Adversary proceedings may be filed by the bankruptcy trustee or by other parties. For example, a creditor may file an adversary proceeding to object to the debtor's discharge. Or, a debtor may commence an adversary proceeding against a creditor as a response to a violation of the automatic stay. See generally Rule 7001(4) of the Federal Rules of Bankruptcy Procedure.
An adversary proceeding is more formal than a contested matter. A contested matter in bankruptcy is governed by Rule 9014 of the Federal Rules of Bankruptcy Procedure.
Student loans can be discharged through bankruptcy by use of the adversary proceeding.