
jac- (originally IAC), -ject- cast, throw Latin iacio, iacere, ieci, iectus - "to throw" (and cognates thereof) eject, interject, ejaculate, trajectory
jan- door Latin janua janitor
joc- joke Latin jocus jocularity
jug- yoke Latin jugare, jugum conjugal, subjugate
junct- join Latin jungere, junctus conjunction, juncture
junior- younger Latin junior juniority
jus-, jur, judic (originally IVS) law, justice Latin ius, iuris; iudex, iudicis; iusticia, iusticiae, etc. justice, jury, judge
juv-, jut- help Latin juvare adjutant
juven- young, youth Latin juvenis juvenile, rejuvenate
juxta- beside, near Latin juxta juxtaposition


Root Meaning In English Origin Language Etymology (Root Origin) English Examples
kil(o)- thousand Greek chilioi kilogram, kilometer, kilobyte
kine- movement, motion Greek telekinesis, kinetic energy, kinesthetic
klept- steal Greek (kleptēs) kleptomania
kudo- glory Greek (kudos) kudos


Root Meaning In English Origin Language Etymology (Root Origin) English Examples
lab-, laps- slide, slip Latin labi, lapsus elapse, relapse
labi- lip Latin labia, labiae bilabial, labial
labor- toil Latin labor collaboration, elaboration
lacer- tear Latin lacer laceration
lacrim- cry, tears Latin lacrima "tear" lacrimal, lacrimous
lact- of or pertaining to milk Latin lac, lactare lactate, lactation, lactose
lamin- layer, slice Latin lamina laminate, lamination
lamp- shine Greek lampas "torch" lamp
lapid- stone Latin lapis lapidary
larg- large Latin largus enlargement
larv- ghost, mask Latin larva larva, larvae, larval
lat(i)- broad, wide Latin latus latitude
later- side Latin latus bilateral
laud-, laus- praise Latin laudere laud
lav- wash Latin lavare lavatory
lax- Latin laxus, laxare laxative, relaxation
led-, les- hurt Latin laedere, laesus lesion
leio- smooth Greek leios leiomyoma
leni- gentle Latin lenis, lenire leniency
leon- lion Latin leo, leonis "lion" Leo, leonine, Leopold
lep- flake, scale Greek lepis Lepidoptera
leuc(o)-, leuk(o) white Greek leukos leucocyte
lev- lift, light Latin levis "light" (in weight), levare elevator, levitation
liber- free Latin liber, liberare liberation
libr- book Latin liber library
lig- bind Latin ligare ligament, ligature
lin- line Latin linea linearity, line
lingu- language, tongue Latin lingua tongue, language bilingual, linguistic
linqu-, lict- leave Latin linquere relict, relinquish
lip(o)- fat Greek lipos lipolysis
liter- letter Latin littera alliteration, literal, obliterate
lith(o)- stone Greek lithos "stone" monolith, Neolithic Era, lithosphere
loc- place Latin locus local, location
log- thought, word Greek logos "word" monologue, logic, morphological
long- long Latin longus elongate, longitude
loqu-, locut- speak Latin loqui allocution, eloquent
luc- bright, light Latin lux, lucis light Lucifer (bearer of light)
lud-, lus- play Latin ludere allude, illusion
lumin- light Latin lumen, luminis illumination, luminous
lun- moon Latin luna "moon" lunar, lunatic


