The Volkswagen Kübelwagen (short for Kübelsitzwagen, meaning bucket-seat car) was a military vehicle designed by Ferdinand Porsche and built by Volkswagen during World War II for use by the German military (both Wehrmacht and Waffen-SS). Based heavily on the Volkswagen Beetle, it was prototyped as the Type 62, but eventually became known internally as the Type 82.
With its rolling chassis and mechanics built at KDF Stadt (Kraft durch Freude Stadt, now Wolfsburg) and its body built by US owned firm Ambi Budd in Berlin , the Kübelwagen was for the Germans what the jeep was for the Allies.
Porsche began work on the project immediately, having a prototype of the vehicle ready within the month, but realized during development that it wouldn't be enough to reinforce the Beetle's chassis to handle the stresses that military use would put on it. In order to guarantee adequate off-road performance of a two-wheel driven vehicle with a 1,000 cc FMCV 1 engine, it would have to be light-weight. In fact, the army had stipulated a laden weight of 950 kg including four battle-dressed troops, which meant that the vehicle itself should not weigh more than 550 kg. Porsche therefore sub-contracted Trutz, an experienced military coachbuilder to help out with the body design.
Developmental testing by the military began after a presentation of the prototypes designated as Type 62 in November of 1938. Despite lacking four wheel drive, a mainstay of the American military Jeeps, the vehicle proved very competent at maneuvering its way over rough terrain, even in a direct comparison with a contemporary standard German army 4x4, and the project was given the green light for further development. The vehicle's light weight and ZF self-locking differential compensated for the lack of 4X4 capabilities.
Further development of the Type 62 took place during 1939, including a more angular body design; and pre-production models were field-tested in the invasion of Poland, that started in September that year. Despite their overall satisfaction with the vehicle's performance, military commanders demanded that a few important changes be made: the lowest speed of the vehicle had to be reduced from 8 km/h to 4 km/h as an adjustment to the pace of marching soldiers. Secondly it needed some improvement of its off road ability. Porsche responded to both requests by mounting new axles with gear-reduction hubs, providing the car with more torque and more ground-clearance all at once Revised dampers, 16-inch wheels and a limited slip differential, as well as countless small modifications completed the specification. In order to reflect the changes, the vehicle was re-named Type 82.
Full scale production of the Type 82 Kübelwagen started in February 1940, as soon as the VW factories had become operational. No major changes took place until production ended in 1945, only small modifications were implemented—mostly eliminating unnecessary parts. Prototype versions were assembled with four-wheel drive (Type 86) and different engines, but none offered a significant increase in performance or capability over the existing Type 82 and the designs were never implemented. As of March 1943, the car received a revised dash and the bigger 1,131 cc engine that produced more torque than the original 985 cc unit. When Volkswagen production ceased at the end of the war, 50,435 Kübelwagen vehicles had been produced and the vehicle had proven itself to be surprisingly useful, reliable and durable.
VW resurrected the basic Kübelwagen design several decades after the war as the 1969 Type 181, developed for the German Federal Armed Forces and later also produced for the civilian market known as "Thing" in the US, "Trekker" in the UK and "Safari" in Mexico. Although similar in looks and design, hardly any parts were interchangeable with the type 82.
In November of 1943, the American military conducted a series of tests as well on several Type 82s they had captured in North Africa; they concluded that the vehicle was simpler, easier to manufacture and maintain, faster, and more comfortable for four passengers than the American Jeeps.
Among the design features that contributed to the Kübelwagen's performance were:
Apart from that the air-cooled engine proved highly tolerant of hot and cold climates, and naturally invulnerable to bullet holes in the absence of a radiator. Only for starting under winter conditions, a specially volatile starting fuel was required, contained in a small auxiliary fuel tank.
Also the body of the vehicle could easily be modified to special purposes, since it was not a load-bearing part of the structure of the vehicle.
The Kübelwagen could reach a top speed of 80 kilometers per hour.
The following body types and variants of the Type 82 were produced:
Type 62: Prototype Kübelwagen, constructed from May 15, 1938; preproduction models (1939) field tested in the invasion of Poland
Type 67: 2-stretcher ambulance; Type 60 Beetle chassis with modified Type 82 body
Type 82/0: Basic four seater
Type 82/I: Three-seat radio car
Type 82/2: Sirencar (Siemens motordriven siren mounted on passenger side in place of the rear seat)
Type 82/3: Mock-up armoured vehicle/command car with machinegun-fitted turret over the cabin
Type 82/5: Kübelwagen chassis with the Type 60 LO Lieferwagen (open pickup truck) body
Type 82/6: Tropical version sedan-body box van
Type 82/7: Three-seat 'Command car' made up of a Type 82 chassis, fitted with a Beetle body and roll-up canvas roof section. These three-seaters had a co-drivers seat with fully reclining backrest for the commander.
Type 82/8: Like Type 82/0 but had a open body made of wood
Type 82/E: Kübelwagen chassis with Beetle body (688 manufactured)
Type 86: All-wheel drive prototype (6 fabricated)
Type 87: 'Kommandeurwagen' Type 86 4x4 Kübelwagen chassis with Beetle command car body. Fitted with running boards, under-hood-mounted spare tire (accompanied by a gas can, a jack, a small tool kit and a shovel, and widened fenders for its larger-diameter Kronprinz (Crown Prince) off-road tires, some were provided to preferred officers, who could push through virtually any kind of terrain with them (667 produced)
Type 89: Fitted with an experimental automatic transmission
Type 98: 4x4 Kübelwagen-chassis with a Beetle body
Type 106: Fitted with an experimental transmission (assumedly different from the Type 89)
Type 107: Fitted with a turbocharger
Type 115: Fitted with a supercharger
Type 126: Fitted with a fully-synchronized gearbox (assumedly different from the Type 278)
Type 155/1: Half-track / snow-track Kübelwagen prototype. Pictures of several track-set designs exist ,
although it is possible that these were consecutively fitted to the same prototype. Trials proved that the Type 155 was able to cover the most difficult terrain, but the modifications necessary to the standard Kübelwagen were extensive and the resulting vehicle was both very slow and forbiddingly inefficient.
Type 157: Railway car equipment, used for Types 82 and 87
Type 164: Six-wheeled, twin engine, dual-control prototype; never entered production
Type 177: Fitted with a 5-speed transmission (as opposed to the standard 4-speed unit)
Type 179: Fitted with fuel-injected Volkswagen engine
Type 235: Fitted for power by an electric motor
Type 239: Fitted for power by a wood-gas generator mounted on the nose (also listed as Type 230)
Type 240: Fitted for power by bottled gas
Type 276: Type 82 fitted with a towing hook
Type 278: Fitted with synchronized gearbox
Type 307: Fitted with a heavy-duty carburetor
Type 309: Prototype fitted with a diesel engine
Type 331: Prototype fitted for power by a "native fuel system" (acetylene gas) engine (also listed as Type 231)
Type 332: Fitted for power by anthracite coal