amplexicaul leaf

Urochloa panicoides

Urochloa panicoides is a fodder grass originating in Southern Africa.


  • Panicum borzianum Mattei fide Fl. Trop. E. Africa: 603.
  • Panicum controversum Steud.
  • Panicum helopus Trin. in Spreng.
  • Panicum helopus Trin. f. glabrescens K.Schum. fide Fl. Trop. E. Africa
  • Panicum hirsutum Koen. ex Roxb.
  • Panicum hochstetteranum A.Rich.
  • Panicum javanicum Poir.
  • Panicum oxycephalum Peter
  • Panicum panicoides (P. Beauv.) Hitchc.
  • Panicum setarioides Peter - (1928), non Steud. (1854).-- nom.nud.
  • Urochloa helopus (Trin.) Stapf
  • Urochloa marathensis Henr.
  • Urochloa marathensis var. velutina Henr.
  • Urochloa ruschii Pilg.
  • Urochloa panicoides P. Beauv., Ess. Agrost. 53,
  • Urochloa panicoides var. marathensis (Henr.) Bor.
  • Urochloa panicoides var. pubescens (Kunth) Bor
  • Urochloa panicoides var. velutina (Henr.) Bor
  • Urochloa pubescens Kunth


  • Habitat: annual; caespitose. Culms geniculately ascending, or decumbent; 10–100 cm long; without nodal roots, or rooting from lower nodes. Ligule a fringe of hairs. Leaf-blade base amplexicaul. Leaf-blades linear, or lanceolate; 2–25 cm long; 5–18 mm wide. Leaf-blade surface glabrous, or pubescent. Leaf-blade margins tuberculate-ciliate; hairy at base.
  • Inflorescence: Inflorescence composed of racemes. Racemes 2–7(–10); borne along a central axis; unilateral; 1–7 cm long. Central inflorescence axis 1–9 cm long. Rhachis narrowly winged; angular; glabrous on surface, or with scattered hairs. Spikelet packing abaxial; regular; 2 -rowed. Spikelets solitary, or in pairs. Fertile spikelets sessile and pedicelled. Pedicels bearing a few hairs.
  • Fertile spikelets: Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets elliptic; dorsally compressed; compressed strongly; plano-convex; acute; (2.5–)3.5–4.5(–5.5) mm long; falling entire.
  • Glumes: Glumes dissimilar; reaching apex of florets; thinner than fertile lemma. Lower glume ovate; clasping; 0.5(–0.66) times length of spikelet; membranous; without keels; 3–5 -veined. Lower glume surface glabrous, or pubescent. Lower glume apex obtuse, or acute. Upper glume elliptic; 1 times length of spikelet; membranous; without s; 7–11 -veined. Upper glume lateral veins with cross-veins. Upper glume surface glabrous, or pubescent. Upper glume apex acuminate.
  • Floret: Basal sterile florets male, or barren; with palea. Lemma of lower sterile floret similar to upper glume; elliptic; 1 times length of spikelet; membranous; 5–7 -veined; glabrous, or pubescent; eciliate on margins, or setose on margins; acuminate. Fertile lemma orbicular; dorsally compressed; 2 mm long; indurate; without keel. Lemma surface rugulose. Lemma margins involute. Lemma apex obtuse; mucronate. Principal lemma awn 0.3–1 mm long overall. Palea indurate.

Urochloa setigera can be confused with forms of U. panicoides with pubescent, paired spikelets, especially when the base is missing. Urochloa panicoides has less abruptly cuspidate spikelets, a more coarsely rugose fertile floret, and a much longer mucro on the upper lemma.


  • Africa: Botswana, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Malawi, Mauritius, Mozambique, Namibia, Somalia, South Africa, Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, Zimbabwe
  • Asia: Yemen, India, Pakistan, Thailand, China (Sichuan, Yunnan).
  • Naturalized elsewhere, including Australia, Argentina, and United States.

Native to southern Africa.


Moist grasslands, lakesides up to an altitude of 140-2200 m.


A weed and a potential seed contaminant. Though often used as a fodder grass for both cattle and horses.

Diseases and Pests

This grass is susceptible to the Maize streak virus (MSV) (which is also called bajra streak, cereal African streak virus, maize streak A virus). This virus is transmitted by the following Cicadellidae insect species: Cicadulina mbila, Cicadulina arachidis, Cicadulina, Cicadulina triangula, Cicadulina bimaculata, Cicadulina similis, Cicadulina latens, Cicadulina ghaurii, Cicadulina parazeae. It is also susceptible to the Cereal chlorotic mottle nucleorhabdovirus. This too is transmitted by insects: Nesoclutha pallida, Cicadula bimaculata, Cicadulina bipunctata ssp. Bipunctella.

Punjabi dialect forms

The following Punjabi dialect forms are recorded for this grass:

  • in India: barajalgauti, harat, basaunta, chaprai Ia. chat ta. gal¬phula. jal-ganti, jalganti. jhun. kaadu hilisamme kaadubilli-saatnal hullo. kakdel. kuwain, kowin. kuri, kuriya, motia. pandhar, poir.salla-woodoo, sallawudu, sam¬wan, semai.

Non-Indian languages

  • Afrikaans: tuin-urochltta, tuinheesgras, heesgras, cenjarige sinjaalgras, kurimanna, tuingras.
  • Chinese: 黍尾稃草 lei shu wei fu cao.
  • English: annual signal grass, garden signal grass, garden grass, panic liverseed grass, liverseed grass, liver seed grass, liverseedgrass, herringbone grass, kuri-millet, poke.
    • Australia: urochloa grass, garden urochloa, panic urochloa grass, urochloa.
    • South Africa: garden urochloa.
    • United States: liverseed grass.
      • Alabama:, California, Florida, Massachusetts, Minnesota, Oregon, Vermont: liver seed grass; North Carolina: liverseed grass; South Carolina: liverseedgrass
    • Zimbabwe: Kuri millet.
  • Italian: pasto africano.
  • Somali: farsho.
  • Sotho: kgola, kgolane, bore-ba-ntjia.


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