Alexis

Alexis

[uh-lek-sis]
Alexis (Aleksey Mikhailovich), 1629-76, czar of Russia (1645-76), son and successor of Michael. His reign, marked by numerous popular outbreaks, was crucial for the later development of Russia. A new code of laws was promulgated in 1648 and remained in effect until the early 19th cent.; it favored the middle classes and the landowners, but tied the peasants to the soil. The reforms of Patriarch Nikon resulted in a dangerous schism in the Russian Church, and Nikon's deposition (1666) was a prelude to the abolition of the Moscow patriarchate in 1721. In 1654 the Cossacks of Ukraine, led in revolt against Poland by Bohdan Chmielnicki, voted for the union of Ukraine with Russia. War with Poland ensued and ended in 1667 with Russia retaining most of Ukraine. A serious revolt against the czar (1670) among the Don Cossacks under Stenka Razin was quelled by 1671. Alexis was succeeded by his son Feodor III. A younger son, by a second marriage, became Peter I (Peter the Great).
Alexis (Aleksey Petrovich), 1690-1718, Russian czarevich; son of Peter I (Peter the Great) by his first wife, and father of Peter II. Opposing his father's anticlerical policy, Alexis renounced his right of succession and fled (1716) to Vienna. Peter, who feared that Alexis might win foreign backing, enticed him to return; he then had him arrested and tried for treason. Sentenced to death, Alexis died from the effects of torture shortly before his scheduled execution.
Carrel, Alexis, 1873-1944, American surgeon and experimental biologist, b. near Lyons, France, M.D. Univ. of Lyons, 1900. Coming to the United States in 1905, he joined the staff of the Rockefeller Institute in 1906 and served as a member from 1912 to 1939. For his work in suturing blood vessels, in transfusion, and in transplantation of organs, he received the 1912 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine. In World War I he developed, with Henry D. Dakin, a method of treating wounds by irrigation with a sodium-hypochlorite solution. With Charles A. Lindbergh he invented an artificial, or mechanical, heart, by means of which he kept alive a number of different kinds of tissue and organs; he kept tissue from a chicken's heart alive for 32 years. In 1939 he returned to France. He wrote Man the Unknown (1935) and, with Lindbergh, The Culture of Organs (1938).

Alexis de Tocqueville, detail of an oil painting by T. Chassériau; in the Versailles Museum.

(born July 29, 1805, Paris, France—died April 16, 1859, Cannes) French political scientist, historian, and politician. Born into an aristocratic family, he entered government service by choice. After the July Revolution of 1830, his position became precarious because of his family's ties to the ousted king, and he undertook a nine-month study trip to the U.S. with his friend Gustave de Beaumont. Out of it came his best-known work, Democracy in America, 4 vol. (1835–40), a highly perceptive and prescient analysis of the American political and social system, as well as of the vitality, excesses, and potential future of democracy, with attention to the situation in France. He was elected to the Chamber of Deputies in 1839 and held various political offices after the Revolution of 1848. The Old Regime and the Revolution (1856), a pessimistic analysis of French political tendencies, was the first volume of his unfinished study of the French Revolution.

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(born June 28, 1873, Sainte-Foy-lès-Lyon, Fra.—died Nov. 5, 1944, Paris) French surgeon, sociologist, and biologist. He received a 1912 Nobel Prize for developing a way to suture (stitch) blood vessels and laid the groundwork for further studies of blood-vessel and organ transplantation. He also researched preservation of tissues outside the body and the application of the process to surgery, and he helped develop the Carrel-Dakin method of flushing wounds with an antiseptic. His writings include Man, the Unknown (1935), The Culture of Organs (with Charles A. Lindbergh, 1938), and Reflections on Life (1952).

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(born June 28, 1873, Sainte-Foy-lès-Lyon, Fra.—died Nov. 5, 1944, Paris) French surgeon, sociologist, and biologist. He received a 1912 Nobel Prize for developing a way to suture (stitch) blood vessels and laid the groundwork for further studies of blood-vessel and organ transplantation. He also researched preservation of tissues outside the body and the application of the process to surgery, and he helped develop the Carrel-Dakin method of flushing wounds with an antiseptic. His writings include Man, the Unknown (1935), The Culture of Organs (with Charles A. Lindbergh, 1938), and Reflections on Life (1952).

Learn more about Carrel, Alexis with a free trial on Britannica.com.

Alexis de Tocqueville, detail of an oil painting by T. Chassériau; in the Versailles Museum.

(born July 29, 1805, Paris, France—died April 16, 1859, Cannes) French political scientist, historian, and politician. Born into an aristocratic family, he entered government service by choice. After the July Revolution of 1830, his position became precarious because of his family's ties to the ousted king, and he undertook a nine-month study trip to the U.S. with his friend Gustave de Beaumont. Out of it came his best-known work, Democracy in America, 4 vol. (1835–40), a highly perceptive and prescient analysis of the American political and social system, as well as of the vitality, excesses, and potential future of democracy, with attention to the situation in France. He was elected to the Chamber of Deputies in 1839 and held various political offices after the Revolution of 1848. The Old Regime and the Revolution (1856), a pessimistic analysis of French political tendencies, was the first volume of his unfinished study of the French Revolution.

Learn more about Tocqueville, Alexis (-Charles-Henri-Maurice Clérel) de with a free trial on Britannica.com.

Alexis (Ancient Greek:Ἄλεξις, c. 375 BC – c. 275 BC) was a Greek comic poet of the Middle Comedy, born at Thurii and taken early to Athens, where he became a citizen, of the deme Oion (Οἶον), and the tribe Leontides.

He won his first Lenaean victory in the 350s BC, most likely, where he was sixth after Eubulus, and fourth after Antiphanes.

Plutarch says that he lived to the age of 106, and that he died on the stage while being crowned. According to the Suda, he wrote 245 comedies, of which some 130 titles are preserved. Only fragments of any of the plays have survived - about 340 in all, totaling about 1,000 lines. They attest to the wit and refinement of the author.

The Suda also calls him Zoe's uncle, but an anonymous tractate on comedy more plausibly states that Menander was his pupil. Alexis was known in Roman times; Aulus Gellius noted that Alexis' poetry was used by Roman comedians, including Turpilius and possibly Plautus.

References

Other sources

  • Arnott, W. Geoffrey. Alexis: The Fragments. A Commentary. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996.

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