Farmer argued that the Rosenbergs were tried under the wrong law, claiming that the Atomic Energy Act, which did not carry a death penalty, should have been applied rather than the Espionage Act of 1917. On the basis of Farmer's arguments, a temporary stay was granted to the Rosenbergs by Justice William O. Douglas on 17 June, 1953. The United States Supreme Court vacated Douglas's stay by a vote of 6-3. The Rosenbergs were executed on 19 June, 1953. In 1990 Farmer filed "United States ex rel. Farmer v. Kaufman" against Irving R. Kaufman, the judge who presided over the Rosenbergs' trial. His papers are archived at the Library of Congress.