Root Meaning In English Origin Language Etymology (Root Origin) English Examples
macr- long Greek μακρός (makros) macron
magn- great, large Latin magnus magnanimous, magnificent
maj- greater Latin major, majus majesty, majority, majuscule
mal- bad, wretched Latin malus malicious, malign
mamm- breast Latin mamma mammary, mammal
man- flow Latin manare emanate
man- stay Latin manere, mansus permanent, remanent
mand- hand Latin mandare, mandatus mandate, remand
manu- hand Latin manus manual, manuscript
mar- sea Latin mare, maris marine, maritime
mater-, matr- mother Latin mater, matris matrix
maxim- greatest Latin maximus maximal
medi-, -midi- middle Latin medius median, medieval
meg- great, large Greek (megas) megaphone
mei- Greek meiosis
melan- black, dark Greek μέλας (melas) Melanesia, melanoma
melior- better Latin melior amelioration
mell- honey Latin mel, mellis mellifluous
mening- membrane Greek (meninx)
ment- mind Latin mens, mentis demented, mentality
mer- part Greek (meros) polymer
merc- Latin merx, mercis mercantile, merchant
merg-, mers- dip, plunge Latin mergere emerge, immersion
mes- middle Greek (mesos) mesolithic, mesozoic
meter-, metr- measure Greek (metron) metric, thermometer
meta- above, among, beyond Greek (meta) metaphysics
micr(o)- small Greek (mikros) microphone, microscope
milit- soldier Latin miles, militis military, militia
mill- thousand Latin mille millennium, million
millen- thousand each Latin milleni millenary
mim- Greek (mimos) mime, mimic
min- jut Latin minere prominent
min- less, smaller Latin minor, minus minority, minuscule
mir- wonder, amazement Latin miror, mirari, miratus sum miracle, mirror, admire
mis- hate Greek (misos) misandry, misogyny
misce-, mixt- mix Latin miscere miscellaneous, mixture
mit- thread Greek (mitos) mitochondrion
mitt-, miss- send Latin mittere intermittent, transmission
mne- memory Greek mnemonic
mol- grind Latin mola molar
moll- soft Latin mollis emollient, mollify
mon(o)- one Greek (monos) monolith, monotone, monism
mont- mountain Latin mons, montis Montana
morph- form, shape Greek (morphe) morpheme, anthropomorphic, morphology
mort- death Latin mors, mortis immortal, mortality
mov-, mot- move, motion Latin moveo, movere move, motor, momentum
mulg-, muls- milk Latin mulgere emulsion
mult(i)- many, much Latin multus multitude, multiple, multiplex
mur- wall Latin murus, muri immured, mural
mus- thief Latin mus, muris mouse
musc- fly Latin musca, muscae
mut- change Latin mutare mutation
my- mouse Greek (mus)
myri- countless, ten thousand Greek (murios) myriad
myth- story Greek (muthos) mythic, mythology
myx- slime Greek (muxa)
myz- suck Greek

meno- moon

mica- grain (Latin) e.g. 'micelle'

monil- string of beads


Root Meaning in English Origin Language Etymology (Root Origin) English Examples
nar- nostril Latin naris
narc- numb Greek narcosis, narcotic
narr- tell Latin narrare narrative
nas- nose Latin nasus nasal
nasc-, nat- born Latin nascere, natus nascent, native
naut- ship Greek (naus) astronaut
nav- ship Latin navis naval
ne(o)- new Greek (neos)
necr(o)- dead Greek (nekros)
nect-, nex- join, tie Latin nectere, nexus connection
necto-, nect- swimming Greek nektos nectopod
neg- say no Latin negare negative
nema- hair Greek
nemoral- in woods
nephr- kidney Greek nephritis
nes- island Greek (nesos) Polynesia
neur- nerve Greek (neuron)
nict- wink Latin nictari nictation
nigr- black Latin niger denigrate
nihil- nothing Latin nihilum annihilation
noct- night Latin nox, noctis nocturnal
nod- knot Latin nodus node, nodule
nom- arrangement, law Greek (nomos)
nomad- Greek (nomas) nomadic
nomin- name Latin nomen, nominis nomination
non- not Latin non
non- ninth Latin nonus nonary
nonagen- ninety each Latin nonageni nonagenary
nonagesim- ninetieth Latin nonagesimus nonagesimal
noth- spurious
noto- back, south Greek (noton)
nov- nine Latin novem novennial
nov- new Latin novus innovation, nova
noven- nine each Latin noveni novenary
novendec- nineteen Latin novendecim
nu- nod Latin
nub- Latin nubes, nubis
nuc- nut Latin nux, nucis
nuch- back of neck
nud- naked Latin nudus denude, nudity
null(i)- none Latin nullus nullify
numer- number Latin numerus numeral
-nounc-, -nunci- announce Latin nuntius
nupti- Latin
nutri- nourish Latin nutrient


