Alexander

Alexander

[al-ig-zan-der, -zahn-]
Papagos, Alexander, 1883-1955, Greek soldier and political leader. Commissioned an officer in the Greek army in 1906, he rose rapidly through the ranks. In 1935 he became minister of war, and the following year he was made army chief of staff. He was commander in chief of the Greek army in World War II and gained great prestige, particularly for the Albanian campaign. Later he directed (1949) the successful struggle against the Communist rebels, and by 1950 he had become field marshal and head of the armed forces. He resigned in May, 1950, and shortly afterward formed the conservative Greek Rally party. In 1952 he became prime minister, serving until his death in Oct., 1955. He strengthened Greek ties with the West and developed the country's economy. He concluded the 1954 alliance with Yugoslavia and Turkey and improved Greek relations with Bulgaria and Albania.
Wilson, Alexander, 1766-1813, American ornithologist, b. Scotland. He came to the United States c.1794 and taught in rural New Jersey and Pennsylvania. Encouraged by William Bartram, he studied the birds of his adopted country, learned to portray them, and began his American Ornithology (9 vol., 1808-14), a work that is noted for its accuracy and sensitive draftsmanship. The last two volumes of this series of books were completed by his friend and biographer (1829), George Ord, after Wilson's death. Wilson is also known for his poems and essays on nature.
Brook, Alexander, 1898-1980, American painter, b. Brooklyn, N.Y. Brook's paintings, which are consistently realistic, include portraits, still-life subjects, landscapes, and figures. His color is subtle and reserved. A deep respect for human personality characterizes much of his work, often with overtones of wry humor or irony. Among his major works are Amalia (Toledo Mus. of Art), Peggy Bacon and Metaphysics (Univ. of Nebraska), and The Sentinels (Whitney Mus., New York City). Brook was married (1920-40) to the artist Peggy Bacon and later to the painter Gina Knee.
Cruden, Alexander, 1701-70, author of a famous biblical concordance, b. Aberdeen, Scotland. He spent most of his life near London. In 1737 he published his Complete Concordance to the Holy Scriptures, which went through several editions and is the basis of later biblical concordances.
Leslie, Alexander, 1st earl of Leven: see Leven, Alexander Leslie, 1st earl of.
Vaida-Voevod, Alexander, 1871-1950, Romanian statesman, b. Transylvania. He was (1906-18) a member of the Hungarian parliament, in which he advocated the cause of the Romanians in Transylvania. In 1918, on the collapse of the Austro-Hungarian monarchy, he led in proclaiming the union of Transylvania with Romania, and in 1919 he was made premier and foreign minister of Romania. He secured recognition of the incorporation of Transylvania and Bessarabia into Romania, although Russia refused to concede the loss of Bessarabia, and he had Romanian troops intervene in Hungary to oust the Communist regime of Bela Kun. He resigned in 1920 but was later premier in 1932 and 1933 at the head of the National Peasants' party. Withdrawing from that party, he associated with the reactionary, pro-German, and anti-Semitic elements in Romanian politics and set up in 1935 the right-wing Romanian Front.
Alekhine, Alexander, 1892-1946, Russian-French chess player, b. Moscow. He became a naturalized French citizen after the Russian Revolution. At the age of 16 he gained the rank of master and in 1927, by a surprising defeat of Capablanca at Buenos Aires, became world champion. In 1930 at San Remo, Italy, he did not lose a single game in a tournament that included all of the major European players. In 1935 he lost the championship to Max Euwe but regained it in 1937 and kept it until his death. His clear and realistic style and the brilliance of his middle-game and end-game combinations are found in his book, My Best Games of Chess, 1924-1937 (1939).

See study by R. G. Eales and A. H. Williams (1973).

Ales, Alexander: see Alesius, Alexander.
Alesius, Ales, or Aless, Alexander, 1500-1565, Scottish Protestant theologian. As canon of the collegiate church at St. Andrews he tried to reclaim Patrick Hamilton from his Lutheran views but was himself persuaded to accept the reformed teachings. In 1532 he escaped to the Continent, where he gained the confidence of Martin Luther and Philip Melanchthon and joined in signing the Augsburg Confession. He was commended to Henry VIII by them, and arriving in England in 1535, he enjoyed friendly association with Archbishop Cranmer, Thomas Cromwell, and others. He lectured on divinity at Cambridge and afterward practiced medicine in London. After Cromwell's fall in 1540, Alesius returned to Germany, where he was professor of theology, first at Frankfurt-an-der-Oder and later at Leipzig.
Alexander, 1893-1920, king of the Hellenes (1917-20), second son of Constantine I. After his father's forced abdication, he succeeded to the Greek throne with the support of the Allies, who distrusted the sympathies of his elder brother George (later King George II). Alexander died of a monkey bite. His father, Constantine I, was restored to the throne shortly afterward.
Alexander (Alexander Obrenović), 1876-1903, king of Serbia (1889-1903), son of King Milan. He succeeded on his father's abdication. Proclaiming himself of age in 1893, he took over the government, abolished (1894) the relatively liberal constitution of 1889, and restored the conservative one of 1869. He recalled his father in 1897, gave him command of the army, and permitted him to undertake a campaign against the pro-Russian Radical party. In 1900 he married Draga Mašin, the widow of a foreign engineer and a former lady-in-waiting (see Draga). The scandal of the marriage exasperated his opposition. In 1903, after Alexander had arbitrarily suspended and then restored the new liberal constitution that he had granted in 1901, he and his queen were assassinated by a clique of officers. Peter Karadjordjević was recalled as King Peter I, and the Obrenović dynasty came to an end.
Alexander, 1888-1934, king of Yugoslavia (1921-34), son and successor of Peter I. Of the Karadjordjević family, he was educated in Russia and became crown prince of Serbia upon the renunciation (1909) of the succession by his brother George. He led Serbian forces in the Balkan War of 1912, became regent in June, 1914, led the Serbian army in World War I, and became (Dec., 1918) regent of the Kingdom of the Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes (later Yugoslavia). In 1922 he married Princess Marie of Romania. After his accession increasing disorder arose from the Croatian autonomy movement. After the assassination (1928) of Stjepan Radić, the Croat Peasant party leader, Alexander in 1929 dismissed the parliament, abolished the constitution and the parties, and became absolute ruler. To emphasize the unity he hoped to give the country, he changed (Oct., 1929) its official name to Yugoslavia. Although he announced the end of the dictatorship in 1931 and proclaimed a new constitution, he kept power in his own hands. His authoritarian and centralizing policy brought him the hatred of the separatist minorities, particularly the Croats and Macedonians, as well as the opposition of Serbian liberals. In foreign policy he was loyal to the French alliance and to the Little Entente. In 1934 he debarked at Marseilles on a state visit to France. A member of a Croatian separatist organization fired on his car, assassinating the king and fatally wounding the French foreign minister, Louis Barthou. Alexander was succeeded by his young son, Peter II.

See study by S. Graham (1939, repr. 1972).

Alexander (Alexander of Battenberg), 1857-93, prince of Bulgaria (1879-86); second son of Prince Alexander of Hesse-Darmstadt and nephew of Alexander II of Russia. He served in the Russian army against the Turks (1877-78) and, backed by the Rus sian czar, was elected hereditary prince of Bulgaria under Turkish suzerainty. In 1885 the revolutionaries in Eastern Rumelia, also known as Southern Bulgaria, proclaimed the union of that province with Bulgaria. Alexander accepted the union, thus incurring the wrath of the Russian czar and Serbia. The latter declared war. Alexander was victorious and by an agreement with Turkey became governor of Eastern Rumelia, but he was forced to abdicate by a group of officers. He became an Austrian officer, and Ferdinand was elected to succeed him as prince.
Alexander (Alexander Karadjordjević), 1806-85, prince of Serbia (1842-58), son of Karageorge (Karadjordje). He was elected to succeed the deposed Michael of Serbia. Weak and vacillating, he did not send troops to aid the Slavic minorities in Hungary during the revolution of 1848-49. He later submitted to Turkish and Austrian pressure in withholding his support from Russia in the Crimean War of 1854-56. Discontent with his ineffective government finally led his subjects to depose him and to recall Miloš as king. In 1868, Alexander was condemned to death in absentia by a Serbian court for his alleged part in the assassination of Michael, who had succeeded Miloš. Alexander was the father of Peter I of Yugoslavia.
Alexander, in the Bible. 1 Kinsman of Annas. 2 Son of Simon of Cyrene, probably a Christian. 3 Heretic condemned by Paul. 4 Coppersmith who did Paul harm. 5 Jew who tried to speak during a riot at Ephesus. The last three may be the same man. The Alexanders in the books of the Maccabees are Alexander the Great and Alexander Balas.
Alexander, Grover Cleveland, 1887-1950, American baseball player, b. St. Paul, Nebr. One of the great right-handed pitchers in National League history, Alexander pitched 696 games and won 373 of them, compiling a .642 winning percentage. He played for the Philadelphia Phillies (1911-17 and again in 1930), the Chicago Cubs (1918-26), and the St. Louis Cardinals (1926-29). Alexander was elected to the National Baseball Hall of Fame in 1938.
Alexander, Harold Rupert Leofric George, 1st Earl Alexander of Tunis, 1891-1969, British field marshal. His long military career began with service in World War I, followed by a period (1934-38) in the North-West Frontier Province, India. In World War II he directed the retreats at Dunkirk (1940) and in Burma (1942). Then, appointed (Aug., 1942) head of the Middle Eastern Command (see North Africa, campaigns in), he directed the conquest of Sicily (1943) and the bitter fighting in Italy. In 1944, Alexander was made field marshal and Allied commander in chief in the Mediterranean. In 1946 he was appointed governor-general of Canada (holding the post until 1952) and was created viscount. He became minister of defense under Sir Winston Churchill and was raised (1952) to the rank of earl.

See his Alexander Memoirs: 1940-1945 (1962); biography by N. Nicholson (1973); study by W. G. F. Jackson (1972).

Alexander, Samuel, 1859-1938, British philosopher, b. Australia. From 1893 to 1924 he was professor of philosophy at Victoria Univ., Manchester. Strongly influenced by the theory of evolution, Alexander conceived of the world as a single cosmic process in which higher forms of being emerge periodically. The basic principle of this process is space-time, and the result is God. His works include Space, Time, and Deity (1920), Spinoza and Time (1921), Art and the Material (1925), and Beauty and Other Forms of Value (1933).

See studies by S. R. Dasgupta (1965) and M. Weinstein (1984).

Alexander, Sir William, d. 1640: see Stirling, William Alexander, earl of.
Alexander, William, known as Lord Stirling, 1726-83, American Revolutionary general, b. New York City. Although the House of Lords rejected his claim to succeed as the 6th earl of Stirling, in America he was generally considered a nobleman. He served in the French and Indian Wars and joined the Continental Army early in the Revolution. Although he fought well at the battle of Long Island (1776), he was captured by the British. After being freed in a prisoner exchange, he saw action at Trenton, Brandywine, Germantown, and Monmouth. In 1778 he helped to expose the Conway Cabal.

See A. C. Valentine, Lord Stirling (1969).

