Angiomyolipoma is a benign renal neoplasm previously considered to be a hamartoma or choristoma, but now known to be neoplastic. It is composed of variable amounts of fat, vascular, and smooth muscle elements. The fat density of the tumour on CT has been regarded to be pathognomonic, although there are now case reports of renal cell carcinoma types also possessing macroscopic fat.

The lesion is well demarcated and contains mature elements. It occurs in more than 50% of individuals with tuberous sclerosis, often bilaterally. Angiomyolipomata also occur in 40% of women who have a rare, cystic lung disease called lymphangioleiomyomatosis, or LAM.

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