Root Meaning in English Origin Language Etymology (Root Origin) English Examples
ob-,os- against Latin obstinate, ostentatious
oct- eight Greek (oktō) octagon, octahedron
oct- eight Latin octo octangular, octennial, octovir
octav- eighth Latin octavus octaval
octogen- eighty each Latin octogeni octogenary
octogesim- eightieth Latin octogesimus octogesimal
octon- eight each Latin octoni octonary
ocul- eye Latin oculus ocular
od- hate Latin odium odious
-ode- path, way Greek anode, odometer
odont- tooth Greek (odous) odontology
odor- fragrant
oecious- house of Greek (oikos)
oed- swollen
oen- wine Greek (oinos)
oesoph- gullet Greek (oisophagos)
ogdo- eighth Greek (ogdoos)
-oid like Greek (-oeides)
olecran- skull of elbow
ole- oily Latin
olig- few Greek (oligos) oligarchy
oliv- olive Latin oliva
-ology study of Greek paleontology
-oma cancer Greek
omas- paunch Latin omasum
oment- fat skin Latin omentum
omin- Latin omen, ominis ominous
omm- eye
omni- all Latin omnis omnipotence
omo- shoulder Latin
omphal- navel Greek omphalectomy
oner- burden Latin onus, oneris onerous
onom- name Greek όνομα (onoma) onomatopoeia
ont- existing Greek ontology
-onym name Greek (-onum) pseudonym
oo- egg Greek (oion)
opac- shady Latin opacus opacity
oper- work Latin opus, operis opera
opt- choose Latin optare optional
optim- best Latin optimus optimum
op(t)- eye Greek optos optical
operculum- little cover
ophi- snake Greek ophis
ophthalm- eye Greek (ophthalmos) ophthalmology
opisth- behind Greek
opoter- either
or- mouth Latin os, oris oral, orator
orb- circle Latin orbis orbit
orch- testicle
ordin- Latin ordo, ordinis ordinal, ordinary
ori- Eastern Latin oriri orient
orn- Latin ornare ornament, ornate
ornith- bird Greek ornithology
orth- straight Greek (orthos) orthosis
os(ti)- mouth
os(s/t)- bone osteoporosis
oscill- swing Latin oscillation
ostrac- shell Greek ostracize
ot- ear Greek otology
ov- egg Latin ovum oval, ovule
ovi- sheep Latin ovis ovine
oxy- sharp, pointed Greek (oxus) oxymoron


