Gavazzi, Alessandro, 1809-89, Italian preacher and patriot. A Barnabite monk, he left the order in 1848. His liberal ideas and disillusionment with the social order in Italy led him to emigrate from the Papal States to London, where he joined the Italian Protestant community and led an antipapal campaign. Upon his return to Italy (1859) he was twice Giuseppe Garibaldi's army chaplain (1860, 1866). Later he organized in Rome the Free Christian Church in Italy, also known as the Evangelical Church in Italy.
Scarlatti, Alessandro, 1660-1725, Italian composer. He may have studied with Carissimi in Rome, where his first opera was produced in 1679. In 1684 he went to Naples as master of the royal chapel and there composed operas for the royal palace and chamber music for the aristocracy. Later he was also active in Florence, Rome, and Venice. He wrote more than 100 operas, of which Mitridate Eupatore (1707) and Il Tigrane (1715) are considered the finest. As a leader of the Neapolitan school, he helped establish the conventions of the opera seria, perfecting the aria da capo and the three-part overture. His church music includes motets and masses; he also wrote serenades and madrigals, and he composed almost 700 chamber cantatas, which represent the highest development of his art.

His son, (Giuseppe) Domenico Scarlatti, 1685-1757, was a harpsichord virtuoso and composer. As a young man he is said to have engaged in friendly keyboard competition with his contemporary Handel, and thereafter the two had lifelong admiration for each other. From 1709 to 1714, Scarlatti was composer to the Polish Queen Maria Casimira in her court at Rome, and then for a time he was chapel master of St. Peter's. About 1719 he went to Lisbon as music master of the royal chapel and teacher of the Princess Maria Barbara. He accompanied her to Madrid in 1729, and spent the rest of his life at the Spanish court. Scarlatti wrote operas, oratorios, and cantatas, but his fame rests chiefly on his keyboard sonatas, of which he wrote well over 500. They exploit the instrument to its fullest capacity, exemplifying his mastery of the homophonic "free style" of composition. His works display the vivacity, grace, and ornamentation of the rococo, and at the same time show boundless invention and originality. Scarlatti is widely considered to be the founder of modern keyboard technique.

See biography of Alessandro by E. J. Dent (1905, new ed. 1960); biography of Domenico by R. Kirkpatrick (1953, rev. ed. 1968); S. Sitwell, A Background for Domenico Scarlatti (1935, repr. 1970).

Manzoni, Alessandro, 1785-1873, Italian novelist and poet. Taken in his youth to Paris by his mother in 1805, Manzoni embraced the deism that he was later to discard for an ardent Roman Catholicism. He returned to Italy in 1807 and in his later years was a senator. He wrote tragedies, including Il Conte di Carmagnola (1820) and Adelchi (1822), and poetry, such as the Inni sacri (1812-1817) and the celebrated Il Cinque Maggio (1821), an ode on the death of Napoleon. It was in 1821-27, under the influence of Sir Walter Scott, that Manzoni produced his most famous work, I promessi sposi (tr. The Betrothed, 1827), a novel of 16th-century Milan that reveals a detailed understanding of Italian life and remains one of Italy's most enduring novels. By 1875, 118 editions had appeared, and the work was widely translated. After its first issue, however, Manzoni continued to revise the work, publishing a stylistically superior version in Tuscan Italian in 1840. As a result, his influence on the development of a consistent Italian prose style was immense. Verdi wrote his Requiem for the first anniversary of Manzoni's death.

See translations of The Betrothed by A. Colquhoun (1951) and B. Penman (1972); biographies by G. P. Barricelli (1976), S. B. Chandler (1977), and N. L. Ginzburg (tr. 1987); study by S. Matteo and L. H. Peer, ed. (1987).

Algardi, Alessandro, 1595-1654, Italian sculptor and designer, b. Bologna. He studied under Lodovico Carracci. In Rome his friend Domenichino obtained his first commissions for him, the Magdalene and St. John statues for San Silvestro al Quirinale. When Bernini temporarily fell from favor, Algardi replaced him c.1644 as the most important sculptor in Rome under Pope Innocent X and received numerous commissions, including some from Spain. Although greatly influenced by Bernini, he retained the classical inclination of the Bolognese in his work, lacking Bernini's emotional vitality. An example of Algardi's work in relief is The Meeting of Leo and Attila (St. Peter's). A few prints in the style of Agostino Carracci are attributed to Algardi.
Tassoni, Alessandro, 1565-1635, Italian poet. He spent much of his life in the service of Charles Emmanuel I of Savoy and Francesco I of Modena. His sharp letter (1602) of defense against accusations by the Italian Inquisition revealed him as a polemist of high order, as did his Manifesto (written 1627, pub. 1856), a bizarre and violent attack on the House of Savoy. Tassoni is best known for the mock-heroic poem Secchia rapita [the rape of the bucket] (1622), which ridicules the war between Bologna and Modena.
Farnese, Alessandro, 1545-92, duke of Parma and Piacenza (1586-92), general and diplomat in the service of Philip II of Spain. He was the son of Duke Ottavio Farnese and Margaret of Parma and thus a nephew of Philip II and of John of Austria, under whom he distinguished himself at the battle of Lepanto (1571). In 1577, Farnese joined John in the Low Countries to fight the rebels against Spain. Appointed (1578) governor of the Netherlands, he took Tournai, Maastricht, Breda, Bruges, Ghent, and Antwerp from the rebels and secured continued possession of the southern part of the Netherlands for Spain (see Netherlands, Austrian and Spanish). In 1590 he was sent to France at the head of a Spanish army to assist the Catholic League against Henry IV of France. He relieved the siege of Paris (1590) and the siege of Rouen (1592), but was wounded soon afterward and retired to Arras, where he died. Farnese showed exceptional skill in military art and diplomacy.

