This stage is comparable with the Dutch degree of Doctorandus, earned through a matriculation exam for admission to study at doctoral level. The doctorandus allows the student to continue to do research, supervised by a professor to earn a doctorate.
This stage is sometimes referred to on resumes as Ph.D.(ABD). This usage can be misleading or confusing to non-academics as it may seem that the student has earned a Ph.D. when in fact, the ABD state indicates that the degree is incomplete.
Some universities offered Candidate of Philosophy degrees as official designations of this state.