Root Meaning in English Origin Language Etymology (Root Origin) English Examples
pac- peace Latin pax, pacis pacify, pacifist
pach- thick Greek (pachus) pachydermata
paed- child Greek (pais, paidos) paediatric
pagin- page Latin pagina pagination
pal- stake Latin palus impale
palae-, pale- ancient, old Greek (palaios) paleontology
palin- back Greek (palin) palindrome
pall- pale Latin pallere pallid, pallor
palli- mantle Latin pallium
palm- palm Latin palma palmate
palustri- in marshes
pan-, pam- all Greek pas pandemic
pand-, pans- spread Latin pandere, pansus expand, expansion
par(a)- beside, near Greek (para) parallel, parameter
pariet- wall Latin paries, parietis parietal
part(i)- part Latin pars, partis partition
parv- little Latin parvus
pass- pace, step Latin passus
pat- be open Latin patere patent
path- to feel, hurt Greek pathos pathetic, pathology
pati-, pass- Latin pati, passus passive, patient
patr- father Latin pater, patris
pauc- Latin paucus paucity
pav- Latin pavement
pecc- sin Latin peccare impeccable
pect- fixed Greek pectin
pector- chest Latin pectus, pectoris pectoral
pectin- comb-like
pecun- Latin pecunia pecuniary
ped- child Greek (pais, paidos) pedagogy
ped- foot Latin pes, pedis pedal
pejor- worse Latin pejor pejorative
pel-, puls- drive Latin pellere propellent, propulsion
pen- almost Latin paene peninsula, penultimate, penumbra
pend-, pens- hang Latin pendere suspend
penia- deficiency Latin
penn-, pinn- feather Latin penna pennate
pent- five Greek (pente) pentagon
pentecost- fiftieth Greek (pentekostos) pentecostalism
pept- Greek peptic
per- thoroughly, through Latin per perfect
peran- across, beyond Greek
peri- around Greek perimeter, periscope
persic- peach
pessim- worst Latin pessimus pessimal
pet- Latin petere appetite, competition
petr- rock Greek (petra) petroglyph
phaeo- dark
phag- eat Greek phagein sarcophagus
phalan(g/x)- close formation of troops
phalar- shining
phanero- visible Greek
pher- bear, carry Greek pheromone
philia- love, friendship Greek
phleg- Greek
phloe- tree bark
phob- fear Greek (phobos)
phon- sound Greek (phone) microphone, phonograph
phor- carry Greek (phoros) metaphor
phos-, phot- light Greek photograph
phragm- fence Greek (phragma) diaphragm
phren- diaphragm, mind
phryno- toad, toad-like
phyl- tribe
phyll- leaf Greek (phullon) chlorophyll
physa- bladder
phys- nature Greek physics
phyt- plant Greek (phuton) neophyte
pic- pitch Latin pix, picis
pil- hair Latin
pin- pine Latin
ping-, pict- paint Latin pingere picture
pino- drink Greek pinocytosis
pir- pear Latin
pisc- fish Latin piscis Pisces
pisum- pea
plac- plate, tablet Greek
plac- calm Latin placare, placatus placate
plac-, -plic- please Latin placēre, placitus placid
plagi- oblique Greek (plagios)
plan- flat Latin planus explanation, planar
plang- Latin plangere plangent
plas- mould Greek plasma, plastic
platy- flat, broad Greek (platus) platypus
plaud-, plaus- clap Latin plaudere, plausus applaud
ple-, plet- fill Latin plere complete, suppletive
pleb- Latin plebs, plebis plebian
plect-, plex- plait Latin plectere
plen- full Latin plenus plenary
plesi- near Greek (plēsios)
pleth- full Greek (plēthos) plethora
pleur- side Greek pleura
plex- interwoven Greek (plexis)
plic- fold Latin plicare duplication, replicate
plinth- brick Greek (plinthos)
plor- Latin plorare implore
plu- rain Latin
plum- feather Latin pluma plumage
plumb- lead Latin plumbum
plur- Latin plural
plurim- most Latin plurimus
plus- more Latin plus
pluvi- rain Latin pluvia pluvial
pneu- air, lung Greek pneumatic
pod- foot Greek (pous, podos) podiatry, tripod
pogo- beard
poie- make Greek poiesis
pol- city Greek (polis) metropolis, politics
pol- pole Greek (polos) dipole
pol- pole Latin polus polar
polem- war Greek (polemos) polemic
poli(o)- grey Greek (polios)
pollic- thumb Latin pollex, pollicis
pollin- Latin pollen, pollinis pollinate
poly- many Greek (polus) polygon
pon-, posit- put Latin ponere position, postpone
ponder- weight Latin pondus, ponderis ponderable
pont- bridge Latin pons, pontis
popul- people Latin populus population
por- passage Greek (poros) pore
porc- pig Latin porcus porcine, pork
porphyr- purple Greek
port- gate Latin porta portal
port- carry Latin portare export, transportation
post- after, behind Latin post
pot- drink Latin potare potable
potam- river Greek (potamos)
praeco- early
prasin- leek-green Greek (prasinos) prasinous
prat- meadow Latin pratum
prav- crooked Latin pravus depravity
pre- before Latin prae
prec- pray Latin prex, precare deprecation
pred- Latin praedari predator
prehend-, prend- grasp Latin prehendere comprehend
prem-, -prim-, press- press Latin premere pressure
presb- old Greek (presbus) Presbyterianism
preter- past Latin praeter
preti- price Latin pretium
prim- first Latin primus primary, primitive, primevil
prior- former Latin prior priority
priv- Latin privare
pro- before, in front of Greek (pro)
pro- for, forward Latin pro propulsion
prob- try Latin probare probation
proct- anus Greek (proktos) proctology
propri- Latin proprius appropriate
pros(o)- forward Greek (pros)
prot(o)- first Greek (protos) protoplasm
proxim- nearest Latin proximus proximity
prun- plum Latin prunus prune
psamma- sand Greek (psammos)
pseud(o)- false Greek (pseudos) pseudonym
psil(o)- bare Greek (psilos) epsilon
psych(o)- mind Greek (psychē) psycho
psychr(o)- cold Greek (psuchros)
pter- wing, fern Greek (pteron) helicopter
pto- fall Greek ptosis
ptyal- sahva
ptych- fold, layer Greek (ptuchē) triptych
pubi- sexually mature
public- Latin publicus publication
pude- Latin pudere impudent
pugn- fight Latin pugnare pugnacious, repugnant
pulchr- beautiful Latin pulcher, pulchri pulchritude
pulmon- lung Latin pulmo, pulmonis pulmonary
pulver- dust Latin pulvis, pulveris pulverize
pung-, punct- prick Latin pungere puncture, pungent
puni- punish Latin punire punitive
pup- doll Latin pupa pupa, puppet
pur- pure Latin purus impure, purity
purg- Latin purgare expurgate, purgatory
purpur- purple Latin purpura
put- think Latin putare compute, putative
pygo- rump
pyl- gate Greek (pulon) pylon
pyo- pus Greek
pyr- heat, fire Greek pyre,pyro
pyrus- pear


