(born Feb. 10, 1859, Paris, France—died April 7, 1943, Versailles) French politician. He was an editor of socialist journals (1883–98) and served in the Chamber of Deputies from 1885 to 1920. He implemented reforms while serving in various governments as minister of commerce (1899–1901), public works (1909–10), and war (1912–15). He became premier in 1920, and, as leader of a moderate coalition, was elected president of France (1920–24). After advocating a revision of the constitution to strengthen the power of the presidency, he was forced to resign by the Cartel des Gauches. He served in the Senate from 1927 to 1940.
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Alexandre Millerand (10 February 1859 - 7 April 1943) was a French socialist politician. He was President of France from 23 September 1920 to 11 June 1924 and Prime Minister of France 20 January to 23 September 1920. His participation in Waldeck-Rousseau's cabinet at the turn of the century, alongside the marquis de Galliffet who had directed the repression of the 1871 Paris Commune, sparked a debate in the French socialist movement and in the Second International about the participation of socialists in "bourgeois governments".
The introduction of trade union representatives on the Supreme Labour Council, the organization of local labour councils, and the instructions to factory inspectors to put themselves in communication with the councils of the trade unions, were valuable concessions to labour, and he further secured the rigorous application of earlier laws devised for the protection of the working class. His name was especially associated with a project for the establishment of old age pensions, which became law in 1905. In 1898, he became editor of La Lanterne.
His influence with the far left had already declined, for it was said that his departure from the true Marxist tradition had disintegrated the party. He was expelled from the group in 1903, and continued to move to the right, being appointed Prime Minister by the conservative President Paul Deschanel in 1920.
Millerand was accused of favouring conservatives in spite of the traditional neutrality of French Presidents and the composition of the legislature. On 14 July 1922, Millerand escaped an assassination attempt by Gustave Bouvet, a young French anarchist. Two years later, Millerand resigned in the face of growing conflict between the elected legislature and the office of the President, following the victory of the Cartel des Gauches. Gaston Doumergue, who was the president of the Senate at the time, was chosen to replace Millerand.