Alexander, in Greek mythology: see Paris.
Nasmyth, Alexander, 1758-1840, Scottish landscape and portrait painter. His Stirling Castle (National Gall., London) is a good example of his simple, picturesque Scottish scenes. His portrait of Robert Burns is in the National Gallery of Edinburgh. His son and pupil, Patrick Nasmyth, 1787-1831, was a celebrated landscapist. His At Penshurst, Kent is in the Metropolitan Museum.
Berkman, Alexander, 1870?-1936, anarchist, b. Vilna (then in Russian Lithuania). He emigrated to the United States c.1887. At the time of the Homestead, Pa., strike (1892) Berkman attempted to kill Henry Clay Frick, but succeeded only in wounding him. He served 14 years of a 22-year sentence imposed for this attack. His association with Emma Goldman, begun before his imprisonment, was resumed after his release. In 1917 they were arrested for obstructing the draft and in 1919 were deported to Russia. Disappointed in his hope of finding the freedom that he sought under the Bolshevik government, Berkman left Russia and in various European cities supported himself by translation. He committed suicide in Nice. His writings include Prison Memoirs of an Anarchist (1912, repr. 1970), The Bolshevik Myth (1925), The Anti-Climax (1925), and Now and After: the A.B.C. of Communist Anarchism (1929).
Cooper, Alexander: see under Cooper, Samuel.
Tsankov, Alexander, 1879-1959, Bulgarian politician. A professor of political economy at the Univ. of Sofia, he was instrumental in the overthrow (1923) of the dictatorship of Alexander Stambuliski. As premier (1923-26), he mercilessly fought members of the Peasants' and Communist parties, and his administration's relations with Greece and Yugoslavia were strained. After his government fell, Tsankov remained active in right-wing politics and favored the Nazis. In 1944 he fled Bulgaria. He died in Buenos Aires. His name is also spelled Tsankoff, Zankoff, or Zankov.
Fredro, Alexander, 1793-1876, Polish comic dramatist. From 1809 to 1814, Fredro served in the Polish regiments of Napoleon I's army, taking part in the invasion of Russia. He returned to the family estates in Poland, devoting himself to the life of a country gentleman and writing plays that were at first influenced by the Molière and Goldoni works he had seen in Paris. Husband and Wife, the best of his early dramas, was performed in 1822. Of his many facile plays, the best-known include Ladies and Hussars (1825), Maidens' Vows (1832), Mister Joviality (1832), The Vengeance (1833), and The Life Annuity (1835). His period of literary inactivity from 1835 to 1854 was in part the result of attacks from literary critics. Fredro's plays are notable for their brilliant characterization, complex plots, and idiomatic, colorful language.

See The Major Comedies of Alexander Fredro, ed. by H. B. Segel (4 vol., tr. 1969).

Campbell, Alexander, 1788-1866, clergyman, cofounder with his father, Thomas Campbell, 1763-1854, of the Christian Church (Disciples of Christ). Of Scottish lineage, both were born in Ireland and educated at the Univ. of Glasgow. Both were Anti-Burgher Presbyterians, a division opposed to the discipline of the main church. In 1807 the father went to America, where he was welcomed among the Scotch-Irish in SW Pennsylvania. His presbytery condemned him for asking all Presbyterians to join his church members in the communion service. Although his synod upheld him, the atmosphere remained so hostile that he and his followers, popularly called Campbellites, withdrew. They formed (1809) the Christian Association of Washington, Pa., setting forth its purposes in a "Declaration and Address." That year Campbell was joined in America by his family. In c.1812, having accepted the doctrine of immersion, the Campbells joined the Baptists, but by the late 1820s differences caused trouble. Alexander Campbell, who had assumed leadership, advocated a return to scriptural simplicity in organization and doctrine; his followers became known as Reformers. He founded (1823) the Christian Baptist to promote his views and addressed audiences in the new western states. He edited (from 1830) the Millennial Harbinger, wrote The Christian System (1839), and in 1840 founded Bethany College in West Virginia and became its president. Meanwhile, the Reformers had seceded from or been forced out of many Baptist churches, and Campbell suggested that they form congregations and call themselves Disciples of Christ. Many of the "Christians," led chiefly by Barton Warren Stone, joined congregations of the Disciples; in 1832 the two leaders agreed to unite their efforts.

See R. Richardson, Memoirs of Alexander Campbell (2 vol., 1868-70); S. M. Eames, The Philosophy of Alexander Campbell (1966); E. J. Wrather, Creative Freedom in Action (1968).

Ross, Alexander, 1783-1856, Canadian fur trader and pioneer, b. Scotland. He went to Canada in 1805, taught school in Upper Canada, and in 1810 left for Oregon as a clerk in John Jacob Astor's Pacific Fur Company. In the founding (1811) of Astoria, Ross played a part. When that fur-trading post was sold (1813) to the North West Company, he entered their employ and was a member of the expedition that established (1818) Fort Nez Percé (also called Fort Walla Walla); he was in charge of this post until 1823, two years after the amalgamation (1821) of the North West Company with Hudson's Bay Company. His account of these years on the Pacific slope is related in his Adventures of the First Settlers on the Oregon or Columbia River (1849, new ed. 1923) and The Fur-Hunters of the Far West (1855, new ed. 1956). He was head of an expedition (1823-24) in the Snake River country. In 1825 Ross settled in the Red River district; in Assiniboia he was sheriff and a member of the council. His Red River Settlement was published in 1856.
Averescu, Alexander, 1859-1938, Romanian general and political leader. He served as a volunteer in the 1877-78 war against the Ottoman Empire and rose to become minister of war in 1907. He distinguished himself as a commander in World War I, especially in the 1916 Dobruja campaign, and gained a great popular following. In late Jan., 1918, he was chosen to form a cabinet to negotiate peace with the Central Powers. Averescu founded (1918) the People's league (later the People's party), which sought moderate land reform and suppression of the left. He was premier in 1920-21 and again in 1926-27 and was made a marshal in 1930.
Meiklejohn, Alexander, 1872-1964, American educator, b. Rochdale, England, grad. Brown Univ., 1893, Ph.D. Cornell, 1897. He taught philosophy at Brown (1897-1912), serving as dean after 1901 and, after 1906, as professor of logic. From 1912 to 1924 he was president of Amherst College. Meikeljohn was professor of philosophy at the Univ. of Wisconsin from 1926 to 1938 and was chairman of the Experimental College for the five years of its existence (1927-32). This experiment, in which a period of Greek civilization was studied intensively, inspired similar programs in other colleges, e.g., St. John's College. From 1933 to 1936 he taught at the Social Studies Center in San Francisco. Meiklejohn's educational theories are set forth in The Liberal College (1920), Freedom and the College (1923), and The Experimental College (1932). He also wrote What Does America Mean? (1935), Education between Two Worlds (1942), Free Speech and Its Relation to Self-Government (1948), and Political Freedom (1960, repr. 1965).
Pope, Alexander, 1688-1744, English poet. Although his literary reputation declined somewhat during the 19th cent., he is now recognized as the greatest poet of the 18th cent. and the greatest verse satirist in English.

Life

Pope was born in London of Roman Catholic parents and moved to Binfield in 1700. During his later childhood he was afflicted by a tubercular condition known as Pott's disease that ruined his health and produced a pronounced spinal curvature. He never grew taller than 4 ft 6 in. (1.4 m). His religion debarred him from a Protestant education and from the age of 12 he was almost entirely self-taught.

Although he is known for his literary quarrels, Pope never lacked close friends. In his early years he won the attention of William Wycherley and the poet-critic William Walsh, among others. Before he was 17 Pope was admitted to London society and encouraged as a prodigy. The shortest lived of his friendships was with Joseph Addison and his coterie, who eventually insidiously attacked Pope's Tory leanings. His attachment to the Tory party was strengthened by his warm friendship with Swift and his involvement with the Scriblerus Club.

Works

Pope's poetry basically falls into three periods. The first includes the early descriptive poetry; the Pastorals (1709); Windsor Forest (1713); the Essay on Criticism (1711), a poem written in heroic couplets outlining critical tastes and standards; The Rape of the Lock (1714), a mock-heroic poem ridiculing the fashionable world of his day; contributions to the Guardian; and "Elegy to the Memory of an Unfortunate Lady" and "Eloise to Abelard," the only pieces he ever wrote dealing with love. In about 1717 Pope formed attachments to Martha Blount, a relationship that lasted his entire life, and to Lady Mary Wortley Montagu, with whom he later quarreled bitterly.

Pope's second period includes his magnificent, if somewhat inaccurate, translations of Homer, written in heroic couplets; the completed edition of the Iliad (1720); and the Odyssey (1725-26), written with William Broome and Elijah Fenton. These translations, along with Pope's unsatisfactory edition of Shakespeare (1725), amassed him a large fortune. In 1719 he bought a lease on a house in Twickenham where he and his mother lived for the rest of their lives.

In the last period of his career Pope turned to writing satires and moral poems. These include The Dunciad (1728-43), a scathing satire on dunces and literary hacks in which Pope viciously attacked his enemies, including Lewis Theobald, the critic who had ridiculed Pope's edition of Shakespeare, and the playwright Colley Cibber; Imitations of Horace (1733-38), satirizing social follies and political corruption; An Essay on Man (1734), a poetic summary of current philosophical speculation, his most ambitious work; Moral Essays (1731-35); and the "Epistle to Arbuthnot" (1735), a defense in poetry of his life and his work.

Bibliography

See the Twickenham edition of his poems (7 vol., 1951-61); his prose works ed. by N. Ault (1936, repr. 1968); his letters ed. by G. Sherburn (5 vol., 1956); biographies by G. Sherburn (1934, repr. 1963), N. Ault (1949, repr. 1967), P. Quennell (1968), and M. Maynard (1988); studies by G. Tillotson (1946; 2d ed. 1950; and 1958), F. W. Bateson and N. A. Joukovsky, ed. (1972), J. P. Russo (1972), P. Dixon, ed. (1973), F. M. Keener (1974), D. B. Morris (1984), L. Damrosch, Jr. (1987), and R. A. Brower (1986).

Archipenko, Alexander, 1887-1964, Ukrainian-American sculptor, b. Kiev. He moved to Moscow in 1906 and to Paris in 1908. There he began to adapt cubist technique to sculpture. In 1910 he opened his own art school in Paris, later moved (1921) to Berlin and established a school, and, finally, emigrated (1923) to New York City, where he also founded a school. In 1912, Archipenko introduced sculpto-painting, an attempt to unite form and color via mixed media. However, his major contribution to 20th-century sculpture was his realization of negative form. Archipenko recognized the aesthetic value of the void—the hollowed-out shape or perforation as a complement to the bulging mass—as exemplified by his Madonna in marble and the bronze Woman Combing Her Hair (1915, Mus. of Modern Art, New York City). Archipenko also worked in carved plastic lighted from within. His nearly abstract figures gained him international renown; among them are Torso in Space (Whitney Mus., New York City), Walking Girl (Honolulu Mus.), and White Torso (examples in the Chicago Arts Club and in the Fine Art Association, Phoenix, Arizona). Archipenko was also an engineer, ceramist, and teacher.

See his Archipenko: Fifty Creative Years: 1908-1958 (1960); D. H. Karshan, Archipenko: Schlpture, Drawings and Prints, 1908-1963 (1985); K. J. Michaelsen and N. Guralnik, Alexander Archipenko: A Centennial Tribute (1986).

Selkirk, Alexander, 1676-1721, Scottish sailor whose adventures suggested to Daniel Defoe the story of Robinson Crusoe (1719). In 1704, as a sailing master, Selkirk quarreled with the captain of his ship in the Juan Fernández islands and asked to be put ashore. He remained on Más a Tierra Island for four years and four months before he was rescued (Feb., 1709) by an English privateer.

See J. Howell, The Life and Adventures of Alexander Selkirk (1829).

Humboldt, Alexander, Freiherr von, 1769-1859, German naturalist and explorer. His full name is Friedrich Wilhelm Heinrich Alexander von Humboldt. Educated at Göttingen, he studied at Hamburg, Freiberg, and Jena and made several scientific excursions in Europe. In 1792 he was appointed assessor of mines in Berlin. From 1799 to 1804 he made his renowned expedition with A. J. A. Bonpland to Central and South America and Cuba, a journey that did much to lay the foundations for the sciences of physical geography and meteorology. The major ocean current off S America, which was studied by Humboldt, once carried his name, but is now called the Peru Current. He ascended peaks in the Peruvian Andes to study the relation of temperature and altitude, made observations leading to the discovery of meteor shower periodicity, and investigated the fertilizing properties of guano. In 1808 he settled in Paris and published the findings of his New World expedition in Voyage de Humboldt et Bonpland (23 vol., 1805-1834), often cited by the title of Part I, Voyage aux régions équinoxiales du nouveau continent. Humboldt established the use of isotherms in map making; studied the origin and course of tropical storms, the increase in magnetic intensity from the equator toward the poles, and volcanology; and made pioneer investigations on the relationship between geographical environment and plant distribution. In 1827 he settled in his native Berlin at the request of the Prussian king. His interest in terrestrial magnetism led him to effect one of the first instances of international scientific cooperation, by forming a system of meteorological stations throughout Russia and the British colonies. In 1829, Humboldt made an expedition to Russia and Siberia. In his Kosmos (5 vol., 1845-1862; tr. 1849-1858) he sought to combine the vague ideals of the 18th cent. with the exact scientific requirements of the 19th cent. and to formulate a concept of unity amid the complexity of nature.