Root Meaning In English Origin Language Etymology (Root Origin) English Examples
quadr- four Latin quattuor quadrangle, quadrillion
quadragen- forty each Latin quadrageni quadragenary
quadragesim- fortieth Latin quadragesimus quadragesimal
quart- fourth Latin quartus quartary quartile
quasi- as if Latin quasi
quatern- four each Latin quaterni quaternary, quaternion
quati-, quass- shake Latin quatere
quer-, -quir-, quesit-, -quisit- search, seek Latin quaerere Inquisition, query
qui- Latin quies quiet
quin- five each Latin quini quinary
quindecim- fifteenth Latin quindecimus quindecimal
quinden- fifteen each Latin quindeni quindenary
quinque- five Latin quinque quinquennium
quint- fifth Latin quintus quintary, quintile
quot- how many, how great Latin quota, quotient


Root Meaning in English Origin Language Etymology (Root Origin) English Examples
rach- spine Greek (rhachis)
rad-, ras- scrape, shave Latin radere abrasion
radi- beam, energy Latin radius radiation
radic- root Latin radix radical
ram- branch Latin ramus ramification, ramose
ran- frog Latin rana
ranc- Latin rancid
rap- turnip Latin rapum
raph- seam Greek
rar- Latin rarus rarity
re-, red- again, back Latin recede, redact
rect- straight Latin erect
reg-, -rig-, rect- straight Latin dirigible
rem- oar Latin remus
ren- kidney Latin renes renal
rep-, rept- crawl, creep Latin repere reptile
ret- net Latin rete
retic- network
retina- little net
retro- behind, backward Latin
rhabd- rod Greek (rhabdos)
rhach- spine Greek (rhachis)
rhage- tear, rent
rhe- flow Greek rheostat
rhin- nose, snout Greek rhinoplasty
rhiz- root Greek (rhiza) rhizome
rhod- red Greek rhododendron
rhomb- Greek rhombus
rhynch- snout
-rrh- flow
rid-, ris- laugh Latin ridere derision, ridicule
roborem- oak tree, strength
rod-, ros- gnaw Latin rodere corrode, erosion, rodent
rog- ask Latin rogare interrogation
rogos- wrinkled
rostr- beak, prow Latin rostrum
rot- wheel Latin rota rotation
rub(e)r- red Latin ruber
rug- wrinkle Latin ruga corrugation
rumin- throat Latin rumen rumination
rump-, rupt- break Latin rumpere rupture
rur- Latin rus rural


