(born Feb. 10, 1859, Paris, France—died April 7, 1943, Versailles) French politician. He was an editor of socialist journals (1883–98) and served in the Chamber of Deputies from 1885 to 1920. He implemented reforms while serving in various governments as minister of commerce (1899–1901), public works (1909–10), and war (1912–15). He became premier in 1920, and, as leader of a moderate coalition, was elected president of France (1920–24). After advocating a revision of the constitution to strengthen the power of the presidency, he was forced to resign by the Cartel des Gauches. He served in the Senate from 1927 to 1940.
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