See biography by C. Kellner (1963); D. Botting, Humboldt and the Cosmos (1973); L. D. Walls, The Passage to Cosmos: Alexander von Humboldt and the Shaping of America (2009).

Kilham, Alexander, 1762-98, English Methodist minister, founder of the Methodist New Connection. He took a leading part in Methodist affairs after the death of John Wesley, advocating separation from the Church of England (see Methodism). He supported the right of preachers to administer the Lord's Supper and sought to have powers of church government distributed between clerical and lay members. For a series of pamphlets that he wrote, he was brought to trial at the conference of 1796 and expelled from the connection. In 1798 he and three other preachers formed the Methodist New Connection, the first group of Methodists to break away.
Kipnis, Alexander, 1891-1978, Russian-American operatic bass. He studied conducting at the Warsaw Conservatory and voice in Berlin. He made his operatic debut (1915) in Hamburg. Imprisoned by the Germans in World War I as an enemy alien, he was freed and permitted to sing in Wiesbaden. From 1919 to 1930 he was the principal bass of the Berlin Opera Company. He appeared with the Chicago Opera Company (1923-32) and toured extensively. His debut at the Metropolitan Opera House (1940) was as Gurnemanz in Parsifal. He is noted for his performance of the role of Boris Godunov. His son, Igor Kipnis, 1931-2002, was a well-known harpsichordist.
Hamilton, Alexander, 1755-1804, American statesman, b. Nevis, in the West Indies.

Early Career

He was the illegitimate son of James Hamilton (of a prominent Scottish family) and Rachel Faucett Lavien (daughter of a doctor-planter on Nevis and the estranged wife of a merchant). Orphaned and impoverished at around the age of 12, the brilliant, ambitious youth arrived in the North American colonies late in 1772 and studied (1773-74) at King's College (now Columbia). In the troubled times leading to the American Revolution, he wrote articles and pamphlets espousing the colonial cause so well that the works were popularly attributed to John Jay.

In the war he became a captain of artillery, attracted George Washington's notice, and, as Washington's secretary and aide-de-camp, performed invaluable services. Desiring more active duty, he left Washington's staff in 1781 and performed brilliantly in the field at Yorktown. His marriage to Elizabeth Schuyler, daughter of Gen. Philip J. Schuyler, connected him with an old and powerful New York family. He practiced law in New York City and was a member of the Continental Congress.

Federalist Leader

By 1780 Hamilton had outlined a plan of government with a strong central authority to replace the weak system of the Articles of Confederation, and as delegate (1782-83) to the Continental Congress he pressed continually for strengthening of the national government. It was Hamilton who proposed at the unsuccessful Annapolis Convention (1786) that a constitutional convention be called at Philadelphia in May, 1787, and he was one of New York's three delegates when it was convened.

Although he believed the Constitution to be deficient in the powers that it gave the national government, he did much to get it ratified, particularly by means of his contributions to The Federalist. In New York, Hamilton was a powerful constitutional supporter, fighting vigorously against the opposition of George Clinton and becoming perhaps the strongest advocate of the new instrument of government aside from James Madison.

In the first decade of the republic, Hamilton played a decisive role in shaping domestic and foreign policy. As Secretary of the Treasury under George Washington, he presented (1790) a far-reaching financial program to the first Congress. He proposed that the debt accumulated by the Continental Congress be paid in full, that the federal government assume all state debts, and that a Bank of the United States be chartered. For revenue, Hamilton advocated a tariff on imported manufactures and a series of excise taxes. He hoped by these measures to strengthen the national government at the expense of the states and to tie government to men of wealth and prosperity.

Hamilton was a well-to-do lawyer and banker (he helped to found the Bank of New York), and his own high connections aroused suspicion among the less conservative; his policies alienated agrarian interests and drew opposition from those who feared concentration of power in the federal government. Widespread antipathy to party divisions muted the opposition, however, and Congress adopted the Hamiltonian program.

Foreign affairs soon brought this unity to an end. Hamilton's program depended for success on continued trade with Great Britain. He supported Jay's Treaty (1794), and, opposed to the French Revolution, encouraged strong measures against France in the near-war of 1798—measures bitterly opposed by the pro-French Thomas Jefferson.

Two opposing parties formed: the Federalists, led by Hamilton and John Adams (then President), and the Democratic Republicans (see Democratic party), led by Jefferson and James Madison. Hamilton was perhaps the most powerful of the Federalists, but he was not in complete command of the party (he had even resigned his cabinet post in 1795, largely for financial reasons). There was little personal liking between Hamilton and Adams, and friction between them grew in the course of the Adams administration. Both were swept under in the election of 1800.

Because the Constitution did not provide for the election of the President and Vice President on separate ballots, a tie between Jefferson and his running mate, Aaron Burr, left the choice of chief executive to the House of Representatives in 1800. Hamilton's influence made Jefferson President and Burr Vice President—an outcome in accord with the popular will, but Burr was disgruntled.

When in 1804 Hamilton again thwarted Burr, keeping him from the governorship of New York, Burr accused Hamilton of having called him a "dangerous" man and, when Hamilton replied to the charge, challenged him to a duel. The two men met at Weehawken Heights, N.J., and Hamilton was mortally wounded.

Bibliography

See the definitive edition of Hamilton's papers (ed. by H. C. Syrett, 27 vol., 1961-87) and law papers (ed. by J. Goebel, Jr., and J. H. Smith, 5 vol., 1964-81) as well as Alexander Hamilton: Writings (ed. by J. B. Freeman, 2001). See also biographies by H. C. Lodge (1898), N. Schachner (1946, repr. 1961), B. Mitchell (2 vol., 1957-62), J. C. Miller (1959, repr. 1964), F. McDonald (1979), R. Brookhiser (1999), W. S. Randall (2002), R. Chernow (2004), and one in his own words, ed. by M.-J. Kline (2 vol., 1973); R. Morris, ed., Alexander Hamilton and the Founding of the Nation (1957); C. Rossiter, Alexander Hamilton and the Constitution (1964); J. E. Cooke, ed., Alexander Hamilton: A Profile (1967); G. Stourzh, Alexander Hamilton and the Idea of Republican Government (1970); B. Mitchell, Alexander Hamilton: The Revolutionary Years (1970); S. Elkins and E. McKitrick, The Age of Federalism (1993); A. A. Rogow, A Fatal Friendship (1998); T. Fleming, Duel: Alexander Hamilton, Aaron Burr and the Future of America (1999); R. G. Kennedy, Burr, Hamilton, and Jefferson: A Study in Character (1999).

Woollcott, Alexander, 1887-1943, American author and critic, b. Phalanx, N.J., grad. Hamilton College, 1909. Woollcott's flamboyant personality combined sharpness of wit with sentimentality. He was one of the best-known journalists of his time and exerted great influence on popular literary and theatrical tastes. From 1914 to 1922 he was drama critic for the New York Times and later, from 1925 to 1928, for the New York World. He also had a weekly radio show, the "Town Crier" (1929-42). His gossipy essays were collected in While Rome Burns (1934), Long Long Ago (1943), and others. Woollcott was the model for Sheridan Whiteside, the central character in The Man Who Came to Dinner, a play by George S. Kaufman and Moss Hart; he portrayed Whiteside in a road company production of the play.

See his letters (1944); biography by E. P. Hoyt (rev. ed. 1973).

Garden, Alexander, c.1730-1791, Scottish-American naturalist and physician, b. Aberdeenshire, Scotland. He settled in Charleston, S.C., where he collected mineral, plant, and animal specimens and discovered new species, including the amphibians known as the congo snake or congo eel and the siren or mud eel. He corresponded with Linnaeus and other European naturalists, and the gardenia was named for him. A loyalist during the American Revolution, he was exiled to England in 1782.
Barclay, Alexander, 1475?-1552, Scottish clergyman and poet. Although the first to write pastoral eclogues in English, he is best known for The Ship of Fools (1509), a translation and elongation of Sebastian Brant's widely popular poem Das Narrenschiff.
Maurocordatos, Alexander: see Mavrokordatos.
Mavrokordatos or Mavrocordatos, Alexander, 1791-1865, Greek patriot and statesman. He took an active part in the Greek revolt (1821) against Turkey and wrote the Greek declaration of independence. He was (1822) president of the first national assembly and commander of the army of E Greece. Mavrokordatos was appointed (1832) minister of finance by King Otto I, held numerous ambassadorial posts, and served several times as premier (1833-34, 1841, 1843-44, and 1854-55). Associated with the pro-English party, he always fell short of his potential and was never able to put into effect the political and economic modernization that he advocated.
McDougall, Alexander, 1731-86, American Revolutionary political leader and general, b. Islay, Inner Hebrides, Scotland. He was taken (1738) as a child to New York. He became a fiery opponent of British restrictions on trade and helped to form the Sons of Liberty in New York City. In 1770 he was arrested on the charge of having written a seditious broadside. In 1774 he presided over the meeting that decided to send New York delegates to the Continental Congress. He served in the army throughout the Revolution and was notable in the battles of White Plains and Germantown and in the fighting in New Jersey. In 1780, after Benedict Arnold's treason, McDougall succeeded to the charge of West Point. After the war he was (1781-82, 1784-85) a member of Congress from New York.
McGillivray, Alexander, 1759-93, Native American chief. He was born in the Creek country now within the borders of the state of Alabama, the son of Lachlan McGillivray, a Scots trader, and Sehoy Marchand, his French-Creek wife. Given a classical education at Charleston, S.C., he returned to his mother's people at the beginning of the American Revolution when Georgia confiscated the property of his Loyalist father, who thereupon returned to Scotland. In the war he was a British agent, influential in maintaining Creek loyalty to the crown. At Pensacola in 1784, McGillivray, now dominant in his nation's councils, concluded with the Spanish a treaty confirming the Creek in their lands, giving the Spanish a trade monopoly, and making him Spanish commissary. With arms provided by the Spanish, his warriors periodically attacked American frontier settlements from Georgia to the Cumberland River. In 1790, President Washington, seeking to end the depredations, invited him to a conference in New York City. McGillivray, an intelligent diplomat, accepted, meanwhile assuring Spanish authorities of his loyalty, and was well received. By the Treaty of New York (1790), the Creek acknowledged U.S. sovereignty over part of their territory, acquired lands claimed by Georgia, and agreed to keep the peace. McGillivray himself accepted a brigadier generalcy and a yearly pension. He continued in the pay of the Spanish, however; in 1792 when they increased his subsidy, he entered upon another treaty with them that practically repudiated his treaty with the Americans, and the Native American attacks were resumed.

See J. W. Caughey, McGillivray of the Creeks (1938).

Mackenzie, Alexander, 1822-92, Canadian political leader, b. Scotland. Emigrating (1842) to Canada, he worked first as a stonemason in Kingston, Ont., and then as a builder and contractor in Sarnia. In Lambton he became editor (1852) of a Liberal newspaper. Elected (1861) to the Canadian Legislative Assembly, Mackenzie supported the confederation movement and the Liberal leader, George Brown. A member of the first dominion House of Commons (1867), Mackenzie headed the Liberal opposition to Sir John A. Macdonald's government; upon its fall (1873) as a result of the Pacific scandal he became the first Liberal prime minister of the dominion. In 1878, Macdonald came back into power, and Mackenzie, who remained in Parliament until his death, led the Liberal opposition until 1880. During his ministry the courts and provincial governments were strengthened, trade expanded, and immigration, especially to the western provinces, was encouraged.

See his life and times by W. Buckingham and G. W. Ross (1892, repr. 1969).

Macomb, Alexander, 1782-1841, American army officer, b. Detroit, Mich. He entered the army in 1799. In the War of 1812, as brigadier general in command at Plattsburgh, N.Y., in the absence of Gen. Ralph Izard, he repulsed (Sept. 11, 1814) the assault of a greatly superior force under Sir George Prevost; this action, accompanied by the complete defeat of a squadron on Lake Champlain by Thomas Macdonough, caused the British to retreat to Canada. From 1828 until his death he was commanding general of the U.S. army.
Severus, Alexander: see Alexander Severus.
Spotswood, Alexander, 1676-1740, colonial governor of Virginia, b. Tangier, Morocco. Appointed in 1710, he was officially lieutenant governor under the nominal governorship of George Hamilton, 1st earl of Orkney. One of the ablest of the royal governors, Spotswood encouraged settlement of the frontier by exempting the settlers from taxes and quitrents. His measures requiring the inspection of all tobacco intended for export or for use as legal tender (1713) and regulating trade with the Native Americans (1714) were unpopular, and upon petition by the assembly, the crown repealed them (1717). He also encountered difficulties in maintaining his right to appoint Anglican clergymen in the colony. In 1716, Spotswood led an expedition into the Shenandoah valley to hasten its settlement, and he negotiated a treaty (1722) with the Iroquois, by which they agreed to remain beyond the Potomac River and the Blue Ridge. At the end (1722) of his governorship, Spotswood remained in Virginia, having acquired a vast amount of land in Spotsylvania co., where he also had extensive iron interests. In 1730 he was made deputy postmaster general of the American colonies.