Root Meaning in English Origin Language Etymology (Root Origin) English Examples
sacchar- sugar Greek (sakchar) saccharin
sacr-, secr- sacred Latin sacer, sacrare consecrate, sacrament
sagac- Latin sagax, sagacis sagacity
sagitt- arrow Latin sagitta Sagittarius
sal- salt Latin sal, salis, salere salinity, saline
sali-, -sili-, salt- jump Latin salire resilient, salient, saltus
salv- save Latin salvare salvation
san- Latin sanus insane, sanity
sanct- holy Latin sancire sanctify, sanctuary
sanguin- blood Latin sanguis, sanguinis sanguine
sapi-, -sipi- Latin sapere sapient
sapon- soap Latin sapo, saponis saponify
sarc(o)- flesh Greek (sarx) sarcophagus
sativus- cultivated
saur- lizard, reptile Greek dinosaur
saxum- rock
scab- scratch Latin scabere
scal- ladder, stairs Latin scala scale
scalen- uneven Greek skalenos scalene
scand-, -scend-, scans-, -scens- climb Latin scandere ascend
scaph- anything hollow, bowl, ship Greek
schem- Greek (schema) schematic
schis- split Greek schism
sci- know Latin scire prescient, science
scind-, sciss- split Latin scindere scissors
scler- hard Greek (skler-) scleroderma
scoli- crooked Greek (skolios) scoliosis
scop-, scopy, scept- look at, examine, view, observe Greek
scrib-, script- write Latin scribere inscribe, scripture
sculp- carve Latin sculpere sculpture
scut- shield
scyph- cup
se- apart secede
seba- tallow, wax
sec-, sect-, seg- cut Latin secare secant, section, segment
sed- Latin sedare sedative
sed-, -sid-, sess- sit Latin sedere sediment, session, supersede
sedec- sixteen Latin sedecim sedecimal
segetum- in cornfields
sei- shake Greek (seismos) seismograph
selen- moon Greek
sella- saddle, seat
sema- Greek (sema) semantics, semaphore
semi- half Latin semis
semin- seed Latin semen, seminis insemination
sen- old man Latin senex, senis senator, senility
sen- six each Latin seni senary
senti-, sens- feel Latin sentire, sensus consensus
sept- Latin saeptum
sept- seven Latin septem septennium
septen- seven each Latin septeni septenary
septim- seventh Latin septimus
septuagen- seventy each Latin septuageni septuagenary
septuagesim- seventieth Latin septuagesimus septuagesimal
septuagint- seventy Latin septuaginta Septuagint
sequ-, secut- follow Latin sequere consecutive, sequence
ser(olu)- any body fluid
ser- late Latin serus
serp- crawl Latin serpere serpent
serr- saw, saw-toothed Latin serra, serrare serration
serv- Latin servare conservation
sesqui- Latin sesqui
set- hair
sever- Latin severus severity
sex-, se- six Latin sex semester, sexangle, sexennium
sexagen- sixty each Latin sexageni sexagenary
sexagesim- sixtieth Latin sexagesimus sexagesimal
sext- sixth Latin sextus sextant
sibil- hiss Latin sibilus, sibilare sibilance
sicc- dry Latin siccus desiccate
sider- star Latin sidus, sideris sidereal
sign- Latin signum signal
sil- Latin silere silent
silv- forest Latin silva silviculture
simi- ape, monkey Latin simia simian
simil- Latin similis assimilate, similarity
simul- Latin simulare simulation
singul- one each Latin singuli singular
sinistr- left Latin sinister, sinistri sinistral
sinu- Latin sinuare insinuate
sinus- hollow, bay
siph(o)- tube Greek siphon
sist- cause to stand Latin sistere
soci- Latin socius, sociare
sol- sun Latin sol solar
sol- Latin solare consolation
solen- pipe, channel Greek solenoid
solv-, solut- Latin solvere solution
soma- body Greek (soma) somatic
somn- sleep Latin somnus insomnia
somni- dream Latin somnium
son- sound Latin sonus resonance
soph- Greek (sophos) sophist
sorb-, sorpt- suck Latin sorbere absorb, absorption
sord- dirt Latin sordes, sordere sordid
soror- sister Latin soror sorority
spati- space Latin spatium spatial
spec-, -spic-, spect- look Latin specere conspicuous, inspection, specimen
spect- watch, look at Latin spectare spectator
specul- Latin speculari speculation
sper- hope Latin spes, sperare desperation
sperm- seed Greek (sperma)
sphen- wedge
spher- Greek (sphaira) spheroid
sphinct- closing
spic- spike Latin spica
spin- thorn Latin spina
spir- breathe Latin spirare respiration
spond-, spons- Latin spondere, sponsus
spondyl- vertebra
spu-, sput- spew, spit Latin spuere sputum
squal- Latin squalere squalid, squalor
squam- scale
squarros- spreading at tips
st- stand Latin stare stable, station, status
stalact- Greek (stalaktites) stalactite
stalagm- Greek (stalagmos) stalagmite
stae(rlt)- fat
stagn- Latin stagnare stagnant
stann- tin Latin stannum stannous
statu-, -stitu- Latin statuere institution, statute
steg- covering Greek steganography
stell- star Latin stella constellation, stellar
sten- narrow Greek (stenos) stenography
stere- solid Greek (stereos)
stern-, strat- spread, strew Latin sternere, stratus stratify
stern- breastbone
stich- line, row Greek (stichos)
stig- Greek stigma
still- drip Latin stillare distillation
stingu-, stinct- Latin stinguere distinction, distinguish
stoch- aim Greek
stom- mouth Greek
strept- twisted
string-, strict- upright, stiff Latin stringere stringent
strigos- having stiff bristles
stroph- turning Greek
stru-, struct- Latin struere construction
stud- Latin studere
stup- wonder Latin stupere
styl- column Greek
su-, sut- sew Latin suere suture
suad-, suas- Latin suadere, suasus persuasion
suav- sweet Latin suavis suave
sub-, su-, sus- below Latin sub
subter- Latin subter subterfuge
sucr- sugar sucrose
sud- sweat Latin sudare
sulc- furrow Latin sulcus
sum-, sumpt- take Latin sumere assumption, consume
super- above, over Latin super
supin- lying back Latin supinus
supra- above, over Latin
surd- deaf Latin surdus absurdity
surg- rise Latin surgere resurgent
syn-, sy-, syl-, sym- with Greek (sum) symbol, system
syrin(glx)- pipe Greek


