Alliance

Alliance

[uh-lahy-uhns]
Alliance, city (1990 pop. 23,376), Mahoning and Stark cos., NE Ohio, on the Mahoning River, in a farm area; inc. 1854. It is an industrial, distribution, and rail center, with manufactures of steel, heavy machinery, electric tubing, chinaware, and industrial equipment. It is the seat of Mount Union College, where Clarke Observatory is located.

In international politics, a union for joint action of various powers or states. Examples include the alliance of the European powers and the U.S. against Germany and its allies during World War II and the alliance of the NATO states against the Soviet Union and its allies during the Cold War. Many alliances rest on the principle of collective security, through which an attack on one member is considered an attack on all members. Major alliances formed after World War II include the ANZUS Pact, the Arab League, ASEAN, the Organization of American States, the Southeast Asia Treaty Organization, and the Warsaw Pact.

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or Paraguayan War

(1864/65–70) Bloodiest conflict in Latin American history, fought between Paraguay and the allied countries of Argentina, Brazil, and Uruguay. The Paraguayan dictator Francisco Solano López (1827–70), objecting to Brazil's interference in the politics of neighbouring Uruguay, declared war on Brazil in 1864. The next year Argentina organized the Triple Alliance with Brazil and Uruguay. After three years of fighting, the allies annihilated the Paraguayan forces, but Solano López carried on a guerrilla war until he was killed. Paraguay was devastated by the war; its population was reduced by half, and territory covering some 55,000 sq mi (140,000 sq km) was annexed by Brazil and Argentina.

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(1689–97) Third major war of Louis XIV of France, in which his expansionist plans were blocked by an alliance led by Britain, the United Provinces of the Netherlands, and the Austrian Habsburgs. The deeper issue underlying the war was the rivalry between the Bourbon and Habsburg dynasties. Louis launched a campaign in the 1680s to position the Bourbons for future succession to the Spanish throne. To oppose him, the Habsburg emperor Leopold I joined other European nations in the League of Augsburg. The league proved ineffective, but in 1690 Britain, Brandenburg, Saxony, Bavaria, and Spain, alarmed at Louis's successes, joined with Leopold to form the Grand Alliance. As war broke out in Europe and in overseas colonies, including America (see King William's War), Louis found his military inadequately prepared, and France suffered heavy naval losses. In 1695 Louis started secret peace negotiations, which culminated in the Treaty of Rijswijk (1697). The underlying conflict between the Habsburg and Bourbon rulers and English-French conflicts remained unresolved and resurfaced four years later in the War of the Spanish Succession.

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or Paraguayan War

(1864/65–70) Bloodiest conflict in Latin American history, fought between Paraguay and the allied countries of Argentina, Brazil, and Uruguay. The Paraguayan dictator Francisco Solano López (1827–70), objecting to Brazil's interference in the politics of neighbouring Uruguay, declared war on Brazil in 1864. The next year Argentina organized the Triple Alliance with Brazil and Uruguay. After three years of fighting, the allies annihilated the Paraguayan forces, but Solano López carried on a guerrilla war until he was killed. Paraguay was devastated by the war; its population was reduced by half, and territory covering some 55,000 sq mi (140,000 sq km) was annexed by Brazil and Argentina.

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(1882) Secret agreement between Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy. It provided that Germany and Austria-Hungary would support Italy if it was attacked by France, that Italy would similarly assist Germany, and that Italy would remain neutral if Austria-Hungary was attacked by Russia. The alliance advanced Otto von Bismarck's efforts to isolate France. Conflicts between Italy and Austria-Hungary over their interests in the Balkans led Italy to reach an understanding of neutrality with France in 1902, which effectively nullified Italy's pledge to the members of the Triple Alliance, though the alliance was renewed in 1907 and 1912. Seealso Austro-German Alliance.

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(1815) Alliance between Britain, Russia, Austria, and Prussia first formed in 1813 to oppose France in the final phase of the Napoleonic Wars. It was officially renewed in 1815 to enforce the peace settlement concluded at the Congress of Vienna. The allies agreed to meet occasionally to keep European political development within terms of the 1815 settlement. This program was partially carried out by the Congresses of Aix-la-Chapelle (1818), Troppau (1820), Laibach (1821), and Verona (1822).