See his Official Letters (ed. by R. A. Brock, 2 vol., 1882-85); biographies by W. Havighurst (1968) and L. Dodson (1932, repr. 1969).

Stambuliski, Alexander, Bulgarian Aleksandr Stamboliski, 1879-1923, Bulgarian politician. He was a leader of the Peasants' party and by 1911 had become head of the opposition to Czar Ferdinand of Bulgaria. He was jailed (1915-18) for opposing the entry of Bulgaria into World War I on the side of the Central Powers. When he was released he proclaimed a republic, but the movement was defeated. After Ferdinand's deposition and the accession of Boris III, Stambuliski became premier (1919) and virtual dictator (1920). Supported by his peasant Orange Guard, he used his powers to carry out agrarian reforms and founded the Green Peasant International. He sought to carry out the provisions of the Treaty of Neuilly, which he had helped to negotiate in 1919. In 1923 a coup, supported by army officers and Macedonian nationalists led by Alexander Tsankov, overthrew his government, and Stambuliski was killed.
Montgomerie, Alexander, c.1556-c.1610, Scottish poet. His principal poem, The Cherry and the Sloe (1597), is a pedestrian and ambiguous allegory that enjoyed considerable popularity in its time. Montgomerie's other work includes a verse polemic against Home of Polwarth, 70 sonnets, and miscellaneous poems.
Cozens, Alexander, c.1717-1786, English draftsman and writer, b. Russia. Cozens is thought to have been the first principal English master to work entirely with landscape subjects. He invented a system of "blot" drawings using accidental blots on drawing paper to aid his imagination by suggesting a landscape that could be further developed. In the 1950s his work was exhibited as that of a precursor of the abstract expressionists. He expounded his blot system in his treatise, A New Method of Assisting the Invention in Drawing Original Compositions of Landscape (c.1785). His son, John Robert Cozens, 1752-97, English watercolor landscape artist, is best known for his poetic paintings of the Alps and Italy. His work had an influence on both Turner and Girtin. Examples of his watercolors are in the Victoria and Albert Museum, the Tate Gallery, and the British Museum (all: London).

See A. P. Oppé, Alexander and John Robert Cozens (1953).

Colyn, Alexander: see Colins, Alexander.
Stuart or Stewart, Alexander, duke of Albany, 1454?-1485, Scottish nobleman; second son of James II of Scotland. He was captured (1463) by the English while he was at sea en route to the Low Countries but was soon released. He became high admiral of Scotland, warden of the marches, and lieutenant of the kingdom. In 1479, however, his brother James III, suspecting Albany of plotting against the throne, had him imprisoned. Albany escaped to France and thence went to England, where he concluded (1481) a treaty with Edward IV, by which the English king agreed to recognize Albany as king of Scotland if the latter became his vassal. An English army invaded Scotland (1482), but Albany was persuaded by some of the Scottish nobles to renounce his pretensions to the throne in return for the restoration of his estates. He was briefly reconciled with James, but in 1483 he was sentenced to death and fled to England. After raiding Scotland in 1484, he went to France, where he was accidentally killed in a tournament.
Stuart or Stewart, Alexander, earl of Buchan, 1343?-1405?, Scottish nobleman; fourth son of Robert II. He held various offices under the crown and was made lord of Badenoch in 1371 and earl of Buchan in 1382. In 1389 he was censured by the church for repudiating his wife. In his rage against the bishops he burned the town of Forres and the cathedral at Elgin (1390). For this violence he was excommunicated (but later absolved) and popularly called the Wolf of Badenoch.
Dubček, Alexander, 1921-92, Czechoslovakian political leader. A member of the Slovakian national minority, he was active in the Communist underground in World War II and rose in the party hierarchy after the war, becoming head of the Slovakian Communist party and a member of the presidium of the Communist party's central committee. In 1967 he led the liberal opposition to the party's first secretary, Antonín Novotný. In Jan., 1968, Novotný was forced to resign; Dubček succeeded him. In Dubček's brief term in office he relaxed censorship, placed liberal Communists in leading state posts, began to pursue an independent foreign policy, and promised a gradual democratization of Czech political life. This period is known as the Prague Spring. The USSR became increasingly alarmed at Dubček's policies, and in Aug., 1968, Soviet and other Warsaw Pact armies invaded Czechoslovakia. Dubček was arrested along with other leaders, taken to Moscow, and forced to consent to the cancellation of key reforms. He retained his post as first secretary, but pro-Soviet elements in the Czech party soon (1969) removed him. After serving briefly as ambassador to Turkey (1969-70), he fell into official disgrace. He returned to public view in the late 1980s as a supporter of the Civic Reform opposition party led by Václav Havel. From 1989 to 1992, Dubček served as speaker of the Czechoslovak parliament, where his presence provided a direct connection between the new government and the reforms of the Prague Spring.

See K. Dawisha, The Kremlin and the Prague Spring (1984).

Duff, Alexander, 1806-78, Scottish missionary in India. In Calcutta (now Kolkata) he opened (1830) a mission college which became an important center of education in India; both religious and scientific subjects were taught. Duff was also instrumental in founding the Univ. of Calcutta. In 1844 he helped to launch the Calcutta Review.
Dyce, Alexander, 1798-1869, Scottish editor. He is best known for his scholarly editions of the works of Elizabethan and Jacobean dramatists, including those of George Peele, Robert Greene, John Webster, Christopher Marlowe, Beaumont and Fletcher, and a nine-volume edition of Shakespeare (rev. ed. 1864-67).
Wekerle, Alexander, 1848-1921, Hungarian premier. He became minister of finance in 1889 and retained that post during his first two terms as premier (1892-95, 1906-10). In his first term civil marriage was made obligatory, and the power of the church was lessened as a result. His second cabinet was a coalition of parties; it carried out financial reforms and supported the annexation of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Werkerle headed four successive cabinets in 1917-18. On Oct. 16, 1918, he declared the dissolution of all bonds between Hungary and Austria except the personal union of the two countries under the same monarch. He resigned shortly afterward.
Zaïmis, Alexander, 1855-1936, Greek statesman. At the end of the disastrous 1897 war with Turkey, he became premier for the first time (1897-99). He was again premier in 1901-2 and 1904-6, was high commissioner in Crete (1906-11), and was premier three times during World War I between 1915 and 1917. He pursued a policy of "armed neutrality" in the war, did not interfere with the Allied landing at Salonica, and made way for Eleutherios Venizelos on the abdication of King Constantine I, when the neutrality policy had become untenable. Zaïmis headed (1926-28) a coalition cabinet that helped end the earlier chaos of the first republic. In 1929 he was elected president of Greece; he was reelected in 1934. His presidency was marked by the struggle between the republicans and the royalists, whose respective leaders, Venizelos and Panayoti Tsaldaris, alternated as premiers. In 1935, General Kondylis, who had put down the Venizelist uprising, ousted Tsaldaris and held a plebiscite that restored the monarchy. Zaïmis died in exile at Vienna.
Calder, Alexander, 1898-1976, American sculptor, b. Philadelphia; son of a prominent sculptor, Alexander Stirling Calder. Among the most innovative modern sculptors, Calder was trained as a mechanical engineer. In 1930 he went to Paris and was influenced by the art of Mondrian and Miró. In 1932 he exhibited his first brightly colored constellations, called mobiles, consisting of painted cut-out shapes connected by wires and set in motion by wind currents. The Museum of Modern Art, New York City, has several examples. These buoyant inventions and his witty wire portraits, his colorful and complex miniature zoo (1925; Whitney Mus., New York City), and his immobile sculptures known as stabiles, have brought Calder world renown. Many of his later works are huge, heavy, and delicately balanced mobiles produced for public buildings throughout the world. Calder is also noted for his book illustrations and stage sets. He had studios in Roxbury, Conn., and Paris.

See his autobiography (1966) and Mobiles and Stabiles (1968); biography by J. M. Marter (1991); J. Lipman, ed., Calder's Circus (1972); studies by J. J. Sweeney (1951), M. Gibson (1988), D. Marchesseau (1989), G.-G. Lemaire (1998), M. Prather et al. (1998), S. C. Rower (1998), and J. Simon and B. Leal, ed. (2008).

Henderson, Alexander, 1583-1646, Scottish churchman often regarded as the greatest figure in the Church of Scotland after John Knox. Henderson became a leading opponent of prelacy and of English domination of the church. In 1638, after the signing of the National Covenant (see Covenanters), he was elected moderator of the general assembly at Glasgow, which deposed the bishops and set up Presbyterianism in spite of royal threats. Henderson met King Charles I to settle the problem and was favorably received. In 1640, he was elected rector of the Univ. of Edinburgh. In 1641 and 1643, he was moderator of the general assembly and presented (1643) a draft of the Solemn League and Covenant. He sat thereafter (1643-46) in the Westminster Assembly. In 1646, he again met Charles for a conference on church government during the course of the king's alliance with the Scottish army. Henderson wrote many speeches and sermons.

See biographies by J. P. Thomson (1912) and R. L. Orr (1919).

Henry, Alexander, two fur traders, uncle and nephew, of the Old Northwest, each of whom left a valuable journal of his travels and experiences. Alexander Henry, the elder, 1739-1824, b. New Brunswick, N.J., served under Jeffery Amherst in the last of the French and Indian Wars. As a fur trader he barely escaped massacre (1763) by Native Americans at Michilimackinac in Pontiac's Rebellion. Captured by the Ojibwa, he was later adopted and protected by a family and made his way back to Fort Niagara in time to join Bradstreet's army in lifting the siege of Detroit. He returned to fur trading and in 1775 penetrated the Old Northwest to the region of the Saskatchewan. Competition with the Hudson's Bay Company caused a body of the free traders, among them Henry, Peter Pond, and the Frobishers, to unite as the group that eventually became the powerful North West Company. See his Travels and Adventures in Canada and the Indian Territories (new ed. with biographical notes by James Bain, 1972). The date and place of birth of his nephew, Alexander Henry, the younger, d. 1814, are not known. His journal of 1799-1814, edited by Elliott Coues (together with the journal of David Thompson) as New Light on the Early History of the Greater Northwest (1897), describes his adventures as a trader of the North West Company on the Red, Pembina, Saskatchewan, and Columbia rivers and is particularly valuable for its account of the native tribes of those regions. Henry was drowned near Astoria, Oreg.

See W. O'Meara, The Savage Country (1960).

Muir, Alexander, 1830-1906, Canadian songwriter, b. Scotland. In 1867 he wrote the words and music for "The Maple Leaf Forever," which is regarded by many as the national hymn of Canada.
Colin, Alexander: see Colins, Alexander.
Colins, Colin, or Colyn, Alexander, c.1527-1612, Flemish sculptor. He brought European court mannerism to Germany, where he directed the sculpture on the Ottheinrichsbau (1562) in Heidelberg. He designed the sculpture for the tomb of Ferdinand II and executed most of the reliefs in marble on the tomb of Maximilian I, both at Innsbruck.
Agassiz, Alexander, 1835-1910, American naturalist and industrialist, b. Neuchâtel, Switzerland; son of Louis Agassiz, stepson of Elizabeth Cary Agassiz. He came to the United States in 1849 and studied at Harvard, receiving degrees in engineering (B.S., 1857) and natural history (B.S., 1862). Throughout his life he was connected in various capacities with Harvard. In 1871 he consolidated the Calumet and Hecla copper mines on Lake Superior and, as president, successfully developed the combined interests. He adopted safety and welfare measures relating to the mines. Agassiz contributed much of his fortune to science—chiefly in endowments to Harvard and to the Museum of Comparative Zoology which his father helped to found there. In 1877 he began oceanographic explorations, including detailed observations of the Pacific and the Caribbean. Noting that the deep-sea animals of the two are similar, he suggested that the Caribbean was a bay of the Pacific that had been cut off in the Cretaceous period by the rise of the Panama isthmus. His chief work is Revision of the Echini (2 vol., 1872-74).