Root Meaning in English Origin Language Etymology (Root Origin) English Examples
tac-, -tic- be silent Latin tacere reticent, tacit
tach- swift Greek ταχυς (tachus) tachometer
taenia- ribbon
tal- ankle Latin talus
tang-, -ting-, tact-, tag- touch Latin tangere tangent
tapetum- carpet
tard- slow Latin tardus retard, tardy
tars- ankle tarsal
taur- bull Greek (tauros) Minotaur
taur- bull Latin taurus Taurus
tax- arrangement, order Greek (taxis) taxonomy
techn- Greek (techne) technology
teg-, tect- cover Latin tegere protection
tel- far, end Greek telephone
teleo- complete
temno- cut Greek
tempor- time Latin tempus, temporis temporary
ten-, -tin-, tent- hold Latin tenere continent, tenacious
tend-, tens- stretch Latin tendere extend, extension
tenu- slender, thin Latin tenuis attenuate, tenuous
tep- be warm Latin tepere tepid
ter-, trit- rub Latin terere attrition
teres- round
terg- wipe Latin tergere detergent
termin- Latin terminus termination
tern- three each Latin terni ternary
terr- dry land Latin terra
terti- third Latin tertius tertiary
test- witness Latin testis testimony
tetr- four Greek (tetra-) tetrahedron
tex-, text- weave Latin texere texture
thalam- chamber, bed
thalass- sea Greek
than- death Greek euthanasia
the- put Greek (tithemi) theme, thesis
theca- case Greek
thel- nipple, female
the(o)-, thus- god Greek theology, enthusiasm
theor- Greek theorem, theory
therm- heat Greek (thermos) thermometer
thero- breast, mammal
thyreo- large shield
tim- be afraid Latin timere timid
ting-, tinct- moisten Latin tingere tincture
tom- cut Greek ectomy
ton- stretch Greek
top- place Greek (topos) topic, topography
torn- cut
torpe- numb
torqu-, tort- twist Latin torquere extortion, torque, torture
tot- all, whole Latin totus total
toxo- arrow, dart
trab- beam
trachy- rough
trago- goat
trah-, tract- pull Latin trahere subtrahend, tractor
trans-, tra-, tran- across Latin trans tradition, transcend, transportation
trapez- four-sided, table Greek (trapeza) trapezoid
traum- Greek traumatic
trecent- three hundred Latin trecenti trecentennial
tredec- thirteen Latin tredecim
treiskaidek- thirteen Greek triskaidekaphobia
trem- tremble Latin tremere tremor
trema- hole
tri- three Greek (treis, tria) triad, trigon
tri- three Latin tres triangle, trivia
tricen- thirty each Latin triceni tricenary
tricesim- thirtieth Latin tricesimus
trich- hair Greek (thrix)
trin- three each Latin trini trinity
troch- wheel
trop- turning Greek tropic
troph- feed, grow Greek pogonotrophy
trud-, trus- thrust Latin trudere extrusion, intrude
tuss- cough Latin tussis, tussire pertussis
tympan- drum Greek (tumpan-) tympani