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Loose organization of most of the European sovereigns, formed in 1815 by Alexander I of Russia, Francis I of Austria, and Frederick William III of Prussia, after the final defeat of Napoleon. Its avowed purpose was to promote the influence of Christian principles in the affairs of nations, but it accomplished little and became a symbol of conservatism and repression in central and eastern Europe. Seealso Congress of Laibach.

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(1689–97) Third major war of Louis XIV of France, in which his expansionist plans were blocked by an alliance led by Britain, the United Provinces of the Netherlands, and the Austrian Habsburgs. The deeper issue underlying the war was the rivalry between the Bourbon and Habsburg dynasties. Louis launched a campaign in the 1680s to position the Bourbons for future succession to the Spanish throne. To oppose him, the Habsburg emperor Leopold I joined other European nations in the League of Augsburg. The league proved ineffective, but in 1690 Britain, Brandenburg, Saxony, Bavaria, and Spain, alarmed at Louis's successes, joined with Leopold to form the Grand Alliance. As war broke out in Europe and in overseas colonies, including America (see King William's War), Louis found his military inadequately prepared, and France suffered heavy naval losses. In 1695 Louis started secret peace negotiations, which culminated in the Treaty of Rijswijk (1697). The underlying conflict between the Habsburg and Bourbon rulers and English-French conflicts remained unresolved and resurfaced four years later in the War of the Spanish Succession.

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or Dual Alliance

(1894) Political and military pact between France and Russia that was one of the basic European alignments of the pre–World War I era. In the event of war, France wanted support against Germany, and Russia against Austria-Hungary. The alliance was formalized through an exchange of letters in order to preserve secrecy, and it was to be in force as long as the opposing Triple Alliance. The alliance was renewed and strengthened in 1899 and 1912.

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French Alliance Canadienne

Former conservative Canadian political party. It was created in 2000 from the merger of the Reform Party of Canada with other conservative groups in an effort to mount a united challenge to the ruling Liberal Party of Canada. By 1997 the Reform Party, whose support had been concentrated in the western Canadian provinces, held 60 seats in the Canadian House of Commons and was the official opposition party. The new Canadian Alliance gained 66 seats in the 2000 election and became the official opposition, though it was unable to make significant inroads in eastern Canada. In 2003 the party merged with the Progressive Conservative Party to form the Conservative Party of Canada. The party's platform generally favoured a reduction in the size of government, lower taxes, and conservative positions on social issues.

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International development program. Initiated by the U.S. and joined by 22 Latin American countries in 1961, it aimed to strengthen democratic government and promote social and economic reforms in Latin America. The program, which provided loans and aid from the U.S. and the international financial community, built some schools and hospitals, but by the early 1970s it was widely viewed as a failure. Significant land reform was not achieved, population growth outstripped gains in health and welfare, and the U.S. willingness to support military dictators to prevent communism from gaining a foothold sowed distrust and undermined the reforms the Alliance was intended to promote.

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An alliance is an agreement between two or more parties, made in order to advance common goals and to secure common interests. The Anglo-Portuguese Alliance, between the Kingdom of England (succeeded by the United Kingdom) and Portugal, is the oldest alliance in the world which is still in force. It was signed in 1373.

An alliance may refer to:

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Fiction

  • Alliance of Twelve from the Alias TV series
  • Alliance (DC Comics), an organization of alien freedom fighters from the pages of DC Comics
  • The Alliance, a military, cultural, and economic alliance between Humans, Night Elves, Gnomes, Dwarves and Draenei in the MMORPG World of Warcraft.
  • Anglo-Sino Alliance, powerful government and law-enforcement organization that controls a large sector of colonized "core planets" in the Firefly television series
  • Earth Alliance (Babylon 5), fictional alliance of the countries of Earth in the television series Babylon 5
  • Earth Alliance (Gundam), a military alliance that controls most of the Earth in the Japanese anime TV series Gundam Seed
  • Ferengi Alliance, fictional extraterrestrial race from the Star Trek universe
  • Rebel Alliance, interstellar political resistance force formed in direct military opposition to the Galactic Empire in the fictional Star Wars universe
  • United Alliance of Evil from the Power Rangers TV series

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