See R. Solari, The House of Farnese (1968).

Vittoria, Alessandro, 1525-1608, Italian sculptor. A leader of the Venetian Renaissance and a student of Sansovino, Vittoria was influenced by the mannerism of Ammanati and Michelangelo. He was celebrated for his portrait busts and decorative work, much of which was created for the restoration of the Palazzo Ducale. Vittoria worked in collaboration with Palladio and Veronese on the Villa Barbaro at Maser.
Volta, Alessandro, Conte, 1745-1827, Italian physicist. He was professor of physics at the Univ. of Pavia from 1779 and became famous for his work in electricity. Napoleon I made him a count and a senator of the kingdom of Lombardy. Volta invented the so-called Volta's pile (or voltaic pile); the electrophorus; an electric condenser; and the voltaic cell. The volt, a unit of electrical measurement, is named for Volta.
Stradella, Alessandro, 1642?-1682, Italian composer of operas, cantatas, oratorios, and instrumental music. Few facts but many legends exist concerning his life; he is said to have been assassinated at the behest of a Venetian nobleman with whose mistress Stradella had eloped. His life is the subject of several operas, one by Friedrich von Flotow (1844). Stradella's music is generally lighthearted and melodious. He helped to develop the structural form and expressive power of the aria and to increase the use of contrapuntal techniques in opera. Handel was influenced by his oratorios and even borrowed some of his musical ideas.
Cagliostro, Alessandro, Conte di, 1743-95, Italian adventurer, magician, and alchemist, whose real name was Giuseppe Balsamo. After early misadventures in Italy he traveled in Greece, Arabia, Persia, and Egypt. While in Italy, he married Lorenza Feliciani, who became his assistant on his trips to the cities of Europe, where he posed as a physician, alchemist, mesmerist, necromancer, and Freemason. He claimed the secret of the philosopher's stone and of miraculous philters and potions. As the Grand Copt of the order of Egyptian Masonry he organized many lodges. His reputation was amazing, particularly at the court of French king Louis XVI. Implicated in the Affair of the Diamond Necklace, he was imprisoned, acquitted, and banished. Cagliostro returned to Rome in 1789, where the Inquisition charged him with heresy and sorcery. Imprisoned for life, he died in a dungeon. Cagliostro has fascinated later generations as well as his contemporaries, and he appears often in literary works.

See biographies by F. King (1929), W. R. H. Trowbridge (new ed. 1961), F. R. Dumas (tr. 1968), R. Gervaso (tr. 1974), R. Silva (1975), T. Freller (1997), and I. McCalman (2003); H. C. Schnur, Mystic Rebels (1949).

Andrés Nicolás D'Alessandro (born April 15, 1981 in La Paternal, Buenos Aires, Argentina) is a left-footed Argentine footballer who currently plays for Sport Club Internacional in Brazil. He is best known for his dribbling and his short passing ability.


D'Alessandro started off his working career as a young pizza delivery boy in Argentina before becoming a professional footballer. Known as El cabezón ("The Big Headed") for how large his head looks on his small frame (he is only 5'4") rather than any ego connotations, he emerged through the River Plate youth system that has produced much of Argentina's top talent over the years. He followed the likes of Santiago Solari and Pablo Aimar through the ranks, together with Javier Saviola, with whom he shared the limelight in the 2001 Youth World Championship held in Buenos Aires. D'Alessandro started out that tournament as a substitute, but injuries in the team allowed him a place in the team during the later games. Argentina won the title after beating Ghana 3-0.

After his transfer to Wolfsburg for a club record €9m, D'Alessandro played in the Argentine U-23 team that won the gold medal at the 2004 Summer Olympics. On September 21 2005, D'Alessandro scored the Bundesliga's 4,000th goal since its creation in 1963, for the fourth goal in a 4-2 victory over Hannover 96.

In January 2006, much to the surprise of most fans, D'Alessandro joined English Premiership club Portsmouth on loan for the remainder of the season. His main objective with his new club was to blend in with new teammates and help his club survive relegation. On Easter Monday April 17 2006, he scored his first goal in English football - a contender for goal of the season - in Portsmouth's 2-1 defeat away to Charlton Athletic. Portsmouth survived and manager Harry Redknapp was looking to sign D'Alessandro on a permanent basis for Portsmouth. But D'Alessandro was attracting the attention of many European clubs with strong interest from the likes of Atlético Madrid and Benfica. On 17 June 2006 he ended the speculation regarding his career by completing a season-long loan switch to La Liga outfit Real Zaragoza citing his desire to play in Spain as a major factor in his decision. On June 6 2007 he signed a contract at Zaragoza, keeping him at the club until 2011.

In 2008, he joined his former River Plate manager Ramón Díaz at Argentine club San Lorenzo. However, after Díaz left the club, D'Allesandro opted to move to Brazil to play for Internacional. Playing for the former Copa Libertadores champions, he described as a "step forward" in his career.


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