Root Meaning in English Origin Language Etymology (Root Origin) English Examples
uber- udder Latin uber, uberare exuberant
ulig- in marshes Latin
ulo- wooly Greek
ultim- farthest Latin ultimus ultimate
ultra- beyond Latin ultra ultrasonic
umbilic- navel Latin umbilicus umbilical
umbr- shade, shadow Latin umbra penumbra, umbrella
un-, uni- one Latin unus, unius unary, union
unc- hooked Latin uncus
unci- ounce, twelfth Latin uncia uncial
und- wave Latin unda abundant, undulate
undecim- eleventh Latin undecimus undecimal
unden- eleven each Latin undeni undenary
ungui- claw, nail Latin unguis
ungul- claw, hoof Latin ungula ungulate
ur-, uro- tail Greek (oura) uroid
urb- city Latin urbs, urbis urban
urg- Latin urgere urgent
urs- bear Latin ursus Ursa Major, ursine
ut-, us- use Latin uti, usus utility
uv- grape Latin uva uvea
uxor- wife Latin uxor uxoricide


Root Meaning in English Origin Language Etymology (Root Origin) English Examples
vac- empty Latin vacare vacancy, vacation, vacuum
vad-, vas- go Latin vadere evade, pervasive
vag- wander Latin vagus, vagare vague
van- Latin vanus vanity
vap- Latin evaporation, vapid
veh-, vect- carry Latin vehere, vectus vehicle, vector
vel- veil Latin velum revelation, velate
vell-, vuls- pull Latin vellere, vulsus convulsion
veloc- quick Latin velox, velocis velocity
ven- vein Latin vena venosity
ven- hunt Latin venari venison
ven-, vent- come Latin venire advent, convention
vend- sell Latin vendere vendor
vener- Latin venus veneration, venereal
vent- wind Latin ventus ventilation
ventr- belly Latin venter ventral
ver- true Latin verus verify, verity
verb- word Latin verbum verbal, verbosity
verber- whip Latin verber reverberation
verm- worm Latin vermis vermiform
vern- spring Latin ver, vernus vernal
vert-, vers- turn Latin vertere, versus convert, inversion
vesic- bladder Latin vesica vesical
vesper- evening, western Latin vespera
vest- clothe, garment Latin vestis divest, vest
vestig- Latin vestigium investigate
vet- forbid Latin vetare veto
veter- old Latin vetus veteran
vi- way Latin via deviate, obvious
vic- change Latin vicis vice versa, vicissitude
vicen-, vigen- twenty each Latin viceni vicenary
vicesim-, vigesim- twentieth Latin vecesimus vicesimary, vigesimal
vid-, vis- see Latin videre video, vision
vil- cheap Latin vilis vile, vilify
vill- shaggy hair, velvet Latin villus villiform
vin- wine Latin vinum vinous
vinc-, vict- conquer Latin vincere, victus invincible, victory
vir- man Latin vir virility
vir- green Latin virere virid
visc- Latin viscum viscosity
viscer- organs of body cavity Latin viscus, visceris visceral
vit- life Latin vita vital
vitell- yolk Latin vitellus
viti- Latin vitium vice, vitiate
vitr- glass Latin vitrum vitreous
viv- live Latin vivere revive, survive, vivid
voc- voice Latin vox vocal
vol- fly Latin volare volatility
vol- wish Latin velle volition
volv-, volut- roll Latin volvere, volutus convolution, revolve
vom- Latin vomere vomit
vor-, vorac- swallow Latin vorare, vorax devour, voracious
vov-, vot- vow Latin vovere, votus votive
vulg- common, crowd Latin vulgus divulge, vulgarity, vulgate
vulner- wound Latin vulnus, vulneris vulnerable
vulp- fox Latin vulpes vulpine


Root Meaning in English Origin Language Etymology (Root Origin) English Examples
xanth- yellow Greek (xanthos) xanthogenic
xen- foreign Greek (xenos) xenophobia
xer- dry Greek (xēros) xerography
xiph- sword Greek (xiphos) xiphoid
xyl- wood Greek (xulon) xylophone


Root Meaning In English Origin Language Etymology (Root Origin) English Examples
-zo- animal, living being Greek (zōion) protozoa, zoo, zoology
zon- belt, girdle Greek ζωνη (zōnē) zone
zyg- yoke, joined, paired Greek (zugon) heterozygous, zygote
zym- ferment Greek (zumē) enzyme, lysozyme

See also


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