See study by his son G. R. Agassiz (1913).

Bach, Alexander, 1813-93, Austrian politician. A well-known lawyer and liberal, he took part in the revolution of 1848 in Vienna, but after its suppression he joined the forces of reaction. He became minister of justice (1848) and of the interior (1849-59), and after the death (1852) of Prince Schwarzenberg was the chief figure in the ministry. He was created baron in 1854. Bach instituted the Bach system of bureaucratic control of the Hapsburg lands. Centralization and Germanization were its chief aims; stringent control by secret police was the method of enforcing them. This program was accompanied, however, by measures promoting economic prosperity, notably the abolition of internal tariff barriers, and by agricultural reforms implementing the emancipation of the serfs. Through the Concordat of 1855 the Roman Catholic Church gained wide powers. The Bach system met with opposition, especially in Hungary, and after the Austrian defeat in the Italian War of 1859 its author was dismissed and new systems introduced.
Bain, Alexander, 1818-1903, Scottish philosopher and psychologist. He was educated at Marischal College, Aberdeen, where he later taught for three years. He taught one year (1845) at Anderson's Univ., Glasgow, but resigned to do free-lance work in London. There he joined a brilliant circle including George Grote and John Stuart Mill, with whom he already had close literary relationships. From 1860 to 1880 he held the chair of logic and English at the Univ. of Aberdeen, where he worked for educational reform. After his retirement he was twice elected lord rector of the university. His major contributions were in psychology. Remaining in the associationalist tradition of the Mills and sharing their distrust of metaphysics, he developed the current psychology in several directions. In discussing the will, he favored physiological over metaphysical explanations, pointing to reflexes as evidence that a form of will, independent of consciousness, inheres in a person's limbs. He sought to chart physiological correlates of mental states but refused to make any materialistic assumptions. Besides being the founder of the first psychological journal, Mind, in 1886, Bain was the author of The Senses and the Intellect (1855), The Emotions and the Will (1859), Mental and Moral Science (1868), Education as a Science (1879), James Mill (1882), John Stuart Mill (1882), and an autobiography (pub. posthumously with a bibliography of his works, 1904).
Waugh, Alexander: see under Waugh, Evelyn.

(born July 6, 1766, Paisley, Renfrew, Scot.—died Aug. 23, 1813, Philadelphia, Pa., U.S.) Scottish-born U.S. ornithologist. In Scotland he wrote poetry while working as a weaver and peddler; in 1792 his satiric works led to a fine and imprisonment. Impoverished, in 1794 he immigrated to the U.S., where he became a teacher. Influenced by William Bartram, he decided circa 1804 to write on North American birds, and he began studying art and ornithology in his leisure time. His pioneering work American Ornithology (9 vol., 1808–14) established him as a founder of the field. After publication of its first volume, he spent much of his time selling subscriptions for the expensive work and collecting specimens for the remaining volumes.

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(born circa 1576, Menstrie, Clackmannan, Scot.—died Feb. 12, 1640, London, Eng.) Scottish poet and colonizer of Canada. He was a member of the court of James I, where he wrote his sonnet sequence Aurora (1604). In 1621 he obtained a grant for territory in North America that he named New Scotland (Nova Scotia), despite French claims to part of the land. He offered baronetcies to Scotsmen who would sponsor settlers, but the region was not colonized until his son established a settlement at Port Royal (Annapolis Royal). Alexander was compelled to surrender the territory under the Treaty of Susa (1629), which ended an Anglo-French conflict. Scottish settlers were ordered to withdraw by 1631.

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(born April 16, 1921, London, Eng.—died March 28, 2004, Genolier, Switz.) British actor, director, author, and playwright. He made his professional stage debut at age 17, in which he displayed his talents for vocal mimicry and age affectation, and landed his first major screen role in The Goose Steps Out (1942). His film appearances include Lola Montès (1955), Spartacus (1960, Academy Award), Topkapi (1964, Academy Award), and a recurring role as Hercule Poirot in movies based on Agatha Christie's mysteries, beginning with Death on the Nile (1978). He both starred in and directed Billy Budd (1962), among other films. Lady L (1965), with Sophia Loren and Paul Newman, was probably his best-received directorial effort. He wrote successful plays such as The Love of Four Colonels (1951) and Romanoff and Juliet (1956) and won Emmy Awards for his television performances in The Life of Samuel Johnson (1957), Barefoot in Athens (1966), and A Storm in Summer (1970). Ustinov also wrote several novels and the autobiographical works Dear Me (1977), Ustinov at Large (1993), and Ustinov Still at Large (1994). Noted for his humanitarian efforts, he served as ambassador at large for UNICEF from 1969 until his death. Ustinov was knighted in 1990.

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(born circa 1576, Menstrie, Clackmannan, Scot.—died Feb. 12, 1640, London, Eng.) Scottish poet and colonizer of Canada. He was a member of the court of James I, where he wrote his sonnet sequence Aurora (1604). In 1621 he obtained a grant for territory in North America that he named New Scotland (Nova Scotia), despite French claims to part of the land. He offered baronetcies to Scotsmen who would sponsor settlers, but the region was not colonized until his son established a settlement at Port Royal (Annapolis Royal). Alexander was compelled to surrender the territory under the Treaty of Susa (1629), which ended an Anglo-French conflict. Scottish settlers were ordered to withdraw by 1631.

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(born Feb. 11, 1812, Wilkes county, Ga., U.S.—died March 4, 1883, Atlanta, Ga.) U.S. politician. He served in the U.S. House of Representatives (1843–59), where he defended slavery but opposed dissolution of the Union. When Georgia seceded, he was elected vice president of the Confederacy. He supported constitutional government, opposed attempts by Jefferson Davis to infringe on individuals' rights, and advocated a program of prisoner exchanges. He led the delegation to the Hampton Roads Conference (1865). After the war he was held in Boston for five months. He served again in the House (1873–82) and as governor of Georgia (1882–83).

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(born April 16, 1921, London, Eng.—died March 28, 2004, Genolier, Switz.) British actor, director, author, and playwright. He made his professional stage debut at age 17, in which he displayed his talents for vocal mimicry and age affectation, and landed his first major screen role in The Goose Steps Out (1942). His film appearances include Lola Montès (1955), Spartacus (1960, Academy Award), Topkapi (1964, Academy Award), and a recurring role as Hercule Poirot in movies based on Agatha Christie's mysteries, beginning with Death on the Nile (1978). He both starred in and directed Billy Budd (1962), among other films. Lady L (1965), with Sophia Loren and Paul Newman, was probably his best-received directorial effort. He wrote successful plays such as The Love of Four Colonels (1951) and Romanoff and Juliet (1956) and won Emmy Awards for his television performances in The Life of Samuel Johnson (1957), Barefoot in Athens (1966), and A Storm in Summer (1970). Ustinov also wrote several novels and the autobiographical works Dear Me (1977), Ustinov at Large (1993), and Ustinov Still at Large (1994). Noted for his humanitarian efforts, he served as ambassador at large for UNICEF from 1969 until his death. Ustinov was knighted in 1990.

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(born Jan. 11, 1815, Glasgow, Scot.—died June 6, 1891, Ottawa, Ont., Can.) Canadian politician, first prime minister of the Dominion of Canada (1867–73, 1878–91). He immigrated to Canada as a child and practiced law in Kingston, Upper Canada (now Ontario), from 1836. From 1844 to 1854 he served in the Province of Canada's assembly. He cofounded the Liberal-Conservative Party (see Progressive Conservative Party of Canada) in 1854 and became premier of the Province of Canada in 1857. He worked for confederation and helped secure passage of the British North America Act, which created the Dominion of Canada (1867). As prime minister, he supported trade protectionism and aided the completion of the Pacific railway. In response to later challenges to Canadian unity, he advocated loyalty to the British Commonwealth and independence from the U.S.

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(born Sept. 6, 1817, London, Eng.—died Sept. 19, 1893, Montreal, Que., Can.) British-Canadian statesman. He immigrated to Lower Canada (later Quebec) in 1835 and worked for the British-American Land Co., serving as high commissioner from 1844 to 1855. He entered politics in 1849 as an independent member for Sherbrooke county in the legislature of the united province of Canada. He resigned from the legislature in 1850 but was reelected for Sherbrooke town in 1853. He maintained that seat and remained leader of the English-speaking minority until 1872. As finance minister (1858–62, 1864–67), he advocated federation; following the creation of the Dominion of Canada, he became the first finance minister of the Dominion government (1867–68). After retiring from Parliament in 1872, he advocated Canadian independence. From 1880 to 1883 he served as the first Canadian high commissioner in London.

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(born 1755?, Stornoway, Lewis and Harris, Outer Hebrides, Scot.—died March 11, 1820, near Pitlochry, Perth) Scottish-born Canadian explorer. Immigrating to Canada as a young man, he entered a fur-trading firm in 1779. In 1788 he set up a trading post, Fort Chipewyan, on Lake Athabasca. From there he began an expedition (1789) that followed the Mackenzie River from Great Slave Lake to the Arctic Ocean. In 1793 he journeyed from Fort Chipewyan through the Rocky Mountains to the Pacific coast, thereby becoming the first European to complete a transcontinental crossing north of Mexico.

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(born Aug. 6, 1881, Lochfield, Ayr, Scot.—died March 11, 1955, London, Eng.) Scottish bacteriologist. While serving in the Royal Army Medical Corps in World War I, he conducted research on antibacterial substances that would be nontoxic to humans. In 1928 he inadvertently discovered penicillin when he noticed that a mold contaminating a bacterial culture was inhibiting the bacteria's growth. He shared a 1945 Nobel Prize with Ernst Boris Chain and Howard Walter Florey, who both carried Fleming's basic discovery further in isolating, purifying, testing, and producing penicillin in quantity.

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(born June 15, 1916, Milwaukee, Wis., U.S.—died Feb. 9, 2001, Pittsburgh, Pa.) U.S. social scientist. He received his Ph.D. from the University of Chicago in 1943. At Carnegie-Mellon University (from 1949), he taught psychology and later computer science. In Administrative Behavior (1947) Simon argued for recognizing a multiplicity of factors (including psychological ones) in corporate decision making rather than emphasizing the achievement of maximum profits as the primary motivation. He was awarded the Nobel Prize in Economics in 1978. He subsequently worked in the field of artificial intelligence using computer technology.

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(born May 5, 1846, Wola Okrzejska, Pol.—died Nov. 15, 1916, Vevey, Switz.) Polish novelist. In 1869 he began to publish critical works showing the influence of positivism. He worked as a newspaperman and published successful short stories before producing the great trilogy consisting of With Fire and Sword (1884), The Deluge (1886), and Pan Michael (1887–88). Describing Poland's struggles against Cossacks, Tatars, Swedes, and Turks, the novels stress Polish heroism in a vivid style of epic clarity and simplicity. The widely translated Quo Vadis? (1896), set in Rome under Nero, established his international reputation. He received the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1905.

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in full Marcus Aurelius Severus Alexander orig. Gessius Bassianus Alexianus

(born circa AD 209, Phoenicia—died 235, Gaul) Roman emperor (222–235). At age 14 he succeeded Elagabalus, who had been murdered by the Praetorian Guard. Severus's mother and grandmother both held real power during his reign. A council of senators gave nominal ruling power to the Senate. Civil lawlessness reigned, and Severus's military incompetence led to defeat by the Persians, though their heavy losses forced them to withdraw from Mesopotamia. When he bought peace from the invading Germanic Alemanni, his indignant soldiers murdered him and his mother.

