In astronomy, altitude is the angular distance of a heavenly body above the astronomical horizon as determined by the angle which a line drawn from the eye of the observer to the heavenly body makes with the plane of the horizon. The reading of the apparent altitude, as determined by a telescope attached to a graduated circle, must be corrected for refraction by the atmosphere and for certain other effects to ascertain the true altitude. The altitude of the north celestial pole, which is approximately that of the star Polaris, is equal to the observer's latitude.
Acute reaction to a change from low altitudes to altitudes above 8,000 ft (2,400 m). Most people gradually adapt, but some have a severe reaction that can be fatal unless they return to low altitude. Normal adaptations to the reduced oxygen at high altitude (e.g., breathlessness, racing heartbeat) are exaggerated; other manifestations include headache, gastrointestinal upsets, and weakness. Pulmonary edema is quickly reversed with oxygen and evacuation to a lower area.
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Two coordinates describing the position of an object above Earth in a coordinate system called the altazimuth, or horizon, system, and used in astronomy, gunnery, navigation, surveying, and other fields. Altitude in this sense is expressed as angle of elevation (up to 90°) above the horizon. Azimuth, in astronomical measurement, is the number of degrees clockwise from due north to the point on the horizon directly below the object.
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Atmospheric pressure decreases as altitude increases. This principle is the basis of operation of the pressure altimeter, which is an aneroid barometer calibrated to indicate altitude instead of pressure. It is the fall in pressure that leads to a shortage of oxygen (hypoxia) in humans on ascent to high altitude.
In aviation, the term altitude can have several meanings, and is therefore qualified by either explicitly adding a modifier (e.g. "true altitude"), or implicitly through the context of the communication. Parties exchanging information concerning this topic must be clear which definition is being used.
Living at altitude causes the body to physiologically adapt to the reduction in available oxygen (a process known as acclimatisation) so that an advantage in oxygen take-up is evidenced when the athlete returns to a lower altitude. These changes are the basis of altitude training which forms an integral part of the training of athletes in a number of endurance sports including track and field, distance running, triathlon, cycling and swimming.
Sports organisations also acknowledge the effects of altitude on performance. The International Association of Athletic Federations (IAAF), for example, have ruled that performances achieved at an altitude greater than 1000 metres will not be approved for record purposes.
Mountain medicine recognizes three altitude regions:
Travel to high altitudes can lead to medical problems, from the mild symptoms of acute mountain sickness to the potentially fatal high altitude pulmonary oedema (HAPE) and high altitude cerebral oedema (HACE). These conditions are caused by the profound hypoxia associated with travel to high altitudes.
The Earth's atmosphere is divided into several altitude regions:
Altitude training revisited: the physiological factors in altitude training and how they affect human performance. (includes related article)
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