Definitions

Alessandria

Alessandria

[ah-les-sahn-dree-ah]
Alessandria, city (1991 pop. 90,753), capital of Alessandria prov., in Piedmont, NW Italy, at the confluence of the Tanaro and Bormida rivers. It is an industrial center and agricultural market. Manufactures include wine, furniture, machinery, paper, and hats. Alessandria was built (1164-67) as a stronghold of the Lombard League and was named for Pope Alexander III. At first a free commune, the city passed in 1348 to the duchy of Milan and, in 1707, to the duke of Savoy. Alessandria was the scene of a pro-Mazzini conspiracy in 1833. There are two 13th-century churches and remains of the city's medieval fortifications.

Alessandria (Lissandria in Piedmontese) is a city in Piedmont, Italy, and the capital of the Province of Alessandria. The city is sited on the river Tanaro, c. 90 km southeast of Turin.

Alessandria is also a major railway hub.

History

Alessandria was founded in 1168 upon a preexisting urban nucleus, to serve as a stronghold for the Lombard League, defending the traditional liberties of the communes of northern Italy against the Imperial forces of Frederick Barbarossa. Alessandria stood in the territories of the marchese of Monferrato, a staunch ally of the Emperor, with a name assumed in 1168 to honor the Emperor's opponent, Pope Alexander III. In 1174–75 the fortress was sorely tested by Imperial siege and stood fast. A legend (related in Umberto Eco's book Baudolino, and which recalls one concerning Bishop Herculanus’ successful defense of Perugia several centuries earlier) says it was saved by a quick-witted peasant, Gagliaudo: he fed his cow with the last grain remaining within the city, then took it outside the city walls until he reached the Imperial camp. Here he was captured, and his cow cut open to be cooked: when the Imperials found the cow's stomach filled with grain, Gagliaudo was asked the reason to waste such a rich meal. He answered that he was forced to feed his cow with grain because there was such a lot of it, and no room to place it within the city. The Emperor, fearing that the siege would last too long, left Alessandria free. (Malaria was probably the real cause of his departure.) A statue of Gagliaudo can be found on the left corner of the city cathedral. Alessandria was granted a charter as a free commune in 1198, but entered into jealous conflicts with the older communes of the region, in particular with Asti.

In 1348 Alessandria fell into the hands of the Visconti and passed with their possessions to the Sforza, following the career of Milan, until 1707, when it was ceded to the House of Savoy and henceforth formed part of Piedmont.

With Napoleon's success at the Battle of Marengo (1800), it fell to France and became the capital of the Napoleonic Département of Marengo. During this period a substantial fort was built to the north of the city containing impressive and substantial barracks which are still used as a military HQ and stores (2006). The remains of a second fort to the south of the city (Christo quarter) have been sliced in two by a railway.

From 1814 Alessandria was Savoyard territory once more, part of the Kingdom of Sardinia.

During the years of the Risorgimento, Alessandria was an active center of the liberals.

In a suburb, Spinetta Marengo, the Battle of Marengo is reenacted annually, on June 14.

Alessandria was the first capital of an Italian province to be governed by a Socialist: the clockmaker Paolo Sacco was elected sindaco. July 25, 1899.

Alessandria was a tactical military target during World War II and was subjected to intense Allied bombing, the most serious being the raids of April 30, 1944, with 238 dead and hundreds wounded, and April 5, 1945, with 160 deaths, among them 60 children from the children's asylum in Via Gagliaudo. On end of that month the city was liberated of the German occupation (1943-1945) by the partisan resistance and troops of Brazilian Expeditionary Force

On November 6, 1994 the Tanaro flooded a good part of the city, causing major damage, especially in the Orti quarter.

Main sights

Museums

  • The Marengo Battle Museum
  • Antiquarium Forum Fulvii
  • Sale d'arte
  • I percorsi del Museo Civico
  • Museo del Fiume
  • Museo di Scienze Naturali e Planetario
  • Museo Etnografico "C'era una volta"
  • Museo del Cappello Borsalino

Sistema dei musei civici

Events

People born in Alessandria

Twin towns

See also

  • Villa del Foro, a western suburb of the town which was the site of a Roman settlement.

External links

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