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(born June 8, 1810, Zwickau, Saxony—died July 29, 1856, Endenich, near Bonn, Prussia) German composer. Son of a bookseller, he considered becoming a novelist. Under family pressure he reluctantly entered law school, but he devoted his time to song composition and piano lessons. An injury to one of his fingers put an end to his hopes of a career as a virtuoso and confined him to composition. He embarked upon a prolific period, writing piano pieces and founding, in 1834, the New Journal for Music. His works from this fertile period include Papillons, Carnaval (both 1833–35), and Davidsbündlertänze (1837). He married the pianist Clara Wieck in 1840. That year he returned to the field of the solo song; in the span of 11 months he composed nearly all the songs on which much of his reputation rests, such as the song cycles Dichterliebe and Frauenliebe und Leben. The next year he widened his scope to orchestral music, producing Symphony No. 1, Symphony No. 4, and his piano concerto; in 1842 he concentrated on chamber music. In his last productive years, he turned to dramatic or semidramatic works. His mental deterioration (probably associated with both syphilis and a family history of mental illness) accelerated; in 1854 he was placed in a sanatorium, where he died two years later.

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(born circa 1220, Vladimir, Grand Principality of Vladimir—died Nov. 14, 1263, Gorodets) Prince of Novgorod (1236–52) and Kiev (1246–52) and grand prince of Vladimir (1252–63). He fought off invading Swedes in 1240 at the Neva River (resulting in the epithet Nevsky). He was called back to service to defeat the Teutonic Knights in 1242 and also won victories over the Lithuanians and Finns. He collaborated with the Golden Horde in imposing Mongol rule on Russia, and the Great Khan made him grand prince of Vladimir. Alexander continued to rule Novgorod through his son. He helped the Mongols impose taxes, interceding with the Khan to prevent reprisals when rebellions broke out. A national hero, he was canonized by the Russian Orthodox church.

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(born June 8, 1810, Zwickau, Saxony—died July 29, 1856, Endenich, near Bonn, Prussia) German composer. Son of a bookseller, he considered becoming a novelist. Under family pressure he reluctantly entered law school, but he devoted his time to song composition and piano lessons. An injury to one of his fingers put an end to his hopes of a career as a virtuoso and confined him to composition. He embarked upon a prolific period, writing piano pieces and founding, in 1834, the New Journal for Music. His works from this fertile period include Papillons, Carnaval (both 1833–35), and Davidsbündlertänze (1837). He married the pianist Clara Wieck in 1840. That year he returned to the field of the solo song; in the span of 11 months he composed nearly all the songs on which much of his reputation rests, such as the song cycles Dichterliebe and Frauenliebe und Leben. The next year he widened his scope to orchestral music, producing Symphony No. 1, Symphony No. 4, and his piano concerto; in 1842 he concentrated on chamber music. In his last productive years, he turned to dramatic or semidramatic works. His mental deterioration (probably associated with both syphilis and a family history of mental illness) accelerated; in 1854 he was placed in a sanatorium, where he died two years later.

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Alexander Pope, portrait by Thomas Hudson; in the National Portrait Gallery, London

(born May 21, 1688, London, Eng.—died May 30, 1744, Twickenham, near London) English poet and satirist. A precocious boy precluded from formal education by his Roman Catholicism, Pope was mainly self-educated. A deformity of the spine and other health problems limited his growth and physical activities, leading him to devote himself to reading and writing. His first major work was An Essay on Criticism (1711), a poem on the art of writing that contains several brilliant epigrams (e.g., “To err is human, to forgive, divine”). His witty mock-epic The Rape of the Lock (1712, 1714) ridicules fashionable society. The great labour of his life was his verse translation of Homer's Iliad (1720) and Odyssey (1726), whose success made him financially secure. He became involved in many literary battles, prompting him to write poems such as the scathing mock-epic The Dunciad (1728) and An Epistle to Dr. Arbuthnot (1735). The philosophical An Essay on Man (1733–34) was intended as part of a larger work that he never completed.

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(born May 4, 1872, Moosehead, Pa., U.S.—died May 11, 1936, Washington, D.C.) U.S. politician. He served in the U.S. House of Representatives from 1909 to 1915 and helped secure the Democratic Party presidential nomination for Woodrow Wilson in 1912. Appointed U.S. attorney general (1919–21), Palmer used the espionage and sedition acts (1917, 1918) to attack political radicals, dissidents, and aliens in the “Red Scare” period following World War I. The government-led roundup of suspected communists became known as the “Palmer raids.” In 1920 he ran unsuccessfully for the presidential nomination of the Democratic Party.

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(born circa 1759—died Feb. 17, 1793, Pensacola, Fla.) Principal chief of the Creek Indians in the years following the American Revolution. Of French and Creek descent, he was tutored by whites in Charleston, S.C., before being made a Creek chief. Distrustful of American land speculators, he signed a treaty (1784) with the Spanish in Florida putting the Creek under Spain's protection. After repeated U.S. entreaties, he agreed to American sovereignty over Creek lands as long as the Creek could remain there free of American encroachments.

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(born 1755?, Stornoway, Lewis and Harris, Outer Hebrides, Scot.—died March 11, 1820, near Pitlochry, Perth) Scottish-born Canadian explorer. Immigrating to Canada as a young man, he entered a fur-trading firm in 1779. In 1788 he set up a trading post, Fort Chipewyan, on Lake Athabasca. From there he began an expedition (1789) that followed the Mackenzie River from Great Slave Lake to the Arctic Ocean. In 1793 he journeyed from Fort Chipewyan through the Rocky Mountains to the Pacific coast, thereby becoming the first European to complete a transcontinental crossing north of Mexico.

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(born Jan. 28, 1822, Logierait, Perth, Scot.—died April 17, 1892, Toronto, Ont., Can.) Scottish-born Canadian politician, first Liberal prime minister of Canada (1873–78). He emigrated to Canada West (now Ontario) in 1842. In 1852 he became editor of a local Liberal newspaper and befriended George Brown, leader of the Reform Party. When the Dominion of Canada was created in 1867, Mackenzie was elected to the House of Commons, where he led the Liberal opposition. As prime minister, his efforts at renewed reciprocity with the U.S. failed to address economic concerns, and his government was defeated in 1878. He resigned as leader of the opposition but held a seat in Parliament until his death.

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(born Jan. 11, 1815, Glasgow, Scot.—died June 6, 1891, Ottawa, Ont., Can.) Canadian politician, first prime minister of the Dominion of Canada (1867–73, 1878–91). He immigrated to Canada as a child and practiced law in Kingston, Upper Canada (now Ontario), from 1836. From 1844 to 1854 he served in the Province of Canada's assembly. He cofounded the Liberal-Conservative Party (see Progressive Conservative Party of Canada) in 1854 and became premier of the Province of Canada in 1857. He worked for confederation and helped secure passage of the British North America Act, which created the Dominion of Canada (1867). As prime minister, he supported trade protectionism and aided the completion of the Pacific railway. In response to later challenges to Canadian unity, he advocated loyalty to the British Commonwealth and independence from the U.S.

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orig. Edward Alexander McDowell

(born Dec. 18, 1860, New York, N.Y., U.S.—died Jan. 23, 1908, New York City) U.S. composer. He started piano lessons at age eight. While in Germany for further study, he impressed the composer Joachim Raff (1822–82), who urged him to write a piano concerto (1882), then introduced him to Franz Liszt, who assisted MacDowell with performances and publication. In 1888 he returned to the U.S. with his wife, and in 1896 he became Columbia University's first professor of music. Paresis made him unable to perform or compose after 1904, and he lapsed into insanity and died at age 47. His farm in Peterborough, N.H., became the MacDowell Colony for artists after his death. His most popular works are the Second Piano Concerto in D Minor (1886), the Second Orchestral (“Indian”) Suite (1895), and piano sets such as Woodland Sketches (1896) and Sea Pieces (1898).

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(born Feb. 18, 1849, Stavanger, Nor.—died April 6, 1906, Bergen) Norwegian novelist, short-story writer, and dramatist. Kielland, who was born into an aristocratic family, took a degree in law in 1871 and was a businessman for almost a decade. After a trip to Paris, he began to write. His first book of short stories was published in 1879, and he soon became dedicated to social reform. His influential novels include Garman and Worse (1880) and Skipper Worse (1882), both of which are set in and around Stavanger. He was perhaps the foremost prose stylist of his day, and, together with Henrik Ibsen, Bjørnstjerne Bjørnson, and Jonas Lie, he is considered one of the “big four” of 19th-century Norwegian literature.

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(born June 15, 1916, Milwaukee, Wis., U.S.—died Feb. 9, 2001, Pittsburgh, Pa.) U.S. social scientist. He received his Ph.D. from the University of Chicago in 1943. At Carnegie-Mellon University (from 1949), he taught psychology and later computer science. In Administrative Behavior (1947) Simon argued for recognizing a multiplicity of factors (including psychological ones) in corporate decision making rather than emphasizing the achievement of maximum profits as the primary motivation. He was awarded the Nobel Prize in Economics in 1978. He subsequently worked in the field of artificial intelligence using computer technology.

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(born May 5, 1846, Wola Okrzejska, Pol.—died Nov. 15, 1916, Vevey, Switz.) Polish novelist. In 1869 he began to publish critical works showing the influence of positivism. He worked as a newspaperman and published successful short stories before producing the great trilogy consisting of With Fire and Sword (1884), The Deluge (1886), and Pan Michael (1887–88). Describing Poland's struggles against Cossacks, Tatars, Swedes, and Turks, the novels stress Polish heroism in a vivid style of epic clarity and simplicity. The widely translated Quo Vadis? (1896), set in Rome under Nero, established his international reputation. He received the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1905.

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Alexander Hamilton, detail of an oil painting by John Trumbull; in the National Gallery of Art, elipsis

(born Jan. 11, 1755/57, Nevis, British West Indies—died July 12, 1804, New York, N.Y., U.S.) U.S. statesman. He first came to the U.S. in 1772, arriving in New Jersey. In the American Revolution he joined the Continental Army and showed conspicuous bravery at the Battle of Trenton (see Battles of Trenton and Princeton). He served as aide-de-camp to Gen. George Washington (1777–81); fluent in French, he became a liaison with French commanders. After the war he practiced law in New York. At the Continental Congress, he argued for a strong central government. As a delegate to the Annapolis Convention in 1786, he drafted the address that led to the Constitutional Convention. With James Madison and John Jay, he wrote an influential series of essays, later known as the Federalist papers, in defense of the new Constitution and republican government. Appointed the first secretary of the treasury (1789), Hamilton developed fiscal policies designed to strengthen the national government at the expense of the states. His proposal for a Bank of the United States was opposed by Thomas Jefferson but adopted by Congress in 1791. Differences between Hamilton and Jefferson over the powers of the national government and the country's foreign policy led to the rise of political parties; Hamilton became leader of the Federalist Party, and Madison and Jefferson created the Democratic-Republican Party. Hamilton favoured friendship with Britain and influenced Washington to take a neutral stand toward the French Revolution. In 1796 he caused a rift in the Federalist Party by opposing its nomination of John Adams for president. In 1800 he tried to prevent Adams's reelection, circulating a private attack that Aaron Burr, long at odds with Hamilton, obtained and published. When Jefferson and Burr both defeated Adams but received an equal number of electoral votes, Hamilton helped persuade the Federalists in the House of Representatives to choose Jefferson. In 1804 he opposed Burr's candidacy for governor of New York. This affront, coupled with alleged remarks questioning Burr's character, led Burr to challenge Hamilton to a duel, in which Hamilton was mortally wounded.

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(born Sept. 6, 1817, London, Eng.—died Sept. 19, 1893, Montreal, Que., Can.) British-Canadian statesman. He immigrated to Lower Canada (later Quebec) in 1835 and worked for the British-American Land Co., serving as high commissioner from 1844 to 1855. He entered politics in 1849 as an independent member for Sherbrooke county in the legislature of the united province of Canada. He resigned from the legislature in 1850 but was reelected for Sherbrooke town in 1853. He maintained that seat and remained leader of the English-speaking minority until 1872. As finance minister (1858–62, 1864–67), he advocated federation; following the creation of the Dominion of Canada, he became the first finance minister of the Dominion government (1867–68). After retiring from Parliament in 1872, he advocated Canadian independence. From 1880 to 1883 he served as the first Canadian high commissioner in London.

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(born Aug. 6, 1881, Lochfield, Ayr, Scot.—died March 11, 1955, London, Eng.) Scottish bacteriologist. While serving in the Royal Army Medical Corps in World War I, he conducted research on antibacterial substances that would be nontoxic to humans. In 1928 he inadvertently discovered penicillin when he noticed that a mold contaminating a bacterial culture was inhibiting the bacteria's growth. He shared a 1945 Nobel Prize with Ernst Boris Chain and Howard Walter Florey, who both carried Fleming's basic discovery further in isolating, purifying, testing, and producing penicillin in quantity.

