The river rises in the Anadyr Range, about 67̊N latitude and 173̊E longitude, flows through Chukotka Autonomous Okrug, at first southwest and then east, and enters the Gulf of Anadyr of the Bering Sea after a course of about 800 kilometres (500 mi). The main tributaries from the right are the Yablon, the Eropol and the Maine; from the left are the Chineyveem, the White and the Tanyurer. At the mouth of the river is the Anadyrskiy Liman which is fed by the Anadyr, the Kanchalan, and the Velikaya rivers.
Reindeer, upon which the local inhabitants subsisted, were once found in considerable numbers, but the domestic reindeer population has collapsed dramatically since the reorganization and privatization of state-run collective farms beginning in 1992. As herds of domestic reindeer have declined, herds of wild caribou have increased.
There are ten species of salmon inhabiting the Anadyr river basin. Every year, on the last Sunday in April, there is an ice fishing competition in the frozen estuarine waters of the Anadyr River's mouth. This festival is locally known as Korfest.