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orig. Edward Alexander McDowell

(born Dec. 18, 1860, New York, N.Y., U.S.—died Jan. 23, 1908, New York City) U.S. composer. He started piano lessons at age eight. While in Germany for further study, he impressed the composer Joachim Raff (1822–82), who urged him to write a piano concerto (1882), then introduced him to Franz Liszt, who assisted MacDowell with performances and publication. In 1888 he returned to the U.S. with his wife, and in 1896 he became Columbia University's first professor of music. Paresis made him unable to perform or compose after 1904, and he lapsed into insanity and died at age 47. His farm in Peterborough, N.H., became the MacDowell Colony for artists after his death. His most popular works are the Second Piano Concerto in D Minor (1886), the Second Orchestral (“Indian”) Suite (1895), and piano sets such as Woodland Sketches (1896) and Sea Pieces (1898).

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Calder, photograph by Yousuf Karsh, 1966.

(born July 22, 1898, Lawnton, Pa., U.S.—died Nov. 11, 1976, New York, N.Y.) U.S. sculptor. He was the son and grandson of sculptors, and his mother was a painter. He studied mechanical engineering, and in 1923 attended the Art Students League, where he was influenced by artists of the Ash Can school. In 1924 he contributed illustrations to the National Police Gazette. In 1926 he moved to Paris and began making toylike animals and circus figures of wood and wire; from these he developed his famous miniature circus. In the 1930s he became well known in Paris and the U.S. for his wire sculptures, as well as for portraits, continuous-line drawings, and abstract, motor-driven constructions. He is best known as the inventor of the mobile, a forerunner of kinetic sculpture. He also constructed nonmovable sculptural works known as stabiles. Although Calder's early mobiles and stabiles were relatively small, he increasingly moved toward monumentality in his later works. His art was recognized with many large-scale exhibitions.

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Alexander Graham Bell.

(born March 3, 1847, Edinburgh, Scot.—died Aug. 2, 1922, Beinn Bhreagh, Nova Scotia, Can.) Scottish-born U.S. audiologist and inventor. He moved to the U.S. in 1871 to teach the visible-speech system developed by his father, Alexander Melville Bell (1819–1905). He opened his own school in Boston for training teachers of the deaf (1872) and was influential in disseminating these methods. In 1876 he became the first person to transmit intelligible words through electric wire (“Watson, come here, I want you,” spoken to his assistant Thomas Watson). He patented the telephone the same year, and in 1877 he cofounded Bell Telephone Co. With the proceeds from France's Volta Prize, he founded Volta Laboratory in Washington, D.C., in 1880. His experiments there led to the invention of the photophone (which transmitted speech by light rays), the audiometer (which measured acuteness of hearing), the Graphophone (an early practical sound recorder), and working wax recording media, both flat and cylindrical, for the Graphophone. He was chiefly responsible for founding the journal Science, founded the American Association to Promote Teaching of Speech to the Deaf (1890), and continued his significant research on deafness throughout his life.

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(born May 30, 1887, Kiev, Ukr.—died Feb. 25, 1964, New York, N.Y., U.S.) Ukrainian-U.S. sculptor. In 1908 he moved to Paris to study at the École des Beaux-Arts, and he soon became active in radical circles such as the Cubist movement. He began to explore the interplay between interlocking voids and solids and between convex and concave surfaces, forming a sculptural equivalent to Cubist paintings' overlapping planes and, in the process, revolutionizing modern sculpture. About 1912 he introduced the concept of collage in sculpture, and he went on to further defy tradition in his “sculpto-paintings,” works in which he introduced painted colour to the intersecting planes of his sculpture. In 1923 he moved to New York City, where he worked and taught for most of his life.

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or Alexander III

(born 356 BC, Pella, Macedonia—died June 13, 323 BC, Babylon) King of Macedonia (336–323) and the greatest military leader of antiquity. The son of Philip II of Macedonia, he was taught by Aristotle. He soon showed military brilliance, helping win the Battle of Chaeronea at age 18. He succeeded his assassinated father in 336 and promptly took Thessaly and Thrace; he brutally razed Thebes except for its temples and the house of Pindar. Such destruction was to be his standard method, and other Greek states submitted meekly. In 334 he crossed to Persia and defeated a Persian army at the Granicus River. He is said to have cut the Gordian knot in Phrygia (333), by which act, according to legend, he was destined to rule all Asia. At the Battle of Issus in 333, he defeated another army, this one led by the Persian king Darius III, who managed to escape. He then took Syria and Phoenicia, cutting off the Persian fleet from its ports. In 332 he completed a seven-month siege of Tyre, considered his greatest military achievement, and then took Egypt. There he received the pharaohs' double crown, founded Alexandria, and visited the oracle of the god Amon, the basis of his claim to divinity. In control of the eastern Mediterranean coast, in 331 he defeated Darius in a decisive battle at Gaugamela, though Darius again escaped. He next took the province of Babylon. He burnt Xerxes' palace at Persepolis, Persia, in 330, and he envisioned an empire ruled jointly by Macedonians and Persians. He continued eastward, quashing real or imagined conspiracies among his men and taking control to the Oxus and Jaxartes rivers, founding cities (most named Alexandria) to hold the territory. Conquering what is now Tajikistan, he married the princess Roxana and embraced Persian absolutism, adopting Persian dress and enforcing Persian court customs. By 326 he reached the Hyphasis in India, where his weary men mutinied; he turned back, marching and pillaging down the Indus, and reached Susa with much loss of life. He continued to promote his unpopular policy of racial fusion, a seeming attempt to form a Persian-Macedonian master race. When his favourite, Hephaestion (324), died, Alexander gave him a hero's funeral and demanded that divine honours be given at his own funeral. He fell ill at Babylon after long feasting and drinking and died at age 33. He was buried in Alexandria, Egypt. His empire, the greatest that had existed to that time, extended from Thrace to Egypt and from Greece to the Indus valley.

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(born July 6, 1766, Paisley, Renfrew, Scot.—died Aug. 23, 1813, Philadelphia, Pa., U.S.) Scottish-born U.S. ornithologist. In Scotland he wrote poetry while working as a weaver and peddler; in 1792 his satiric works led to a fine and imprisonment. Impoverished, in 1794 he immigrated to the U.S., where he became a teacher. Influenced by William Bartram, he decided circa 1804 to write on North American birds, and he began studying art and ornithology in his leisure time. His pioneering work American Ornithology (9 vol., 1808–14) established him as a founder of the field. After publication of its first volume, he spent much of his time selling subscriptions for the expensive work and collecting specimens for the remaining volumes.

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orig. Rodrigo de Borja y Doms

Alexander VI, detail of a fresco by Pinturicchio, 1492–94; in the Vatican.

(born 1431, Játiva, Aragon—died Aug. 18, 1503, Rome) Pope (1492–1503). Born into the Spanish branch of the Borgia family, he amassed great wealth and lived scandalously, fathering four illegitimate children (before his election as pope), who played an important role in his complicated dynastic plans. He warred against the Ottoman Turks and forced the French to abandon their effort to seize Naples. The murder of his son Juan (1497) prompted Alexander's short-lived attempt to restrain the corruption of the papal court. His political ambitions, however, were revived with the marriage of his son Cesare, whose military campaigns brought northern Italy under Borgia control. He concluded an alliance with Spain and negotiated the Treaty of Tordesillas (1494). A patron of the arts, he embellished the Vatican palaces and commissioned Michelangelo to draw up plans for the rebuilding of St. Peter's Basilica.

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Calder, photograph by Yousuf Karsh, 1966.

(born July 22, 1898, Lawnton, Pa., U.S.—died Nov. 11, 1976, New York, N.Y.) U.S. sculptor. He was the son and grandson of sculptors, and his mother was a painter. He studied mechanical engineering, and in 1923 attended the Art Students League, where he was influenced by artists of the Ash Can school. In 1924 he contributed illustrations to the National Police Gazette. In 1926 he moved to Paris and began making toylike animals and circus figures of wood and wire; from these he developed his famous miniature circus. In the 1930s he became well known in Paris and the U.S. for his wire sculptures, as well as for portraits, continuous-line drawings, and abstract, motor-driven constructions. He is best known as the inventor of the mobile, a forerunner of kinetic sculpture. He also constructed nonmovable sculptural works known as stabiles. Although Calder's early mobiles and stabiles were relatively small, he increasingly moved toward monumentality in his later works. His art was recognized with many large-scale exhibitions.

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Alexander Pope, portrait by Thomas Hudson; in the National Portrait Gallery, London

(born May 21, 1688, London, Eng.—died May 30, 1744, Twickenham, near London) English poet and satirist. A precocious boy precluded from formal education by his Roman Catholicism, Pope was mainly self-educated. A deformity of the spine and other health problems limited his growth and physical activities, leading him to devote himself to reading and writing. His first major work was An Essay on Criticism (1711), a poem on the art of writing that contains several brilliant epigrams (e.g., “To err is human, to forgive, divine”). His witty mock-epic The Rape of the Lock (1712, 1714) ridicules fashionable society. The great labour of his life was his verse translation of Homer's Iliad (1720) and Odyssey (1726), whose success made him financially secure. He became involved in many literary battles, prompting him to write poems such as the scathing mock-epic The Dunciad (1728) and An Epistle to Dr. Arbuthnot (1735). The philosophical An Essay on Man (1733–34) was intended as part of a larger work that he never completed.

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(born circa 1220, Vladimir, Grand Principality of Vladimir—died Nov. 14, 1263, Gorodets) Prince of Novgorod (1236–52) and Kiev (1246–52) and grand prince of Vladimir (1252–63). He fought off invading Swedes in 1240 at the Neva River (resulting in the epithet Nevsky). He was called back to service to defeat the Teutonic Knights in 1242 and also won victories over the Lithuanians and Finns. He collaborated with the Golden Horde in imposing Mongol rule on Russia, and the Great Khan made him grand prince of Vladimir. Alexander continued to rule Novgorod through his son. He helped the Mongols impose taxes, interceding with the Khan to prevent reprisals when rebellions broke out. A national hero, he was canonized by the Russian Orthodox church.

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(born May 4, 1872, Moosehead, Pa., U.S.—died May 11, 1936, Washington, D.C.) U.S. politician. He served in the U.S. House of Representatives from 1909 to 1915 and helped secure the Democratic Party presidential nomination for Woodrow Wilson in 1912. Appointed U.S. attorney general (1919–21), Palmer used the espionage and sedition acts (1917, 1918) to attack political radicals, dissidents, and aliens in the “Red Scare” period following World War I. The government-led roundup of suspected communists became known as the “Palmer raids.” In 1920 he ran unsuccessfully for the presidential nomination of the Democratic Party.

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(born circa 1759—died Feb. 17, 1793, Pensacola, Fla.) Principal chief of the Creek Indians in the years following the American Revolution. Of French and Creek descent, he was tutored by whites in Charleston, S.C., before being made a Creek chief. Distrustful of American land speculators, he signed a treaty (1784) with the Spanish in Florida putting the Creek under Spain's protection. After repeated U.S. entreaties, he agreed to American sovereignty over Creek lands as long as the Creek could remain there free of American encroachments.

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(born Jan. 28, 1822, Logierait, Perth, Scot.—died April 17, 1892, Toronto, Ont., Can.) Scottish-born Canadian politician, first Liberal prime minister of Canada (1873–78). He emigrated to Canada West (now Ontario) in 1842. In 1852 he became editor of a local Liberal newspaper and befriended George Brown, leader of the Reform Party. When the Dominion of Canada was created in 1867, Mackenzie was elected to the House of Commons, where he led the Liberal opposition. As prime minister, his efforts at renewed reciprocity with the U.S. failed to address economic concerns, and his government was defeated in 1878. He resigned as leader of the opposition but held a seat in Parliament until his death.

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(born Feb. 18, 1849, Stavanger, Nor.—died April 6, 1906, Bergen) Norwegian novelist, short-story writer, and dramatist. Kielland, who was born into an aristocratic family, took a degree in law in 1871 and was a businessman for almost a decade. After a trip to Paris, he began to write. His first book of short stories was published in 1879, and he soon became dedicated to social reform. His influential novels include Garman and Worse (1880) and Skipper Worse (1882), both of which are set in and around Stavanger. He was perhaps the foremost prose stylist of his day, and, together with Henrik Ibsen, Bjørnstjerne Bjørnson, and Jonas Lie, he is considered one of the “big four” of 19th-century Norwegian literature.

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(born Sept. 2, 1241—died March 18/19, 1286, near Kinghorn, Fife, Scot.) King of Scotland (1249–86). Son of Alexander II, he came to the throne at age 7. In 1251 he was married to Margaret, daughter of England's King Henry III, who sought to gain control over Scotland. In 1255 Alexander was seized by a pro-English party in Scotland; in 1257 the anti-English party gained control of the government until he came of age (1262). In 1263 he repulsed a Norwegian invasion, and in 1266 he acquired the Hebrides and the Isle of Man from Norway. His reign was later viewed as a golden age by Scots caught up in the long conflict with England.

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(born Aug. 24, 1198, Haddington, Lothian—died July 8, 1249, Kerrera Island) King of Scotland (1214–49). He came to the throne on the death of his father, William I (the Lion). In 1215 he supported the rebellious English barons against King John, hoping to regain land in northern England. After the rebellion collapsed (1217), he did homage to Henry III and in 1221 married Henry's sister, Joan. He consolidated royal authority in Scotland and subdued Argyll in 1222. In 1237 he concluded the Peace of York with Henry by which he abandoned his claim to land in England and received in exchange several English estates.

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(born Dec. 4, 1888, Cetinje, Montenegro —died Oct. 9, 1934, Marseille, France) King of Yugoslavia (1921–34). After commanding Serbian forces in World War I, Alexander succeeded his father, Peter I, as king of the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes in 1921. In 1929 he abolished the constitution and established a royal dictatorship. As part of his efforts to unify his subjects, he changed the name of the country to Yugoslavia; outlawed political parties based on ethnic, religious, or regional distinctions; reorganized the state; and standardized legal systems, school curricula, and national holidays. In 1934 he was assassinated by an agent of Croatian separatists.

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(born Feb. 11, 1812, Wilkes county, Ga., U.S.—died March 4, 1883, Atlanta, Ga.) U.S. politician. He served in the U.S. House of Representatives (1843–59), where he defended slavery but opposed dissolution of the Union. When Georgia seceded, he was elected vice president of the Confederacy. He supported constitutional government, opposed attempts by Jefferson Davis to infringe on individuals' rights, and advocated a program of prisoner exchanges. He led the delegation to the Hampton Roads Conference (1865). After the war he was held in Boston for five months. He served again in the House (1873–82) and as governor of Georgia (1882–83).

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Alexander Hamilton, detail of an oil painting by John Trumbull; in the National Gallery of Art, elipsis

(born Jan. 11, 1755/57, Nevis, British West Indies—died July 12, 1804, New York, N.Y., U.S.) U.S. statesman. He first came to the U.S. in 1772, arriving in New Jersey. In the American Revolution he joined the Continental Army and showed conspicuous bravery at the Battle of Trenton (see Battles of Trenton and Princeton). He served as aide-de-camp to Gen. George Washington (1777–81); fluent in French, he became a liaison with French commanders. After the war he practiced law in New York. At the Continental Congress, he argued for a strong central government. As a delegate to the Annapolis Convention in 1786, he drafted the address that led to the Constitutional Convention. With James Madison and John Jay, he wrote an influential series of essays, later known as the Federalist papers, in defense of the new Constitution and republican government. Appointed the first secretary of the treasury (1789), Hamilton developed fiscal policies designed to strengthen the national government at the expense of the states. His proposal for a Bank of the United States was opposed by Thomas Jefferson but adopted by Congress in 1791. Differences between Hamilton and Jefferson over the powers of the national government and the country's foreign policy led to the rise of political parties; Hamilton became leader of the Federalist Party, and Madison and Jefferson created the Democratic-Republican Party. Hamilton favoured friendship with Britain and influenced Washington to take a neutral stand toward the French Revolution. In 1796 he caused a rift in the Federalist Party by opposing its nomination of John Adams for president. In 1800 he tried to prevent Adams's reelection, circulating a private attack that Aaron Burr, long at odds with Hamilton, obtained and published. When Jefferson and Burr both defeated Adams but received an equal number of electoral votes, Hamilton helped persuade the Federalists in the House of Representatives to choose Jefferson. In 1804 he opposed Burr's candidacy for governor of New York. This affront, coupled with alleged remarks questioning Burr's character, led Burr to challenge Hamilton to a duel, in which Hamilton was mortally wounded.

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Alexander Graham Bell.

(born March 3, 1847, Edinburgh, Scot.—died Aug. 2, 1922, Beinn Bhreagh, Nova Scotia, Can.) Scottish-born U.S. audiologist and inventor. He moved to the U.S. in 1871 to teach the visible-speech system developed by his father, Alexander Melville Bell (1819–1905). He opened his own school in Boston for training teachers of the deaf (1872) and was influential in disseminating these methods. In 1876 he became the first person to transmit intelligible words through electric wire (“Watson, come here, I want you,” spoken to his assistant Thomas Watson). He patented the telephone the same year, and in 1877 he cofounded Bell Telephone Co. With the proceeds from France's Volta Prize, he founded Volta Laboratory in Washington, D.C., in 1880. His experiments there led to the invention of the photophone (which transmitted speech by light rays), the audiometer (which measured acuteness of hearing), the Graphophone (an early practical sound recorder), and working wax recording media, both flat and cylindrical, for the Graphophone. He was chiefly responsible for founding the journal Science, founded the American Association to Promote Teaching of Speech to the Deaf (1890), and continued his significant research on deafness throughout his life.

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(born May 30, 1887, Kiev, Ukr.—died Feb. 25, 1964, New York, N.Y., U.S.) Ukrainian-U.S. sculptor. In 1908 he moved to Paris to study at the École des Beaux-Arts, and he soon became active in radical circles such as the Cubist movement. He began to explore the interplay between interlocking voids and solids and between convex and concave surfaces, forming a sculptural equivalent to Cubist paintings' overlapping planes and, in the process, revolutionizing modern sculpture. About 1912 he introduced the concept of collage in sculpture, and he went on to further defy tradition in his “sculpto-paintings,” works in which he introduced painted colour to the intersecting planes of his sculpture. In 1923 he moved to New York City, where he worked and taught for most of his life.

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Group of about 1,100 islands, southeastern Alaska, U.S. Extending southward from Glacier Bay, the chief islands are Chichagof, Admiralty, Baranof, Kupreanof, Prince of Wales, and Revillagigedo. The chief towns are Sitka (on Baranof) and Ketchikan (on Revillagigedo). The islands are separated from the mainland by deep, narrow channels that form part of the Inside Passage. The archipelago's name, given in 1867, honours Tsar Alexander II.

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A.A. Milne, pen and ink drawing by P. Evans, c. 1930; in the National Portrait Gallery, London

(born Jan. 18, 1882, London, Eng.—died Jan. 31, 1956, Hartfield, Sussex) English writer. He joined the staff of Punch in 1906 and produced successful light comedies and a memorable detective novel, The Red House Mystery (1922), before verses written for his son Christopher Robin grew into the collections When We Were Very Young (1924) and Now We Are Six (1927), which became beloved classics. Stories about the adventures of Christopher Robin and the toy animals Pooh, Piglet, Kanga, Roo, Tigger, Rabbit, Owl, and Eeyore are told in the immensely popular Winnie-the-Pooh (1926) and The House at Pooh Corner (1928).

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Alexander is a common male first name.

Origin

The name in English is taken from the Greek name Ἀλέξανδρος (Alexandros). Etymologically, the name is a compound of the Greek verb ἀλέξειν (alexein) "to defend" and the noun ἀνδρός (andros), genitive of ἀνήρ (anēr) "man". Thus it may be roughly translated as "protector of man". The term is either a rare type of "inverse tatpurusha" compound, with the modifier in second position (the cognate Sanskrit tatpurusha being *nararakṣa, cf. Ramayana 6.33.45; the exact Sanskrit counterpart would be *rakṣinara, from PIE hleks(i)-hnros), or a worn-down terpsimbrotos type compound, whose original verbal meaning was "he protects men".

The earliest attested record of the name is the Mycenaean Greek of the feminine Alexandra, written in Linear B (The Mycenaean World, by John Chadwick, New York: Cambridge University Press, 1976, 1999).

The name was one of the titles ("epithets") given to the Greek goddess Hera and as such is usually taken to mean "one who comes to the aid of warriors". In the Iliad, the character Paris is known also as Alexander. The name's popularity was spread throughout the Greek world by the military conquests of King Alexander III of Macedonia, commonly known as "Alexander the Great". Most later Alexanders in various countries were directly or indirectly named for him.

In Russia, the name was uncommon until the time of Tsar Alexander I, due to whom it became one of the most common of Russian first names and gained a considerable number of Russian variations and abbreviations (see following).

Variants and diminutives

  • Albanian – Aleksandër, Aleks or Leka i Madh, Lekë (mostly in north Albania) Sandër, Skëndër, Skender (The name of national heroes of Albanians Skenderbeu is a remain of Alexander, Iskander)
  • Amharic – Eskender
  • Arabic – الاسكندر / اسكندر (Iskandar), Skandar, Skender
  • Belarusian – Аляксандp (Aliaksandr), Алeсь (Ales'), Алелька (Alyel'ka)
  • Bulgarian - Александър (Aleksandar), Сашо (Sasho), Aлекс (Aleks)
  • Catalan – Alexandre, Àlex, Xandre
  • Corsican - Lisandru
  • Czech - Alexandr
  • Dutch - Alexander, Sander
  • English – Alexander, Alec, Alex, Lex, Sandy, Andy, Alexis, Alexa, Alexandria, Alexandra, Sandra, Al, Sasha, Ali, Lexxi, Zander, Xander, Sashi, Eck
  • French - Alexandre, Alexis, Alex
  • Finnish - Aleksanteri, Santeri, Santtu
  • Galician – Alexandre, Álex
  • Georgian/ქართულად – ალექსანდრე (Alexandre), ალეკო (Aleko), ლექსო (Lekso), სანდრო (Sandro)
  • Greek - Αλέξανδρος
  • Hebrew – אלכסנדר (Alexander), אלכס (Alex)
  • HindiHindustaniSikandar
  • Hungarian – Sándor
  • Irish (Gaeilge) – Alasandar
  • Italian – Alessandro, Ale, Sandro, Alessio
  • Kurdish - Askander, Eskander
  • Kyrgyz – Искендер (İskender)
  • Macedonian - Александар (Aleksandar), Сашо (Sasho), Aлексa (Aleksa), Ацо (Aco)
  • Malay – Iskandar
  • Malayalam – ചാണ്ടി (Chandy)
  • Maltese – Lixandru
  • Norwegian – Aleksander
  • Persian – اسكندر (Eskandar)
  • Polish - Aleksander, Alek, Olek, Aleks
  • Portuguese – Alexandre, Alexandra (feminine), Alexandro (rare), Xana (feminine), Alex, Xande, Sandro, Sandra (feminine), Sandrina (feminine), Alessandro, Alessandra (feminine)
  • Romanian — Alexandru, Alexandra (feminine), Alex, Sandu, Sanda (feminine), Sandra (feminine)
  • Russian — Александр (Alexandr), Саша (Sasha), Шура (Shura), Саня (Sanya), Шурик (Shurik), Сашок (Sashok)
  • Sanskrit language – Alekchendra
  • Scots Gaelic – Alasdair, Alastair, Alistair, Alisdair
  • Slovenian - Aleksander, Aleks, Sandi, Sašo
  • Serbian - Александар (Aleksandar), Алекса (Aleksa), Алекс (Aleks), Саша (Sasa), Сале (Sale)
  • Spanish - Alejandro, Alejo, Alex, Jandro, Jano
  • Tamil language – Aleksandar
  • Turkish – İskender
  • Ukrainian — Олександр (Olexandr), Сашко (Sashko)
  • UrduHindustaniSikandar
  • UrduPakistaniSikander ("Sikander-e-Azam" is "Alexander the Great")
  • Uzbek – Iskandar
  • Yiddish – סענדער – Sender, Senderl

Alexander as a given name

Monarchs

Antiquity

Middle Ages

Modern

Religious leaders

Other people

A few other princes have borne the name Alexander:

Alexander as a surname

Fictional people with the name Alexander

See also

References

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